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Larva? of British Butterflies 


Edited by R. Bowdler Sharpe, LL.D., F.L.S., &c. 





W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.ENT.S. 


Author of "A Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera," " European 
Butterflies and Moths" "A Text-book cf Entomology " etc.., etc. 










The plan of the original "Naturalist's Library" has not been 
followed in the present volume, as it seemed to me better, in 
the case of the Lepidoptera, not to separate the British species 
from the exotic forms. Although numerous works on British 
Insects have been published, there is none, I believe, exactly 
on the plan of the present volume, where our native species of 
Butterflies are described and figured, and at the same time a 
review of their exotic relatives is attempted. 

No one more fitted for the task of writing such a review 
could have been found than Mr. Kirby, whose "Synonymic 
Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera " is recognised as a stan- 
dard book of reference ; and the pains he has taken in the 
preparation of the present Hand-book of the Lepidoptera 
will, I trust, be the means of presenting to the public one more 
of those useful essays on Entomology, with which his name has 
been associated for the last thirty years. 

Some new plates have been added to the series published in 
the former issue of the "Naturalist's Library," in order to render 
the explanation of the different exotic genera more complete. 

The woodcuts in the text are taken from Newman's well- 
known work on British Butterflies. 



When my friend Dr. Bowdler Sharpe invited me to write the 
Entomological part of the new " Naturalist's Library," the 
question of the best arrangement to adopt, exercised me con- 
siderably, in view of the large number of books on the more 
popular orders of insects which are continually issuing from 
the press. I had to try and invent a new scheme which was 
likely to be useful both to beginners and to more advanced 

In the old "Naturalist's Library" there was a volume of 
British and a volume of foreign Butterflies, but I at once aban- 
doned the idea of adding another to the host of books on 
British Butterflies alone, while at the same time it was desir- 
able to use the plates of the old " Jardine " series. I therefore 
determined to combine these two volumes in such a manner as 
to make the British Butterflies illustrate and lead up to a study 
of the Butterflies of the World. I have also added as much 
popular information, not always to be found in professedly 
popular books, as I could reasonably introduce. To illustrate 
the foreign Butterflies, a few new plates have been added, 
chiefly representing recently described and hitherto unfigured 

In the synonymy I have referred to the original description, 
and at least one good old, or typical, figure of each species ; 
and to the works of Stephens, Curtis, and Barrett for British 
species, Kirby and Lang for European species, and Buckler 


for British iarvce and pupae. Of course this part of the work 
might have been enlarged to any extent, but probably most of 
my readers will think that I have devoted quite enough space 
to synonymy. 

The Introduction deals with the general external structure of 
Lepidopterous insects and especially Butterflies in their various 
stages ; special attention being given to neuration, collecting 
and preserving, and geographical distribution I have also re- 
printed from the "Entomologist" a very interesting paper on 
the habits of insects, especially Lepidofttera, in the Dutch East 

The present volume is devoted to the great family Nympha- 
Ihitz, which, with its sub-divisions, includes about half the 
known Butterflies ; the next volume will contain the remaining 
families, and will thus complete the subject, so far as the 
Butterflies are concerned. 

It is perhaps as well to state that the. volumes on Entomo- 
logy in the old issue of the " Naturalist's Library " were all 
written by James Duncan, of Edinburgh. Prof. Westwood 
contributed figures and information to some of the other 
volumes (see " Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,'' vol. x.xi., 
pp. 181-1S6), but not to those on British and Exotic Butter- 







Genus Hestia, Hiibn 

H. lyncea (Drury) ... 

H. idea (Clerck) 

Genus Ideopsis, Horsf. and Moore 

I. daosj Boisd. 

Genus Limnas, Hiibn 

L. chrysippus (L.) ... 
Genus Danaus, Latr 

D. plexippus (L.) ... 

Genus Ti rum ALA, Moore 

T. limniace (Cram.) 
Genus Amauris, Hiibn 

A. niavius (L.) 
Genus Nebroda, Moore 

N. lobengula, E. M. Sharpe 
Genus Euplcea, Fabr 

E. corus, Fabr 

Genus Hi rdapa, Moore 

II. rezia, Kirby 











Genus Tellervo, Kirby 28 

T. zoilus (Fabr.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 28 

T. misoriensis (Slaud.) ... ... ... ... ... ... 28 


Genus Ithomia, Httbn 30 

I. doto, Hubn. ... ... 31 

I. drymo, Hubn. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

I. diaphana (Drury) ... ... ... ... 32 

I. flora (Cram.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 32 


Genus Acr^ea, Fabr 34 

A. horta(L.) 34 

A. oenone, Kirby ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Genus Gnesia, Doubl. ... ... ... ... ... 37 

G. circeis (Drury) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 37 

G. medea (Cram.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3S 

Genus Actinote, Hiibn 3S 

A. thalia(L.) 39 

A. sodalis, Butler ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 


Genus Heliconius, Latr. 41 

II. melpomene (L.) ... ... ... ... ... .. 42 


Genus Metamorpha, Hiibn 46 

M. dido (Johanss.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Genus Cethosia, Fabr 48 

C. mahratta, Moore ... ... ... ... ... ... 49 

Genus Cynthia, Fabr 50 

C. arsinoe (Cram.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

C. Juliana (Cram.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Genus Argynnis, Fabr 52 

A. paphia (L.) 55 

o. A. valesina (Esper) ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

A. aglaia (L.) ... ... ... ... 57 


Genus Argynnis {continued). 

A. adippe (L.) 5 g 

a. A. cleodoxa (Ochsenh.) 60 

/8. A. chlorodippe, H. S 60 

A. niobe (L.) 61 

a. A. eris, Meigen g 2 

A. lathonia (L.) ... ... ... ... g^ 

Genus Brenthis, Htibn 64 

B. euphrosyne (L.) ... ... ... ... ge 

B. selene (Denis and Schiff ) 66 

B. dia(L.) Z 6S 

Genus Melitaea, Fabr 7, 

M. aurinia (Rott.) yr 

M. cinxia (L.) -6 

M. athalia (Rott.) yg 

M. pyronia (Hiibn.) g Q 

Genus Araschnia, Hiibn. g 2 

A. levana (L.) ... ... ... ... ... ... m , g? 

Genus Polygonia, Hiibn. g6 

P. c. -album (L.) g 7 

Genus Vanessa, Fabr gg 

V. polychlorus (L.) gg 

V. urtica; (L.) g Q 

V. antiopa (L.) ... ... ... q 2 

V. io (L.) 
Genus Pyrameis, Hiibn. .., 


P. atalanta (L.) 97 

P. cardui (L.) ... ... ... ... ... ... gg 

Genus Junonia, Hiibn IOI 

J. orthosia (Godart) I02 

Genus Kallima, Westw IO e 

K. huttoni, Moore ... ... ... ... ... ... ... io 6 

Genus Anartia, Hiibn I0 g 

A. amalthea (L.) IO o 

Genus Ergolis IO n 


Genus Catagramma, Boisd. 

C. pygas (Godart) ... 

C. astarte (Cram.) ... 
Genus ILematera, Doubl. 

H. pyramus ( Fabr. ) 

Genus Gyn.ecia, Doubl 

Genus Hypolimnas, Hiibn. 
Genus Ageronia$ Hiibn 

A. arethusa (Cram.) 

A. amphinome (L. ) 
Genus Makpesia, Hiibn 

M. peleus (Sulz. ) 
Genus Limenitis, Fabr. ... 

L. Camilla (Linn.) ... 

L. drusilla (Bergstr.) 
Genus Neptis, Fabr 

N. aceris (Lep. ) 

N. nicomedes, Ilewits. 

Genus Apatuka, Fabr 

A. iris (Linn.) 

a. A. iole (Denis and Scruff.) 
Genus Thai.eropis, Stand. 

T. ionia (Eversm.) ... 
Genus Protogonius, Hiibn. 

P. fabius (Cram.) ... 

Genus Aganisth us 

Genus Charaxes, Ochsenh. 

C. jasius (L.) 

C. xiphares (Cram ) 

C. tiridates (Cram.) 

C. etheocles (Cram.) 



Genus Morpho, Fabr 

M. adonis (Cram.) ... 

M. achilles(L.) 

Genus Cai.igo, Hiibn 

C. eurylochus (Cram.) 

C. ilioneus (Cram.)... 


II. Lethe Group ... 
Genus Pararge, Hiibn. 


l 9S 




I. HET7ERA Group 2Q| . 

Genus Pierella, Westw , QI . 

P. ceryce, Hewits „ g 




P. egerides, Stand 2Q g 

a. P. egerides, Staud. 2Q g 

0. P. egeria (L.) 2oS 

Genus Satyrus, Latr 

S. megcera (L.) 

III. Mycalesis Group 

Genus Mycalesis, Hiibn. . . 

M. simonsii, Butler 

IV. Mei.anitis Group ,,., 

1 ••• ■•• ■■• ■ . ... 214 

Genus C/EROIS, Hiibn 2I , 

C. chorinceus (Fabr.) __ 2I . 

V. Hipparchia Group 2I - 

I. Euptychia section ... ... ... ... ... ^ x g 

Genus Euptychia, Hiibn. 2I g 

E. brixius (Godart) ... ... ... 2I7 

II. Ypthima section ... ... ... ... ... OI g 

Genus Ypthima, Hiibn 2I g 

Y. bera, Hewits. 




Genus Ccenonympha, Hiibn 219 

C. tiphon (Rott.) 220 

C. polydama (Haworth) 223 

C. arcania(L.) 224 

C. pamphilus (L.) 225 

III. Erebia section 226 

Genus Erebia, Dalm 226 

E. ligea(L.) 227 

E. rethiops (Esper) 228 

E. epiphron (Knoch) 229 

o. E. cassiope (Fabr.) ... ... 230 

IV. Ilipparchia section 230 

Genus Hipparchia, Fabr. 231 

H. semele (L.) 232 

II. hyperanthus(L.) 233 

a. II. arete (Mull.) 233 

Genus Epinehele, Hiibn. 236 

E. janira (L.) 236 

E. tithonus(L.) 239 

Genus Melanargia, Meigen 240 

M. galatea (L.) 240 

Genus Argyrophorus, Blanch 242 

A. argenteus, Blanch 242 

VI. Pronophila Group 242 


Genus Elymnias, Hiibn 245 

E. cottonis (Hewits.) 2 45 








-Scales, Eggs, Frobosces, &c. 
-Pupae, Details of Larvae, &c. 














Fig. I. Hestia idea (p. 15). 
Fig. 2. Ideopsis daos (p. 15). 
Fig. I. Danaus plexippus (p. 19). 
Fig. 2. Tirumala limniace (p. 20). 
Fig. 1. Nebroda lobengula (p. 22). 
Fig. 2. Hirdapa rezia (p. 25). 
Fig. 3. Tellervo misoriensis (p. 2S). 
Fig. 1. Ithomia diaphana (p. 32). 
Figs. 2, 3. Ithomia flora (p. 32), 
Fig. 4. Gnesia medea (p. 38). 
Fig. 1. Heliconius erato (p. 42). 
Fig. 2. Heliconius vesta (p. 42). 
Fig. 3. Heliconius sylvanus (p. 43). 
Melamorpha dido (p. 46). 
-Cethosia mahratta (p. 49). 
Figs. I, 2. Argynnis paphia (p. 55). 
Figs. 3, 4. Melitaea cinxia (p. 76). 
Figs. I, 2. Argynnis aglaia (p. 57). 
Figs. 3, 4. Brenthis euphrosyne (p. 65). 






Figs. 1, 2 

Figs. 3, 4 

Figs. 5, 6 
-Figs. 1, 2 

Fig- 3- 
-Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 
-Fig. I. 

Figs. 2 



Argynnis adippe (p. 58). 
Argynnis lathonia (p. 63]. 

1, 2. Argynnis niobe (p. 61). 
3, 4. Melitjea athalia (p. 7S). 

Brenthis dia (p. 68). 
Brenthis selene (p. 66) 
Melitiea aurinia (p. 75). 
Melitaea pyronia (p. 80). 
Polygonia c. -album (p. S7V 
3. Vanessa polychlorus (p. 89). 

1. antiopa (p. 92). 

2. Vanessa io (p. 95). 
I. Vanessa urticae (p. 90). 

2, ^. Pyrameis carlu p. 9 V ) 

1. Cynthia Juliana (p 51). 

2. Anartia amalthea (p. 100). 

3. Junonia orthosia (p. 102). 


5) 6. 


XX. — Figs. I, 2. Kallima huttoni (p. 106). 
Fig. 3. Neptis nicomedes (p. 147). 
Fig. 4. Thaleropis ionia (p. 167). 
XXI. — Figs. I, 2. Catagramma astarte (p. 117). 
Figs. 3, 4. Hiematera pyramus (p. 120). 
XXII. — Fig. 1. Ageronia arethusa (p. 132). 

Fig. 2. Ageronia amphinome (p. 134). 
XXIII. — Figs. I, 2. Pyrameis atalanta (p. 97). 

Fig. 3. Limenitis Camilla (p 142). 
XXIV. — Apatura iris (p. 163). 
XXV. — Fig. 1. Marpesia pelcus (p. 138). 

Fig. 2. Frotogonius fabius (p. 171). 
XXVI. — Charaxes jasius (p. 179). 
XXVII. — Figs. 1, 2. Charaxes tiridates (p. 1S4). 

Fig. 3. Charaxes etheocles (p. 185). 
XXVIII. — Fig. I. Morpho adonis (p. 195). 
Fig. 2. Caligo ilioneus (p. 201). 
XXIX.— Morpho achillos (p. 105). 
XXX. — Figs. 1, 2. Erehia ligea (p. 227). 

Figs. 3, 4. Erebia tethiops (p. 228). 
XXXI. — Figs. 1, 2. Melanargia galatea (p. 240). 
Fig. 3. Pararge egerides (p. 208). 
Figs. 4, 5. Epinephele tithonus (p. 239). 
XXXII. — Figs. I, 2, 3. Ilipparchia semele (p. 232) 

Figs. 4, 5. Satyrus megrera (p. 210). 
XXXIII. — Figs. 1, 2. Epinephele janira (p. 236). 
Fig. 3. Erebia cassiope (p. 229). 
Figs. 4, 5. Ilipparchia hyperanlhus (p. 233). 
XXXIV. — Figs. 1, 2. Coenonympha polydama (C. tiphon on plate) p 223. 
Figs. 3, 4. Coenonympha tiphon (C. polydama on plate) p. 220. 
Figs. 5, 6, Coenonympha pamphilus (p. 225). 
XXXV. — Fig. 1. Pierella ceryce (p. 206). 

Fig. 2. Argyrophorus argenteus (p. 242V 
Fig. 3. Yphthima bera (p. 219). 
Fig. 4. Euptychia brixius (p. 217). 
Fig. 5. Mycalesis simonsii (p. 213). 
XXXVI. — Crerois chorinceus (p. 214). 
XXXVII. — Figs. I, 2. Elymnias cottonis (p. 245). 
Fig. 3. Acrrea cenone (p. 36). 
Fig. 4. Actinote sodalis (p. 40). 



The Butterflies and Moths, or Scale-winged Insects, derive 
their scientific name from two Greek words — Ae7U9, a scale, 
and 7rre/3oV, a wing. They pass through four stages of exist- 
ence : egg ; larva or caterpillar ; pupa, or chrysalis ; and 
imago, or perfect insect. In their perfect state they are dis- 
tinguished from other insects by having four wings, always 
more or less clothed with scales, and a proboscis, with which 
they imbibe their food. More species of Lepidoptera are 
known than of any other order of insects, except the Cok- 
op/era, or Beetles ; but it is probable that they will not be 
found to exceed the Hymenoptera and Diptera in numbers, 
when these orders have been exhaustively collected. 

We will first discuss the general characteristics of Lepidop- 
terous Insects in their various stages, commencing with the 


The eggs of Butterflies and Moths vary very much in size, 
shape, colour, and sculpture, as well as in the number de- 
posited. Many of them are very elegant objects under the 
microscope, though they are always, except in the case of the 
Micro-Lepidoptera, quite large enough to be visible to the 
naked eye, and those of some of the large foreign species are 
not much less than a small pea. The insect deposits 
4 n 

xviii Lloyd's natural history 

them, singly or otherwise, according to the habit of the 
species, in such a situation that the larvae, when hatched, will 
find a plentiful supply of appropriate food. The eggs are 
covered by a coating of varnish as a protection from the 
weather ; and though many species pass the winter in other 
stages, perhaps the majority hibernate in the egg-state. The 
eggs may be round, oval, cylindrical, or conical. Some are 
smooth, but many are beautifully ribbed. The form of the 
eggs of several of our common Butterflies, as they appear 
when highly magnified, are represented in Plate I. as follows : 

Fig. 3. Egg of Vanessa urticee, with several longitudinal 

Fig. 4. Egg of Pieiis brassica, yellow, sub-conical, with 
granulated longitudinal ribs, connected by elevated cross- 

Fig. 5. Egg of Epinephele tithonus, much more com- 
pressed, but striated very much like the last. 

Fig. 6. Egg of Epinephele janiro, covered with a series of 
imbricated scales. 

Fig. 7. Egg of Hipparchia hyperanthus, with rows of 
raised points, not unlike a sea-urchin denuded of the spines. 

Fig. 8. Egg of Pararge egerides, covered with imbricated 

Butterflies rarely long survive the deposition of their eggs, 
and are consequently unable to pay any further attention to 
their offspring. 

Most eggs of Lepidoptera are semi-transparent, and, as they 
approach maturity, the young larva can often be seen coiled 
up inside. Some eggs are provided with a kind of lid, which 
the larva pushes off when about to emerge. Those which are 
either not fertilised, or are otherwise unproductive, generally 
assume a shrunken appearance. Eggs are probably not much 
exposed to the attacks of enemies, except from certain small 



WfmMnkbtm* <i*Ut* 


Hymenopterous parasites, chiefly belonging to the group Proc- 
totrypidcc, which deposit their eggs on or in those of other 
insects, the contents of which serve as food for their own larvae. 
Some of these parasites, especially those belonging to the family 
Mymaridce, or Fairy Flies, are among the smallest insects 
known, and are extremely elegant microscopic objects, with 
battledore-shaped wings, set round with a fringe of long hairs. 
They are sometimes just visible as specks on a window-pane. 

It is even possible to classify Butterflies by the structure of 
their eggs, without reference to other characters. This has 
been attempted by Mr. W. Doherty in respect to Indian 
Butterflies ; and he published his preliminary results in the 
"Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," vol. 55, pt. 2, 
pp. 107-111 (18S7). From this paper most of the characters 
given for the eggs of the families of Butterflies in the present 
work have been taken. We will presently make some ex- 
tracts from his tentative notes on the classification of Butter- 
flies according to the eggs. It must be noted that he employs 
Apatura not for A. iris but for A. bolina, for which most 
authors use the generic name of Hypolimnas or Diadema ; 
also that for practical purposes he himself employs a classifi- 
cation in which other characters besides the eggs are taken 
note of. This enlarged system we shall not further notice here. 

" I am not sure that the eggs form a good guide to a 
primary division of Butterflies. Even if I were sure," Mr. 
Doherty writes, " I should hardly have the courage to alter 

the received classification to the required extent 

Judged purely by the egg, the classincation of Butterflies would 
be something like this : 

" 1. Danaiform Group, including the Danaidtz, Acrccida, 
and Ifc/icvniidte, connected with the Apaturidce by Cynthia 
and Ccthosia. (Egg radiate, much higher than wide, 

B 2 


" 2. Satyriform Group, including the Satyridcz, Elymniadce, 
Morphidiz, and Brassolidce, connected with the Apaturidce by 
Kallima. (Egg usually smooth, globular, translucent, hard.) 

" 3. Nymphaliform Group, including the N. mphalidce, con- 
nected with the Apaturidce by C ha raxes. (Egg reticulate, spiny, 
soft, with translucent ribs enclosing pentagonal or hexagonal 

" 4. Apaturiform Group, including the Apaturidce and 
Euryie/idce. (Egg varying greatly, radiate, opaque, rarely much 
higher or lower than wide, hard.) 

" 5. Lycceniform Group, including only the Lyccenida. (Egg 
reticulate, generally not spiny, hard, with opaque white ribs, 
with tetragons.) 

"6. Pieriform Group, including the Pier idee and. Li by the idee. 
(Egg radiate, ampulliform, twice as high as wide.) 

" 7. Hesperiform Group, including the Papilionidte, the 
Hesperidce, and probably the Erycinidce. (Egg smooth, prickly 
or radiate, with minute flattened ribs, not as high as wide, 
opaque, dome-shaped.'' 

It was considered a great step in advance when Denis and 
Schiffermuller, in 1776, first laid down the maxim, " One eye to 
the Butterfly, and the other to the caterpillar." But even here we 
are met with great difficulties, for some larvae differ very much 
in different stages, and a classification based merely on adult 
larvae, as is generally the case, often seems to separate widely 
groups otherwise closely allied; and though little has been 
done towards comparing larvae in their early stages, enough is 
known to indicate that it is these which may be expected to 
manifest their real affinities. Nor have we a sufficient series 
of even full-grown larvae to make our classification complete ; 
for comparatively few are known, and our deductions might 
easily be upset by further discoveries. Still more is this the 


case with the egg-classification, which brings into juxtaposition 
groups with so little apparent affinity as the Pieridcz and the 

But this is only an instance of the difficulties we encounter 
at every step in entomology, both on account of the vast 
number of species with which we have to deal, and the various 
forms of each species, to say nothing of the enormous number 
of petty details, which prevents any man from attempting to 
study more than a very small branch of the subject thoroughly. 

When the enclosed larva is ready to emerge, it pushes off 
the lid of the egg, or eats its way out, and appears as the 

Larva or Caterpillar. 

The term " larva " means "a mask" in Latin, and is technically 
applied to the second stage of all insects. " Caterpillar " is a 
popular term applied to the same stage of Lepidoptera only. 
True Caterpillars never have more than sixteen legs (except, 
possibly, in one or two little-known exotic species), though 
those of a whole family of Moths (the Geometrida) have only 
ten ; and some of the Micro-Lepidoptera have hardly any. 
The larvae of some of the Saw-flies ( Tentliredinidce) are often 
called " False Caterpillars." They frequently much resemble 
true caterpillars, but have from eighteen to twenty-two legs, or 
else no legs at all. In certain genera of Saw-flies, too, the 
antennas of the perfect insect are clubbed, a character which, 
though met with occasionally in all orders of insects, is compara- 
tively infrequent, except in the case of Butterflies and Ant- 
Lions, and other allied Nearoptera. 

" The body of caterpillars is long and nearly cylindrical, and 
is divided by deep incisions into twelve segments, exclusive of 
the head. The outer integument, or skin, is usually mem- 
branous and soft, but in some instances it approaches more to 
a coriaceous texture. The general softness of the body is of 
great utility, as it thereby acquires great flexibility, and easily 

xx ii Lloyd's natural history. 

accommodates itself to the various curves and inflections which 
the insect is continually giving to it, and which are rendered 
necessary from the manner in which it obtains its food. Most 
of the caterpillars that produce day-flying Lepidoptera have 
sixteen legs, which are of two distinct kinds. Six of them are 
placed on the three anterior segments— that portion of the 
body which corresponds to the thorax of the winged insect — and 
the others are attached to the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and 
anal segments. The form of the anterior, or thoracic, legs is 
wholly unlike that of the others, and they seem to be the prin- 
cipal instruments of locomotion. They are of a horny sub- 
stance, wide at the body and gradually growing narrower to the 
lower extremity, where they terminate in a strong claw. Each 
of them is divided into several segments, which correspond to 
the different parts that compose the leg of the Butterfly (Plate 
II., fig. i, represents a pair of these legs). The other legs, at- 
tached to the hinder or abdominal portion of the body, are soft 
and fleshy, and therefore have been called the membranous 
legs or pro-legs. Their principal use is to support the body by 
adhering to the slender twigs and shoots which the animals fre- 
quent to procure their food. For this purpose they can be 
lengthened and shortened at pleasure, and can even be drawn 
almost within the body, like the horns of a snail. Their general 
figure approaches to that of a truncated cone, which is termi- 
nated by a fleshy foot, of a construction peculiarly fitted to cling 
to a smooth surface or embrace a slender twig. What may be 
called the sole of the foot expands into a somewhat triangular 
plate, which is furnished on its inner edge with a row of small 
horny peaks or claws, consisting of a short and long one alter- 
nately, forming, as Reaumur remarks, a kind of palisade round 
part of the circumference. When the disc or ventral plate of 
the foot is dilated, these claws are turned outwards, and their 
small curved points find inequalities to which they can adhere. 


Pupae>, Details of Larvse, etc. 


even on a surface which might appear to the naked eye almost 
smooth. Several modifications of this curious prehensile foot 
occur among the larvae of various kinds of Moths, but of these 
it forms no part of our present purpose to give an account 
(Plate II., fig. 2, represents the pro-leg of the caterpillar of a 
Butterfly, after Reaumur ; fig. 3, a pair of pro-legs, showing the 
manner in which they cling to a branch). 

" The head of caterpillars is of a harder consistence than the 
rest of the body, and in most cases seems to be composed of 
two oval lobes united. In that of the Purple Highflyer these 
lobes are produced behind into two long occipital horns (Plate 
III., fig. 6). The conformation of the mouth of Lepidopterous 
larvae in general bears considerable resemblance to that of 
several masticating insects ia their perfect state (see Plate II., 
fig. 4, which represents the under side of the head of a cater 
pillar). It consists of an upper lip, with a deep notch in the 
centre (b) ; two strong mandibles, divided at the tip into 
numerous sharp teeth, which cut the leaves which serve as 
food (c, c) ; two small and indistinct organs of a soft consistence 
lying under the mandibles, which may be regarded as the max- 
illae ; and an under lip (d) . Near the summit of the latter, 
which is usually of a pyramidal shape, is placed, according to 
Reaumur, a small conical protuberance, perforated by a small 
hole, through which issues the silken thread which serves so 
many important purposes in the remarkable changes these 
creatures undergo. This organ has been named the spinneret. 
On each side of the under lip, and connected with it at the 
base, are two minute palpiform bodies (e, e) which may be re- 
garded as the labial palpi. 

"The efficiency of the organs just described is well evinced 
by the address and rapidity with which these creatures con- 
sume the leaves which they select for their food. They in- 
variably begin to gnaw the margin of the leaf, placing the body 


in such a position that a portion of the edge passes between 
the anterior legs, which support and keep it steady. Before 
applying its mouth, the caterpillar stretches its body and ad- 
vances its head as far as possible, that it may command a 
larger extent of the leaf. The mandibles are moved with 
great rapidity, and every time they meet cut off a small piece, 
which is instantly swallowed. At every motion of the jaws the 
head is drawn nearer the legs, and after it has been brought as 
far as possible, the body being contracted for the purpose, it is 
again extended to the point where it commenced to gnaw, and 
the same process repeated. In this manner the mandibles 
describe a succession of arcs, and the leaf is cut in the segment 
of a circle, somewhat resembling the circular incision made by 
the Leaf-cutting Bees. It seems, also, that the notch in the 
middle of the upper lip, formerly alluded to, is of great service, 
as it is placed on a line with the place where the jaws arise, 
and serves as a groove, both to give steadiness to the margin 
of the leaf, and to guide it in the direction most favourable for 
the jaws to act upon it. 

"The only remaining organs to which it is necessary to 
allude are the eyes and antennae. The former appear as small 
dark-coloured points, arranged in two circles, containing six 
each, on the anterior part of the head. These points vary in 
size, and seem to be of the same nature as the simple eyes of 
spiders, and the stemmata of various kinds of insects. The 
antennae, often the most conspicuous appendages of the head 
in perfect insects, are very minute in Lepidopterous larva?, 
usually consisting of two or three short joints. They are 
almost always of a conical form, and many species have the 
power of drawing the joints within each other, like the tubes of 
a telescope, till they are wholly concealed. 

" Many caterpillars of the day-flying Lepidoptera are smooth 
on the surface, or covered only with a very short matted 


pubescence ; but in some cases they are furnished with rigid 
hairs and numerous long spines. These hairs are sometimes 
simple, but more commonly they have a series of small 
pointed pieces springing from each side, like leaves from a 
stem. They are seldom placed irregularly over the surface of 
the skin, but usually issue from a tubercle, and diverge in all 
directions. These tubercular elevations vary greatly in number, 
and are placed in a row across the middle of the segments. 
The spinous caterpillars indigenous to Britain are but little 
remarkable when compared with many exotic species ; but we 
have several which afford good examples of this description of 
defensive armour, such, for instance, as the common kinds 
that feed on the nettle. In these, and most other instances, 
the spines are sufficiently strong and sharp as readily to pierce 
the skin of the hand. They are very often beset with hairs, 
and frequently divide towards the tip into several small 
branches. Even when so numerous as entirely to cover the 
body, they are not placed promiscuously, but arranged like the 
tubercles formerly mentioned, in a certain order. Each seg- 
ment, with the frequent exception of that next the head, is 
armed with a transverse series, varying in number from four 
to eight. The accompanying figure represents a magnified 
section of the caterpillar of \Pyrameis\ cardui, exhibiting the 
number, mode of arrangement, and structure of the spines 
(Plate II., fig. 5). These appendages in many foreign cater- 
pillars are said to sting like a nettle, and there can be no 
doubt that in all cases they are a powerful means of defence, 
not only against the smaller birds,* but even against more for- 
midable enemies." (Duncan.) 

The sole business of insects during the larval stage of their 

* Few birds prey upon hairy caterpillars, although the Cuckoo, which is 
extremely fond of the larvoe of the Tiger Moth, Hypercompa caia, Linn. 
(called, par excellence, the hairy-worm, or more frequently, the Woolly 
pear), forms an exception to the rule, 


lives is to eat and grow. The leaves of plants and trees form 
their chief source of nourishment, but a few species will feed 
on dried animal or vegetable substances (hair, feathers, &c, 
like the Clothes Moths), and a single instance is known of a 
Lepidopterous larva being parasitic on an Homopterous insect. 
This is Epipyrops anomala, Westwood, a Moth belonging to the 
ArctiidcB, the larva of which is parasitic on the common Chinese 
Lantern -fly, Hotinus candelarius, Linn. As we have said be- 
fore, the eggs are laid by the parent Butterfly or Moth on or near 
the appropriate food of the future larva, and in most cases the 
parent insect does not long survive. But undoubtedly there is 
a great difference in the length of life of different species, and 
instances are on record in which Lepidoptera have been 
observed to pair more than once, though this is believed to be 
quite unusual in insects, the general rule being that male 
insects generally die very soon after pairing, and female 
insects soon after they have laid their eggs. This is un- 
doubtedly the case with many insects; but further detailed 
observations on the habits of a large number are greatly needed. 
When the larvae emerge from the eggs, they at once begin 
to feed, often making their first meal off the empty eggshell. 
An explanation of this curious habit has lately been offered by 
Dr. Scudder, who thinks that it is designed to prevent the 
empty eggshell from acting as an indication of the presence of 
the newly-hatched larva to insectivorous birds, &c. ; for, 
while one function of larvae is to prevent the inordinate increase 
of vegetation, especially in the Tropics, another is to furnish 
a supply of food to birds and other insect-eating animals. 
The excessive multiplication of insects is also kept in check by 
the numerous parasites, by which they are liable to be infested in 
all their stages. These are chiefly Hymenopterous parasites, 
called collectively Ichneumons, but really belonging to five or 
six very different families. There are also Dipterous para- 


sites, chiefly of the family Tachinidce, which are similar in 
their habits to the Ichneumons ; and the maggots produce flies 
like blue-bottles or house-flies, but with very bristly bodies. 
These parasites consume the bodies of their victim, so that it 
dies either in the larva state or as a pupa, the parasites either 
undergoing their transformations within the empty skin, or 
emerging from it, and forming their own cocoons round it. 
Occasionally, if the larva has only been attacked by one or 
two of the smaller parasites, it attains maturity, but is more or 
less crippled. Generally speaking, these parasites are more 
or less restricted to certain species of "hosts," as they are 
technically called, and attack no others ; but many parasites 
will attack a variety of different species almost indiscriminately. 
On Plate II., fig. 8, we have figured one of the parasites 
which attack the common Cabbage Butterfly ; it is Mia-ogastet 
glomerahis, Linn., greatly magnified. " The size is very 
diminutive, the largest specimen seldom exceeding two lines 
in length. The general colour of the body is deep black, and 
the legs reddish-yellow. The wings are somewhat longer than 
the body and pubescent, each of the upper pair having a tri- 
angular black spot near the middle of the anterior margin (the 
pterostigma), three discoidal cells, and a triangular areolet, 
rather imperfectly formed. The abdomen is furnished with an 
ovipositor, consisting of two flat valves, and a curved horny 
sheath, terminating in a point. The use of this instrument 
is to pierce the skin of the caterpillar, and to form a conduit 
for conveying the eggs into the hole thus prepared for their 
reception. When the fly has selected a caterpillar fitted for 
her purpose, she alights upon its back, and plunges her weapon 
into its body, chiefly at the incisions of the segments, deposit- 
in^ an egg at every insertion. This operation is repeated till 
no fewer than thirty or forty eggs are sometimes laid in the 
body of a single caterpillar. These are soon hatched in their 

xxvin Lloyd's natural history. 

singular nidus, and the grubs which they produce immediately 
begin to feed on the substance of the living animal. They do 
not, however, devour every part indiscriminately, but are 
taught by a wonderful instinct to abstain from injuring any 
vital organ, as if aware that their own existence depended on 
that of their unwilling foster-parent. In consequence of this 
the caterpillars survive for a considerable time, and sometimes 
retain sufficient strength to assume the pupa state, in which, 
however, they invariably perish. But most frequently the 
grubs arrive at maturity before that change takes place, and in 
that case they escape from the body of the caterpillar by gnaw- 
ing a passage through its sides. Having in this way effected 
their liberation, they arrange themselves round the sides of the 
caterpillar, which is now so exhausted that it soon dies, and spin 
cocoons of a fine yellow colour, in which they are transformed 
into pupae. When the perfect fly is ready to emerge, it pushes 
open a small lid at one end of the cocoon, and after it has 
been for a short time exposed to the air it is ready for flight. 

"Other minute Ichneumons deposit their offspring in the 
eggs or in the pupoe of Butterflies, and such numbers are de- 
stroyed in this way that it is evidently one of the means 
employed by Providence to keep within due limits a tribe of 
creatures which, if left to propagate without restriction, would 
occasion incalculable mischief by destroying almost every kind 
of vegetable produce." (Duncan}) 

Not only are most Lepidopterous larvae subject to the 
attacks of perhaps ten or a dozen different species of insect 
parasites at least, but to those of thread-worms (Gordius\ 
fungoid parasites of various kinds, and occasionally external 
parasites, such as acari and even fleas, besides such enemies 
as birds, earwigs, woodlice, &c. They are comparatively little 
affected by cold, but very much, as a rule, by damp, though 
some live in very damp situations, and a few even in the water. 


Caterpillars are very voracious, and increase in size very 
rapidly ; but as their skin does not expand in proportion, it 
soon becomes too tight. Then the caterpillar moults, casting 
off not only the skin, but the horny covering of the head and 
jaws, and even the lining of the principal internal organs. 
When a caterpillar is about to moult, its colour begins to fade, 
and it ceases to eat, and grows sluggish ; and after the moult 
is over it remains sluggish for a short time, before beginning 
to eat with renewed voracity. Many caterpillars do not alter 
very much in appearance or habits or structure from moult to 
moult ; but some differ considerably. Thus, the young cater- 
pillars which will have the usual complement of sixteen legs 
when full grown, sometimes have only ten when they first leave 
the egg ; and others change their colour, or acquire additional 
spines, &c, in the course of successive moults. As regards 
habits, several species of caterpillars live in colonies when they 
are young, and sometimes under a web ; but when they grow 
older they separate, and scatter themselves over the plants on 
which they feed. The caterpillars of some of the smaller 
Moths are " miners," living in mines or galleries in the sub- 
stance of leaves ; and the caterpillars of the Green Forester 
Moths have a similar habit when young, but when older feed 
exposed on their food-plants. Many caterpillars are protected 
by their close resemblance to the plants on which they feed, 
and the brown caterpillars of some of the Geometridce, or 
Loopers, as they are termed, fix themselves on a branch with 
their hind-legs, and then stretch their bodies stiffly out, in 
which attitude they are not to be distinguished from bits of dry 
stick. Bates once met with a caterpillar, during his travels on 
the Amazons, which startled him from its exact resemblance to 
a small venomous snake. Some few brightly-coloured cater- 
pillars, such as those of the Spurge Hawk Moth, feed in very 
exposed situations ; but in such cases their bright colours pro- 


bably point them out to insectivorous animals as inedible.* The 
caterpillar just mentioned feeds openly on the spurge in the 
most exposed situations. Other caterpillars are provided with 
retractile tentacles on the neck or at the extremity of the body, 
which appear to be useful for driving away Ichneumon flies or 
other small enemies. 

As a general rule the lives of caterpillars only last a few 
months, and in some species only a few weeks or days before they 
arrive at their full growth ; but many caterpillars pass the winter 
in that state. Sometimes they emerge from the egg in the 
autumn, go into winter quarters immediately, and eat nothing 
till spring ; but in other cases they hibernate when partly grown. 
In the case of double-brooded insects, the broods necessarily 
occupy much less time to pass through all their stages in sum- 
mer than in winter, when the rapidity of their development is 
checked by the cold. And in warm countries many species 
are double-brooded which are only single-brooded in colder 
regions. It is believed that the caterpillars of Arctic Lepidop- 
tera may require several seasons to attain their full growth. 
These may be frozen hard enough to chink when thrown 
into a glass, and yet recover when gradually thawed. But 
nearer home the longest-lived caterpillar known is that of the 
Goat Moth, which feeds inside the trunks of trees, and takes 
three years to arrive at maturity. 

When a caterpillar has reached its full size, and is ready to 
moult for the last time, it prepares to become a 

Pupa or Chrysalis. 

The term a pupa," which means a doll (puppet) in Latin, is 
enerally applied by entomologists to the intermediate stage 


* This, of course, is no protection against the attacks of parasites, but 
rather the reverse. I once bred some Tachiuida (parasitic Diptera) from 
the above-mentioned larvie. 


which insects pass through before assuming the perfect state. 
In insects with perfect metamorphoses, including Butterflies 
and Moths, this state is always inactive. Many pupae of But- 
terflies have a gilded appearance, and such a pupa has been 
styled a " chrysalis " or " aurelia," terms derived from the Greek 
and Latin, which express this peculiarity, and which have since 
been applied to all Lepidopterous pupae, whether gilded or 
not. But the term "Aurelia" is no longer used, and will 
not be found in recent works on entomology, though eighty 
or a hundred years ago collectors of Butterflies and Moths 
were generally called " Aurelians." 

The caterpillars of Butterflies generally fix their pupae on 
or near their food-plants, and a large number suspend them- 
selves by the minute hooks with which the narrow end of the 
body is provided, to a little button of silk, and thus hang 
freely by the tail. These are the Nymphaiidcc ; but in most 
of the other families the pupa is attached by the tail, but fixed 
in an upright position, being supported by a belt of silk round 
the body. Some of the Satyrince occasionally place their 
pupa? close to, or perhaps even on, the surface of the ground, 
and the Skippers, and the species of Pamassius, a genus of 
Alpine Butterflies which includes the well known Apollo Butter- 
fly, form slight cocoons. 

Moths are much more varied in their mode of forming th Jr 
pupae. Many are formed under the surface of the ground, 
some being naked, and others enclosed in a cell of aggluti- 
nated earth. Tree-feeding caterpillars often form their cocoons 
in the chinks of the bark, or in the earth close to the root of 
the tree on which they have fed. The conspicuous tough 
boat-shaped cocoons of yellow silk, formed by the Burnet 
Moths, are very common in meadows, attached to btalks of 
grass. Many of the large ocellated Silkworm Moths allied to 
our Emoeror Moth form their cocoons between leaves 0:1 the 


trees they have fed upon, but attach them firmly by a strong 
strand of silk to the branches, so that there is no danger of 
the leaves falling from the tree. Some species belonging to 
the same family form their pupae underground, but it is not 
known whether the same species exhibit this difference of 
habit, or whether the species are different. Internal feeders, 
such as the Goat Moth, form their cocoons in galleries 
in the wood in which they have fed, and many of these 
have sufficient power of locomotion to push the fore part of 
their bodies from the gallery into the open air before emerging 
from the pupa. Other pupae may be found in reeds ; attached 
to the bark of trees ; among dead leaves ; or in various other 

Pupae enclosed in cocoons are generally smooth, but those 
which are naked, and especially those of Butterflies, are fre- 
quently angular, and others are provided with spines or pro- 
jecting appendages. The outlines of the principal parts of the 
future Butterfly or Moth are indicated in the sutures of the 
pupa ; but the legs, &c, are not enclosed in separate sheaths, 
as is the case with the pupae of beetles. However, the long 
proboscis of the Hawk Moths forms an exception, for this is 
generally enclosed in a separate sheath, sometimes of great 
length, and curiously twisted. The general colour of pupae 
which are enclosed in cocoons, or are formed beneath the 
ground or in other places of concealment, is of a lighter or 
darker reddish-brown ; but those which are exposed to the light 
are of brighter colours — generally green or yellow — with black 
spots ; and green pupae are not unfrequently brilliantly metallic. 

The cocoons in which many pupae are enclosed differ con- 
siderably. Some of them are very slight and flimsy, others 
very thick. Some form a network, and others are solid. They 
are generally white, brown, or yellow in colour, but occasion- 
ally green. That of the Silkworm is a short oval yellow or 


white cocoon of solid silk, formed of a double strand measur- 
ing several hundred feet in length. Others are bottle-shaped, 
with an opening at one end. 

On emerging from the pupa state, Butterflies and Moths 
usually discharge a fluid from their mouths ; and when they 
have been unusually abundant, the phenomenon has sometimes 
been imagined by the ignorant to be due to a rain of blood, 
for this fluid is frequently of a red colour. When a Moth 
emerges from the pupa, this fluid serves to soften the threads 
of the cocoon, and some Moths are also furnished with a 
strong spine under the wings, which they employ to saw 
through the silk. 

When a Butterfly or Moth emerges from the pupa it is limp 
and moist, and the wings are small and rudimentary ; but the 
body of the insect rapidly dries in the air, and as first fluid 
and then air is forced through the nervures of the wings, they 
may be seen to expand and assume their full size and colour, 
when the insect is at last mature, and capable of reproducing 
its kind. 

We have now to consider the insect in its final development 
as an 

Imago, or Perfect Insect. 

Butterflies and Moths, like bugs and two-winged flies, be- 
long to the Ifaustclldta, or insects with a sucking apparatus 
in the perfect state, in contradistinction to the Mandibulata, 
or insects provided with jaws, like beetles, bees, grasshoppers, 
dragonflies, &c. As in all other true insects, their body is 
divided into three principal parts, called respectively the head, 
thorax, and abdomen, each of which is cjnnected with the 
next by a narrow pedicel. 

The Anglo-Saxon word, " Buttor-fleoze," has been supposed 
to have been suggested by the insects being abundant during 
the butter-season. It may be so ; but we should be more in- 
4 c 

xxxiv Lloyd's natural history. 

clined to think that it may have been first suggested by the 
colour of the Brimstone Butterfly, even now a very conspicuous 
and abundant insect during most of the year, at least in the 
South of England, and doubtless, in former times, far more 
abundant than at present. The German word, " Falter," evi- 
dently alludes to the folding of the wings ; and " Schmetter- 
ling," probably to the erratic flight of the insect. We have no 
equivalents for these words in English; but the German word 
" Motte " is generally applied to a Clothes-Moth. 

The head is provided with the principal organs of sense, the 
thorax with those of locomotion, and the abdomen with those 
of respiration and nutrition. 

The head is usually of harder consistency than the rest of 
;he body, and is often more or less clothed with hair or scales. 
The most conspicuous organs are the eyes, ocelli, antennce, 
palpi, and proboscis. The top of the head is called the vertex, 
the back the occiput, the front the face, and the space round 
the eyes the orbits. 

The large compound eyes are placed on each side of the 
head, and are composed of a great number of facets, varying in 
number in different species. As many as 17, 32 5 have been counted 
in the eye of a Butterfly. They are sometimes studded with 
hairs, and are sometimes naked, and this is of some importance 
as a subsidiary character in the classification of genera. The 
number of facets has not yet been sufficiently investigated in vari- 
ous species to be used in classification, nor do we know how 
far it is constant in the same species. Between the eyes are 
placed the ocelli, or simple eyes, on the summit of the head. 
These eyes consist of a single facet, and vary in number from 
one to three in various insects. In Moths there are always two, 
when they are present at all, but in Butterflies and many genera 
of Moths they are entirely absent. Their presence or absence 
forms a generic character of importance among the Moths. 


Further observations on the senses of insects are much 
needed. There is no doubt that the two classes of eyes 
function in different ways, and some insects have a much 
more powerful sight than others. That most insects are 
capable of recognising colours is certain ; and considering 
the complicated character of their visual organs, it is, to say 
the least of it, premature to argue, as some entomologists 
have recently done, that the sight of Butterflies is so imperfect 
that Nature can only appear to them as through a thick veil. 
All considerations of probability, and even practical observa- 
tions, seem to be quite opposed to such an idea. Attempts 
have been made, with more or less success, to discover homo- 
logies between the eyes of insects and those of vertebrate 
animals ; but we have not space to enter upon these questions 
in detail. 

The antennas, often called horns or feelers, are two long 
jointed organs, situated in front of the head, between the eyes, 
and before the ocelli, when the latter are present. We will 
defer discussing their structure in Moths to another volume; 
in Butterflies they are generally about half as long as the body, 
or a little more, and are nearly always conspicuously thickened 
towards the end. Sometimes this thickening is more or less 
gradual, in which case (especially in the Skippers), the antenna 
often terminates in a slight hook, and sometimes the antenna 
is suddenly thickened into a knob at the end. This character 
is so universal throughout Butterflies, and so exceptional in 
Moths, that it has always been considered as one of primary 
importance, Butterflies being called Rhopalocera (Club-Horns), 
and Moths Heterocera (Different Horns). This distinction 
may be conveniently applied to separate the first few 
families of Lepidoptera from the others, especially as we have 
two such different popular names for them as "Butterflies" 
and "Moths." In mGst Continental languages they have only 
one principal word for both, and simply prefix "day" and 

C 2 

xxxvi Lloyd's natural history. 

"night." Thus "Papillon" in French, from the Latin 
"Papilio," may mean either a Butterfly or a Moth ; and they 
distinguish them as " Papillons de jour" and " Papillons de 

In front of the face project the palpi, which are three- 
jointed organs, generally hairy or scaly, and differing consider- 
ably in length and structure. In Butterflies they are generally 
nearly straight, or slightly curved upwards. When straight they 
are called " porrected " ; when raised, "ascending " ; and when 
depressed, " drooping." The terminal joint is usually long, 
slender, and pointed. The palpi of Butterflies represent the 
labial palpi, the maxillary palpi being absent or rudimentary. In 
Butterflies, the palpi are generally more or less conspicuous, 
and in one or two genera (Libythina in the Nymphalince, and 
Libythea, an aberrant genus somewhat intermediate between 
the Nymphalidcv and the Lemoniidie), they are several times as 
long as the head. 

Between the palpi we observe the proboscis, or " the long 
flexible tube projecting from the mouth, which forms a canal 
through which the alimentary juices are absorbed. This instru- 
ment, which is sometimes of great length,* is spirally convo- 
luted when unemployed, but it can be unrolled with great 
rapidity, and is admirably fitted to explore the tubular corolla? 
and deep-seated nectaries of flowers, for the purpose of extract- 
ing their sweet secretions. It is of a cartilaginous substance, 
and owes its great flexibility to its being composed of numerous 
rings or transverse fibres, bearing some resemblance to the 
annulose structure of earthworms and some other animals. 
It is formed of two distinct pieces, which admit of being sepa- 

* Especially in the Sphingidce. In Sphinx convolvuli it attains the length 
of fcur or five inches, and in some ot the largest foreign Sphinge: {Am- 
phonyx) it may he almost double that length. In Butterflies it is usually 
well developed, though not approaching to such great length as in the 
Sphingida, but in many Bombyces and other Moths, including even some 
SphingidcE allied to Smerinihus, it is quite rudimentary, or even altogether 


rated throughout their whole length.* Each of these pieces is 
traversed longitudinally by a cylindrical tube, and being 
grooved on their inner side, they form, when united, another 
canal in the centre, of a somewhat square form, and wider than 
either of the two lateral ones. The junction of the two pieces 
is so close that the enclosed tube is perfectly air-tight, and 
this union is effected by means of an infinite number of filets, 
resembling the laminae of a feather, which interlace and 
adhere to each other. Of these three tubes, the central one 
alone serves for the influx of the alimentary fluids, the two 
lateral ones being probably employed in transmitting air in aid 
of respiration,! which, however, is mainly carried on by means 
of stigmata or lateral pores. The outer extremity of the pro- 
boscis is frequently beset with many membranous papilla?, 
resembling leaflets, which have been regarded by some authors 
as absorbents. From having observed them chiefly in long 
and slender trunks, Reaumur was led to conceive that their 
only use is to render that organ more steady, by affording 
numerous points of support, and adhering in some degree to 
the substance into which it is inserted — an explanation rendered 
highly probable by the fact that the long and slender ovipositors 
of Ichneumons, and many other insects, are generally provided 
with some pointed projections near the tip, evidently intended 
for this purpose. Several of the figures on Plate I. are designed 
to illustrate the structure of the organ just described. Fig. 9 
is a magnified view of the trunk, showing its general form, and 
the projecting points near the tip (a) Fig. 10, is a highly-mag- 
nified section, exhibiting the two portions (a, l>), of which it is 
composed, each of them tubular (c, d), and forming by their 
junction a central canal (e). Fig. 1 1 is another section, repre- 
senting the under side. 

In fresh specimens of some of the larger Lepidoptera this may easily be 
done with a fine needle. 

t More probably, to facilitate the pumping up of fluids into the mouth. 


"The two portions of which the proboscis is composed, seem 
to be analogous to the maxillae or under-jaws of the mandibu 
lated tribes,* and to receive their great development at the 
expense of the other oral appendages, most of which are small 
and inconspicuous. This is not the case, however, with the 
labial palpi, which are generally of considerable size, and curved 
upwards in such a manner as to form two projecting points in 
front of the head. These organs are covered with hair-like 
scales, are usually of a somewhat conical shape, and consist 
for the most part of three articulations (see Plate I., fig. 12a). 
They are attached to a triangular plate, which must be regarded 
as the labium, or under lip, as it closes the cavity of the mouth, 
immediately below the insertion of the trunk. On each side 
of the latter, not far from the base, there is a minute tuber- 
culiform projection, formed of two or three indistinct joints, 
which together seem to represent the maxillary palpi. The 
representation of the labrum, or upper lip, is a minute membran- 
ous piece, usually approaching to a triangular shape, and two 
other small projections, more or less dilated internally, and 
placed one on each side of the proboscis at the base, are 
analogous to the mandibles of gnawing insects. Most of 
these parts, however, exist in a very rudimentary condition, and 
afford another example, in addition to many already familiar 
to us, of Nature adhering to a particular form of structure after 
it has ceased to be subservient to any essential function,! for 
if some of these parts are designed for the same purpose which 
they serve so effectively when fully developed, it is not easy to 
see how they could be employed by the insect, or in any way 
prove serviceable to its economy." {Duncan.) 

* Bees, Beetles, &c. 

t Before the advent of Darwin, and his demonstration of the unity of 
all living beings, rudimentary structures were a great puzzle to philosophic 
naturalists, who found it very difficult to account for them in any rational 
or satisfactory manner. 


The head is generally of a uniform colour, but is frequently 
spotted with white, in which case the antennae are often ringed 
with white, and the orbits are white. 

The second division of the body is the thorax, which is com- 
posed of three segments, called respectively the pro-thorax, 
meso-thorax, and meta-thorax. The lower surface is called the 
"pectus," and the sides, below the wings, are called the 
" pleura." The thoracic segments are closely united in 
Lepidoptera, and bear the organs of locomotion, each segment 
bearing a pair of legs, and the two hinder pairs the wings 
also. The scutellum, which is so largely developed in many 
beetles and bugs, is inconspicuous in Lepidoptera, and has its 
point directed forwards. 

The pro-thorax is narrow in Butterflies, and in many species 
it is hardly visible above ; on the under surface it bears the first 
pair of legs. On the upper surface, when much developed, it 
is sometimes of a different colour ; thus, in many East Indian 
species of Papilio and Ornithoptera, it is of a bright scarlet. In 
such a case it is called the collar. The meso-thorax and meta- 
thorax are closely united in Butterflies, resembling one solid 
piece ; the former bears the second pair of legs and the front 
pair of wings ; and the latter bears the third pair of legs and 
the hind pair of wings. In front of the fore-wings are two 
hairy tufts, resting on horny scales, which are called the 
lappets, patagia, or tegulae. Many Butterflies are spotted with 
red or white on the head and thorax, and in this case the 
pleura is likewise spotted, and the antennas and legs are 
ringed with darker and paler, the under surface of the antennae 
and especially the tip of the club, and also the orbits, being 
likewise paler. In some Moths which spin cocoons, a strong 
spine may be seen at the base of the wings beneath, which the 
insects use in making their way out. 

The legs, as in other insects, are composed of the usual five 

xl Lloyd's natural history. 

parts, — the cox-re ; the trochanters ; the femora, or thighs ; the 
tibiae, or shanks ; and the tarsi, or feet. The last three are the 
most important to notice in Lepidoptera. The tarsi are normally 
five-jointed, but in many Nymphalidce, &c, the front-legs are 
rudimentary in one, or both, sexes, but especially in the 
males, and in such cases the tarsi may be reduced to a 
single joint, or are occasionally even absent. The tibia? 
are generally provided with a pair of spines at the ex- 
tremity, and frequently in the middle also. The tarsi, when 
fully developed, terminate in a pair of claws, which are bifid 
(Plate I., fig. 13) in many Butterflies, as, for instance, in the 
Pieridiz. In the groups which have the front legs more or less 
aborted in one or both sexes, the first stage is the disappearance 
of one or both of the tarsal claws. In some Moths {Hepialidcv, 
«S:c.), the hind pair of legs are imperfectly developed in the 

The legs are sometimes naked, and sometimes covered 
with short or long hairs, occasionally almost spinose. 
In some Moths there is a large fan-like tuft of hair on the 
legs of the males. 

The legs are usually concolorous with the body, whether 
hairy or not. Sometimes they are of a different colour ; in Lar- 
inopoda, a white African genus of Lycanidce, the legs are always 
reddish or tawny. When the antennae are ringed with black 
and white, the legs are generally ringed or spotted with white 
too, especially at the knees and at the joints of the tarsi. The 
legs in Butterflies are weak, and are generally only used to step 
circumspectly over a flower, though some Moths will shuffle 
along a plane surface in a manner that has gained for one of 
them the soubriquet of "The Mouse." 

The substance of the wings consists of a double membrane, 
permeated by branching air-tubes, generally called nervures. 
Their arrangement is so important for classification that it will 


be described in a separate section. The wing-membrane 
itself is colourless and transparent, but is clothed with fine 
scales, which are easily rubbed off, if the insect is handled 

"The mode of painting employed to produce these rich tints 
may not improperly be called a kind of natural mosaic, for the 
colours invariably reside in the scales, which form a dense 
covering over the whole surface. These scales are usually of 
an oval or elongated form, and truncated at the tip, where they 
are occasionally divided into teeth ; but sometimes they are 
conical, linear, or triangular. A considerable number of the 
forms which they exhibit are represented at the top of Plate I. 
Fig. 2 shows the form which they sometimes assume in the 
fringe which surrounds the wing. They are fixed in the wing 
by means of a narrow pedicel, and are most commonly dis- 
posed in transverse rows, placed close together, and overlapping 
each other like the tiles of a roof. In some instances they are 
placed without any regular order, and in certain cases there 
appear to be two layers of scales on both sides of the wings. 
When they are rubbed off, the wing is found to consist of an 
elastic membrane, thin and transparent, and marked with 
slightly indented lines, forming a kind of groove for the in- 
sertion of the scales. The latter are so minute that they 
appear to the naked eye like particles of dust, and as they are 
closely placed, their numbers in a single insect are astonishingly 
great. Leesewentock counted upwards of 400,000 on the wings 
of the Silk-Moth, an insect not above one-fourth of the size of 
some of our native Butterflies. But how much inferior must 
this number be to that necessary to form a covering to some 
foreign Butterflies, the wings of which expand upwards of half 
a foot ; or certain species of Moths, some of which, such as the 
Atlas-Moth of the East, or the Great Owl-Moth of Brazil, some- 
times measure nearly a foot across the wings ? A modern mo- 

xlii .Lloyd's natural history. 

saic pattern may contain 870 tesseruke, in separate pieces, in 
one square inch of surface; but the same extent of a Butterfly's 
wing sometimes consists of no fewer than 100,736 !" {Duncan.) 

In addition to the ordinary scales, the males of many Butter- 
flies possess special additional scales, smaller than the others, 
which have been called plumules, battledore-scales, or andro- 
conia. Sometimes they are scattered among, and hidden 
under, the ordinary scales, but they are frequently placed in 
masses on a particular part of the wing, and covered by large 
overlapping scales. They are generally colourless, but some- 
times black or brown. Not unfrequently they are concealed 
in a pocket or fold of the wing. They are generally longer 
and softer than the ordinary scales, and evidently serve as out- 
lets for scent glands in the tissue of the wing.* 

The scales are considered to be modified hairs, and consist 
of double-walled closed sacs, which afterwards flatten out, and 
are striated. The colour of the wings of the insect is partly 
due to pigment contained in these sacs, and partly, especially 
in the case of shot or iridescent tints, to the refraction of 
light from the striated scales of the wing. 

In many Butterflies and Moths, more or less of the wing, 
from a few small spots, to the whole surface except the borders, 
is colourless. This is the case in our Bee Hawk-Moths, and 
Clear-wing Moths ; but though only one genus of European 
Butterflies (Carcharodus) exhibits even as much as a few trans- 
parent spots on the wings, many South American genera of 
different groups {Ithomia, He/ara, Zeonia, &c.) have the wings 
as colourless as in our Clear-wing Moths. But in the case of 
the Bee Hawk-Moths, and probably of many other transparent- 
winged Lepidoptera, the insect, on emerging from the pupa, is 
slightly clothed with loose scales over the transparent part of the 
wings, which soon rub off. 

* See Thomas, "American Naturalist," vol. 27, p. 101S (Novem- 
ber, 1893). 


Scales are not the only covering of the wings of Lepidoptera. 
The edges of the wings in most cases are bordered with a row 
of short hairs, sometimes of a different colour to the rest of the 
wing, especially between the nervures. These are called the 
fringes or cilia of the wings, and in many of the smaller Moths, 
especially those allied to the Clothes Moths, they are very long. 
More or lessof the baseof thewingsof Butterflies is often covered 
with long hair ; and in many of the larger foreign Butterflies the 
inner margin of the hind-wings forms a long deep fold, filled 
with fluffy hair. But apart from this, the inner-margin of the 
wings in Butterflies is often fringed with much longer hair than 
the hind-margin. 

The abdomen in the Lepidoptera is composed of nine seg- 
ments. It is frequently crested on the back, and tufted at the 
extremity in Moths. In Butterflies, the males are sometimes 
furnished with large clasping organs at the extremity, or have 
the power of protruding scent-tufts from the abdomen ; in the 
females of Moths an ovipositor is occasionally present. 

On the Wings and Neuration of Butterflies. 

The wings of insects are traversed by hollow tubes, which are 
technically called nervures, and which serve first as circulatory 
organs for the fluid which is forced through the wings on the 
emergence of the insect from the pupa, and thus causes their 
expansion and development ; and afterwards as air-tubes, and 
as ribs to strengthen the wings and to keep them expanded. 
In many insects, including some Moths, but not in Butterflies, 
these ribs fold together like a fan, and in beetles, &c, the ends 
are folded back again. These nervures, differ much in their 
number and arrangement, not only in different orders, but 
even in allied groups of the same order ; and form a valuable 
aid to classification. We will now proceed to give a short 
account of their usual arrangement in Butterflies, with the aid 

Lloyd's natural history. 

of the accompanying woodcut, which represents the neuration 
of Ageronia, 

To begin with, then, all Butterflies have four wings, two on 
each side. The first pair is called the fore-wings, the front 
wings, the anterior wings, or in Latin, as it is useful to 
remember, "alae antica;." The second pair are called hind- 
wings, or posterior wings, in Latin " aloe posticse." Many 
authors write " primaries " and " secondaries " as equivalent to 
fore- and hind-wings ; but the use of these terms ought to be 

abandoned, because they are m universal employment in a 
totally different sense in Birds. 

The fore-wings are generally roughly triangular in shape. The 
narrow end which joins on to the body is called the base; the 
fore-wings being attached to the sides of the meso-thorax, and the 
hind-wings to the side of the meta-thorax. The front edge 
of the wings is called the costa ; it is generally more or less 
strongly arched, and in Butterflies is very rare 1 )' slightly concave. 
In a few genera, e.g., Charaxes and Prioneris, it is serrated 


and ridged like a saw. At its extremity is the tip, the apex, 
or the anterior angle of the wing. This is often more or less 
angulated, sometimes being pointed, or running out into a 
projecting angle, or it may even be hooked ; but in many 
species it is rounded off. The longest portion of the wing is 
generally at or a little below the tip. The edge of the wing 
furthest from the body is called the hind-margin. Sometimes 
it is regularly rounded, in which case the wings are said to be 
entire, or it may be more or less toothed (dentated, or denticu- 
lated), or obliquely hollowed between the ends of each two of the 
nervures (sinuated). The concave spaces between the nervures 
are then called "incisions." On the fore-wings, the hind-margin 
is generally slightly curved towards the hinder angle (the anal 
angle as it is sometimes called, though this term is properly 
applied only to that of the hind-wings), but it is frequently 
nearly straight, or more or less convex or concave, or with 
angular projections ; in fact, its outline varies more in different 
species than that of any other part of the wing. On the hind- 
wings, the hind-margin is generally rounded, but is sometimes 
angulated once or twice, or furnished with a more or less long 
projection, called a tail, most frequently at the end of the 
upper median nervule (see below), though tails may be thrown 
off at any of the lower nervules, either independently or con- 
jointly with one at the point just mentioned. When the hind- 
wing is simply angulated we have called this point the " outer 
angle." The anal angle of the hind-wings is often rounded off, 
or even concave, but sometimes projects into a point, or even a 
tail. The inner-margin is opposite to the costa on the fore- 
wings and is generally nearly straight, or very slightly concave, 
but in some genera, especially in some of those allied to 
Euplcea, it is strongly concave. On the hind-wings the 
inner-margin lies parallel to the sides of the abdomen, and 
sometimes forms a kind of gutter to receive it, or is concave. 

xlvi Lloyd's natural history. 

In many species of Papilio it forms a large fold, filled with 
fluffy hair, frequently concealing androconia. 

As regards the wing-outlines, A in our figure represents the 
base of the wings, B the tip, or apex, and C the hinder or 
anal angle. The costa would run from A to B, the hind- 
margin from B to C, and the inner-margin from A to C. The 
tail on the hind-wings might be at any of the points marked d 
and e, but most frequently at the point marked dd, where also 
would be placed the outer angle in a species with angulated 

We must now give some account of the veining of the wings. 
In the first place, it was probably much more complicated 
formerly than at present in Butterflies, as it is still in some Moths. 
The veins which run from the base are called nervures, and all 
the others nervules. Sometimes they are thickened or inflated 
at the base, especially in the Satyrince, but more often they are 
apparently thickened through density of scaling along their 
course, as in the male of the Silver-washed Fritillary, to take 
the most familiar example. In many Butterflies faint lines may 
be noticed between the ordinary nervures, including two in the 
cell, and in some cases these lines, which doubtless indicate 
the situation of lost nervures, now atrophied, are marked by 
scales in such a way as to give them the appearance of being 
actually nervures. This is especially the case in some Pieridce 
with radiating markings along the nervures, chiefly on the under 
surface of the wings, as in our Green-veined White Butterfly. 
Certain Moths have a much more complicated system of 
neuration than Butterflies, which attains its maximum of 
development in the families Castniidcs, Hcpiahdcc^x\& Zeuzeridce, 
while some of the smaller Thteidcv, &c, have a much simpler 
arrangement. But in Butterflies the neuration, though varying 
infinitely in details, is generally arranged on a very uniform 


Commencing with the costa, we first find a single nervure 
(a) running from the base, and entering the costa. It is called 
the costal nervure, and differs much in length in different 
Butterflies. It is never branched at the extremity, but some- 
times, as in the genus Archofiias, in the Pieridce, the first sub- 
costal nervule unites with it. The costal nervure is much more 
strongly developed on the hind-wings than on the fore-wings; 
and at the base of the hind-wings it throws up a short branch 
in many of the larger Butterflies (not shown in our figure) 
which, \\ hen present, often encloses a space at the base of the 
wing. This nervure is called the " pre-costal nervure." 

Next to the costal nervure comes the sub-costal nervure, 
which is generally five-branched on the fore-wings (b. i, 2, 3, 4, 
5). These are sometimes called branches of the sub-costal ner- 
vure, and sometimes sub-costal nervules. As already mentioned, 
the first sub-costal nervule sometimes unites with the costal 
nervure towards its extremity. There are generally five sub- 
costal nervules on the for^-wings, but in many genera of Butter- 
flies there are only four, and sometimes only three. The 
position where these nervules branch off, their curvature, and 
the points at which they enter the costa, or the neighbourhood 
of the apex of the wing, are of great importance in the classifi, 
cation of genera. The first two, or the first three, are often 
sub-parallel ; in Synchloc, the first two approximate so much 
that they are sometime? united in the middle. On the hind- 
wings the sub-costal nervure divides into two branches only. 

Under the sub-costal nervure is a wide open space usually 
extending from the base to the middle of the wing, or even 
further. This is called the discoidal cell {AD), and from it two 
nervules run to the hind-margin on the fore-wings, and one on 
the hind-wings. These are called radial or discoidal nervules 
Ice), and are distinguished as the first and second, or the upper 
and lower. The upper radial nervule is sometimes united to the 

xlviii Lloyd's natural history. 

sub-costal nervure at its base, so as to give it the appearance 
of being an additional branch of the sub-costal. In several dark- 
coloured species of Papilio, &c, there is an appearance of lines 
radiating from the base in the cell ; but this is delusive, and 
only one Butterfly is known to me with the radial nervules 
continued as ncrvurcs through the cell to the base of the 
wings. This is Davidina armandi, Oberthiir, a rare and little 
known Pieride from China and Thibet. On the hind-wings 
there is only one radial nervule; but some authois consider 
the sub-costal nervure of the hind-wings to be unbranched, 
and call the second branch {b. 2. of our figure) the upper 
radial instead of the second sub-costal nervule. 

In most Butterflies the cell is closed by small cross-nervures 
called disco cellular nervules (g. 1, g. 2), but in the Nymphaliii(z 
and Morphine the lower disco-cellular nervule is either slender 
and rudimentary, a; in our figure, or entirely wanting. In the 
latter case the cell is said to be open. The cell is more fre- 
quently open in the hind-wings, but very commonly in the 
fore-wings also. The space between the cell and the hind- 
margi.i is called the disc of the wing. In the Brassolince there 
is a small additional cell above the base of the discoidal cell 
of the hind-wings, called the pre-costal cell. 

Below the discoidal cell runs the median nervure, which is 
always three-branched {d, d, d). In England the median 
nervules (or branches of the median nervure) are generally 
counted from above downwards ; but as they are thrown off in 
succession from below, it would appear more correct to count 
them from below upwards, as is generally done by the German 
lepidopterists. In order to avoid any ambiguity, it is perhaps 
better to call them the upper, lower and middle median nervules. 
In many Nymphalince, there is a short branch thrown off down- 
wards from the median nervure near its base, which Schatz and 
Rober call the " spur." When it is continued downwards to 


ths sub-median nervure, so as to enclose a space, it is called 
the interno-median nervule. 

Below the median nervure runs the sub-median nervure (e) 
which is never branched. Below this again, is the internal 
nervure (/), which is generally very short, or wanting on the 
fore-wings. When present, it may either run to the inner margin 
near the base, or may unite almost immediately with the sub- 
median, giving the sub median the appearance of being forked 
at the base. On the hind-wings it is generally fairly well 
developed; and although it i; absent in the Papitionidce, in 
the Pieridce it is generally almost as long as the sub-median 
nervure; and indeed, in many species, marked like our Green- 
veined Whites, a line of colour runs down between these 
nervures, giving the insects the appearance of possessing three 
sub-median nervines instead of two. If the term "internal 
nervure" was not in general use, it would perhaps be better to 
call these nervures the upper and lower sub-median nervures. 
The presence of the internal nervure on the hind-wings of the 
Pieridce, contrasted with its total absence in thePci/>i/io/iidi€, and 
combined with other equally constant and important characters 
which will be mentioned in their place, seems to indicate that 
these two groups are sufficiently distinct to be treated as 
families, instead of as sub-families, as is usually the case. 

On Collecting Butterflies and Moths. 
The most useful implement for collecting Butterflies and 
Moths on the wing is the ring-net. It is a ring of iron, jointed 
so that it can be folded up, and put into the pocket when not 
in use. It is made to screw on to the end of an ordinary walking- 
stick. Neither the ring nor the net should be heavier than 
needful to give a proper balance in the hand. The ring should 
be about a foot broad, and the net should be made of green 
gauze, or some similar material. It should be somewhat 
tapering, but rounded at the end, not square or pointed, for it 

1 Lloyd's natural history. 

should contain no corners ; and it should be long enough to 
be lapped round the stick with a jerk, when used, to prevent 
the Butterfly from escaping. Of course, a much simpler instru- 
ment may be made to answer the purpose, and even a ring of 
willow-twigs tied between a forked stick might serve as the 
framework of a net, when nothing else is available. Although 
a Butterfly-net much resembles a fisherman's landing-net, yet 
nothing could be more unsuited to the purpose than the latter, 
even if the string net should be replaced with one of green 
gauze. It would be found far too clumsy and inconvenient in 
practice ; the ring would be too small, and the weight would be 
all at one end. 

Some collectors prefer what it called the umbrella-net — a net 
of green gauze made to slide up and down a stick, and fitting 
into an umbrella-case when not in use. But this, though use- 
ful for many purposes, such as sweeping grass or bushes, or for 
beating caterpillars into, is rather too short for ordinary collect- 
ing, and the stick through the middle is another objection. 
The long net used by the old collectors for catching the 
Purple Emperor (a net on a pole twenty or thirty feet long) is 
now rarely used. If necessary, one can be improvised from a 
sapling ; but it is now found more advantageous to lure high- 
flying insects to the ground with carrion, or some similar bait. 

It is hard work to run down a Butterfly, and, in general, it is 
unnecessary. Some have a slow flight and settle frequently on 
flowers, and many of those which fly rapidly have a habit of 
constantly returning to the same spot. If the ground is suffi- 
ciently open to allow of following up a Butterfly, it is almost 
sure to settle sooner or later. Many Moths may be caught on 
flowers, especially at dusk ; but a few, such as the Humming- 
Bird Hawk-Moth, feed on the wing, and are capable of very 
rapid flight, especially if alarmed. Almost the only means of 
catching it is to bring the net up very gently as near the insect 


as possible without scaring it, and then to strike suddenly. 
Even this Moth, however, will sometimes settle on a wall, a 
stump on a bank under a hedge, or in some other situation 
where its colour protects it ; but it is rare to meet with it, 
except on the wing. 

Many Moths fly in the daytime in meadows, &c, like 
Butterflies, or may be dislodged from their resting-places by 
beating hedges and bushes on the side opposite to the wind. 
On dull days, or at dusk, Butterflies may occasionally be 
started in a similar manner, or they may be found asleep on 
grass-stems, &c. Butterflies will settle on leaves as well as 
on flowers, or on the ground, or on tree-trunks. In the last 
case they are very difficult to catch, as it is not easy to strike 
at them in such a manner that they cannot readily elude the 
net. Many Butterflies will settle in damp places to imbibe the 
moisture, or on fruit, and others will settle on dung or carrion. 

A great many of the night-flying Moths, even including the 
largest species, may be found sitting on tree-trunks in the early 
part of the day ; later on, they generally seek a more retired 
resting-place. Others may be captured by painting tree-trunks, 
&c, with a sweet mixture, and visiting the trees with a lantern 
after dark. This mode of collecting is called " sugaring," and 
the substance commonly used is a mixture of coarse brown 
sugar boiled in beer to a sufficient consistency to adhere to the 
trees, and flavoured with a few drops of rum. Apple-flavouring 
has also been found very attractive. 

Butterflies, and slender-bodied Moths, may be killed by a 
pinch under the thorax ; but unless very carefully done, this is 
liable to injure the specimens, especially if they are required to 
show the under surface and legs ; and many collectors use a 
bottle partly filled with chopped laurel-leaves, or charged with 
cyanide of potassium, or carry a small bottle of chloroform 
with them. Full particulars on all these points may be found 
in Knaggs' " Lepidopterist's Guide," a useful little manual 

L) 2 

hi Lloyd's natural history. 

which goes thoroughly into all the minutiae of collecting, pre- 
serving, breeding, &c. Poisons, however, are not always easily 
obtained ; and cyanide sometimes discolours the insects. 

When the insect is killed, it is taken carefully between the 
finger and thumb, and a pin is passed through the centre of 
the thorax. The pins used for insects are long, slender, and 
elastic, with small heads ; and " entomological pins " can be 
purchased of any dealer in objects of natural history. The 
pin used should always be proportionate to the size of the 
insect, and in the case of very small Moths, the fine pins 
with which they are transfixed are frequently mounted on 
small oblong stages of pith, through the other end of which a 
larger pin is passed. 

Insects pinned in the field are put into small wooden boxes, 
lined with cork, and carried in the pocket ; but many collec- 
tors prefer to use chip boxes, in which Moths and the smaller 
Butterflies can be carried home alive. Only one specimen 
must be put into each box, and the larger and more active 
species must be killed at once, as they would knock themselves 
to pieces, if thus imprisoned. Moths asleep on the trunks of 
srees may very often be pushed into a chip box with the help 
of the lid, and secured at once. It is necessary to be very 
particular to keep full boxes in one pocket, and empty ones in 

Collectors abroad generally put their captures into papers 
folded so as to resemble a triangular envelope, by doubling 
the lower end of an oblong piece of paper across one side, 
after which the end can be turned down to close it. Most of 
the insects received from tropical countries are sent home in 
this way ; but the legs and antennas are liable to be damaged. 

Whenever possible, it is better to set insects before they 
become stiff ; but if they are stiff, or are received unset, they 
can easily be relaxed by putting them into a closed vessel 


with a layer of damp sand at the bottom, for a few hours or 
days. They must, however, be watched, and set as soon as 
they are sufficiently limp. If not quite relaxed, the wings will 
be liable to break, or to slip out of position afterwards ; but if 
left too long in the relaxing jar, the insects will become rotten 
or mouldy. 

Setting-boards are made of wood, with a groove down the 
middle, lined with cork, and proportioned in depth to the 
height at which it is proposed to set the insect. The sides 
are also covered with cork, but this is unnecessary when 
insects are set with threads. According to the old English 
fashion of setting, the groove was very shallow, and the sides 
of the setting-board were sloping, so that the insect was close 
to the paper of the cabinet, and the wings sloped over, and 
nearly touched it, on each side. But many collectors now 
prefer the Continental method, in which the insect is raised 
half an inch or more from the surface of the drawer, and 
the wings are spread out quite flat on each side. In setting 
an insect, the pin is fixed in the centre of the groove, and the 
wings, antennae, and legs are placed in as natural a position as 
possible, with the aid of a needle, great care being taken not 
to pierce or tear the wings, or to break the antennce. They 
are then secured in their places by " braces," or long tapering- 
strips of paper or cardboard, with pins thrust through the 
broader end ; or a thread may be wound over the wings, from 
end to end of the setting-board. This, however, requires both 
neatness and practice to do it well, or it is liable to rub off the 
scales in lines. 

Insects are generally kept in store-boxes or cabinets. Store 
boxes may be of any convenient size, and are made like back- 
gammon boards, and corked within on both sides. Cabinets 
are made to contain any required number of drawers, arranged 
in a single or double tier, and it is of great inportance that all 


the drawers, at least in the same cabinet, should be made 
interchangeable. The drawers are made with a side partition 
to contain camphor, and are provided with tight-fitting glass 
lids, to exclude air and dust. The drawers are lined with 
cork, and are covered with white or neutral-tinted paper. 

The specimens are then arranged in the cabinet in rows, 
separated by pencil lines, black threads, or narrow slips of 
coloured paper. The name of the genus is placed above them, 
and that of the species, written or printed smaller, below. At 
least four specimens of each species are required, to show 
the upper and under surfaces of both sexes ; but it is better to 
have more, as a row gives a much better idea of a species than 
a single specimen of each sex, and as many varieties should be 
added as can be obtained. 

Light bleaches insects ; and if no camphor is kept with 
them, they are liable to be destroyed by mites, &c. ; if, how- 
ever, mites should get into the collection, which is generally 
first shown by a little heap of dust under an infected specimen, 
benzole should be applied freely to the specimens attacked. 
It will not injure them, and will soon evaporate. Sometimes 
an oily substance exudes from the bodies of Moths, especially 
of those the larva? of which feed within the trunks of trees, such 
as the JLgcriidcR and Zeuzeridce. In this case, too, benzole 
should be poured over the specimen, or it may even be soaked 
in the liquid. In order to diminish the risk of grease, some 
collectors open the bodies of large Moths while still soft, and 
remove the contents of the abdomen, stuffing it afterwards 
with cotton-wool. 

Twenty years ago the formation of a collection of foreign 
Butterflies and Moths was a matter of great difficulty and ex- 
pense. Of late years, however, they have been brought over 
in such quantities that the market has been completly glutted 
with them ; and though fine and rare Butterflies from little- 


visited localities will always fetch good prices (one of the rarer 
species of Ornithoptera^zs, sold for ^15 at an auction a short 
time since), yet many Butterflies can now be bought for fewer 
shillings than they would have fetched pounds a few years 
ago. Consequently, a collector in London could easily bring 
together a very fair collection, if he set about it judiciously, at 
a comparatively small cost, even if he made it a rule not to pay 
a higher price than, say, a shilling a specimen. Undoubtedly 
the cheapest way of buying Butterflies is to buy miscellaneous 
lots at an auction, especially lots in papers. They are easily 
relaxed afterwards, and though some of the specimens will be 
bad, there will probably be enough good ones among them to 
be worth the money paid for them, at any rate by a beginner. 
But specimens without antennae, or with the wings torn, should 
be avoided as far as possible, both on the ground of appear- 
ance and of value. If, however, they are needed for anatomical 
or microscopic purposes, such as the study of the legs or 
scales, it is different. And it is well to denude a specimen of 
each species which can be spared, of scales on one side of the 
wings, to illustrate the neuration, preserving the other half 
intact, in order to ensure the absolutely current indentification 
of the species. 

Insects which are most eagerly sought after, and which are 
most difficult to obtain, at least at a reasonable price, are rare 
British (or so-called British) specimens, especially the extinct 
fen insects, varieties of indigenous species, and insects from 
Central Asia, the less visited islands of the Pacific (especially 
the fine Ornithopterce, many of which are confined to a 
single small island), and the finer and rarer Butterflies 
of the west of Tropical America, such as various species of 
Morpho, Agrias, &c, from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. There 
are some countries and islands rarely visited by collectors, 
because they do not produce enough species to make it worth 

lvi Lloyd's natural history. 

while, as the insects found there are not handsome enough 
to command a correspondingly high price. Yet they furnish 
many interesting species, which are ordinarily difficult to obtain. 
Such countries are Chili, the Canaries, Madeira, and New 
Zealand. But in the case of some of these localities, as also 
in others, the help of friends abroad may sometimes be use- 

On the Geographical Distribution of Butterflies. 

Butterflies are distributed over the surface of the earth in 
very unequal proportions, and are most numerous where the 
vegetation is most varied. As a general rule, in Europe and 
Asia they are most numerous along the great ranges of moun- 
tains in the warmer countries, thinning rapidly both north and 
south, and towards the west. 

The regions of Geographical Distribution in use by most 
recent Zoologists are those proposed by Dr. P. L. Sclater in 
his paper on the Geographical Distribution of the Class Aves.* 
I subsequently published a paper on the Geographical Dis- 
tribution of Diurnal Lepidoptera,t following the same system ; 
and it was also adopted by Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace in 
his important work on the Zoological Distribution of Animals, 
though he suggested a division of each of the large regions 
into four sub-regions. 

The provinces adopted by Dr. Sclater are, roughly, as follows : 

/. Pahvarctic Region. 
Includes Europe, the Mediterranean Region, North Africa 
to the Sahara, and Asia, except India south of the Himalayas, 
South China, and islands south of Japan. 

* Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology, vol. ii., pp. 130- 
1 15-" 
+ Ibid., vol. xi. pp. 431-439- 


II Ethiopian Region. 
Africa, south of the Sahara, and the adjacent islands. 

///. Indian, or Indo- Malayan Region. 
India, south of the Himalayas, South China, the Malay Penin- 
sula, and the Philippines, Formosa, Ceylon, Borneo, Java, 
Sumatra, &c. 

IV. Australian, or Austro-Malayan Region. 
Celehes (?), the Moluccas, Papua and the Papuan Islands, 
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. 

V. Ne arctic Region. 
Greenland and North America to centre of Mexico. 

VI. Neotropical Region. 
Southern Mexico, Central and South America, West Indies, 


The Nearctic Region is only artificially separated from the 
Palrearctic Region and presents no feature of importance 
beyond the presence of a few stragglers from the Neotropical 
Fauna, and it should be united to the Palrearctic Region. 

Our British genera of Butterflies, with the exception of 
I.iinenitis, Apatura, Picris, Papilio, and some genera of Hes- 
periidec extend little, if at all, beyond the limits of this united 
region. Among other characteristic genera which are not 
British, but are likewise almost exclusively confined within its 
limits, are CEneis and Parnassius (alpine oi» circumpolar). 
Triphysa (Central Europe and Asia), Thestor, Iceosopis, Zeg/is, 
Hypermnestra, Doritis, and Thais (South Europe or Western 
Asia), Mesapia (Himalayas), and Sericinus (North China). 

In Europe the Alpine ranges from the Balkans to the 
Pyrenees are richest in species, about 200 of the 300 European 

Iviii Lloyd's natural history. 

Butterflies being found in their neighbourhood. But north 
and south the species thin out very rapidly, especially to the 
north-west. The mountains of Great Britain, South Spain, and 
South Italy produce hardly any truly alpine species ; and 
many of our familiar Central European species become moun- 
tain insects in the Sierra Nevada. Scandinavia is almost as 
rich in species of Butterflies as Southern Spain ; and both 
countries produce nearly twice as many species as Great 
Britain, which has not only the disadvantage of being a north- 
western country, but is also an island. Great Britain produces 
less than seventy species of Butterflies, and there are many 
localities, even in North France and Germany, which would 
produce nearly as many species within the radius of a few 
miles. On the south coast of the Mediterranean the number 
of species is still further reduced, for many species do not 
cross the sea. The extreme North is not without Butterflies, 
many species being met with in Labrador, Lapland, &c. ; and 
even in Greenland species of CEneis, Brenthis, Polyommatus, 
and Colias have been met with almost as far north as our 
explorers have yet penetrated. But so far as is known, no in- 
digenous Butterfly is found in Iceland. 

In Europe and the Mediterranean District three sub-regions 
can be identified : the Central European, the Alpine and Arctic, 
and the Central Steppe- Faunas. The last extends from the 
Himalayas through Western and Central Asia, and alone; the 
southern coast of the Mediterranean to the Canaries; and here 
it may be mentioned that islands, though often very poor in 
species, are generally very rich in peculiar species or well- 
marked local varieties. This is well exemplified by Corsica, 
Sardinia, Madeira, the Canaries, and New Zealand, and to a 
lesser extent, even by the British Islands. 

Very few species of typical Indian or African genera, such 
as DanaiiSy Neptis, and Charaxes extend into Europe, but in 


Eastern Asia a great many characteristic Indian forms extend 
as far as Japan, and, to a lesser extent, to the Amoor Region. 
The mountainous regions of Central Asia are remarkable for 
the number and beauty of the species of Parnassiits and Colias 
which they produce. Erebia is equally well represented in 
Europe and Asia. A few Palaearctic forms invade the adjacent 
provinces ; thus Colias electra, the African representative of our 
common C. liyale, Linn.(= C. edusa, Fabr.), is met with through- 
out Eastern Africa to as far as the Cape ; and the Butterflies 
of the South American countries between the Andes and the 
sea have a strong resemblance to European species, even as far 
south as Chili and Patagonia. North America is remarkable for 
the number and variety of the species of Argynnis which it pro- 
duces ; and the finest species of the circumpolar genus CEneis, 
which otherwise is rather more of an Arctic than an Alpine 
genus, are found in California and the Rocky Mountains. 
The genera Colias and Polygonia are also specially well repre- 
sented in North America. The greatest variety of species in 
the United States are found in the Western and Southern 


There are two well-marked divisions in Continental Africa, 
south of the Sahara : the West Coast Fauna and the East 
Coast Fauna. The West Coast fauna is by far the richest, 
and extends eastwards, to the head-waters of the Nile, collec- 
tions from the Bahr-el-Ghazal showing but little difference from 
collections made at Sierra Leone, or the Cameroons. On the 
other hand, there is much general sameness between Butter- 
flies from Abyssinia, the Lake Region, Zanzibar, and Natal ; 
while many species occurring near the east coast are closely 
allied to, though generally distinct from, those of Madagascar. 

There is considerable resemblance, too, between the Butter- 
flies of Africa and India ; but the number of genera peculiar, 


or almost peculiar, to Africa is very large. Among these, we 
may mention Auiai/ris, Acnca (a very few representatives of 
which occur from India to Australia), Lachnoptera, Salami's, 
Pseudacrsea, Crenis, Euxanthe, Eurypliene, Ei/phczdra, Cymo- 
thoe, Charaxes, Palla, a cluster of genera of TyavnidiV allied to 
Pentila, Lipfena, Epitola, &c, Drurya, Leucochitonea, Caprona, 
&c. Many fine groups of Charaxes and Papilio, and the bulk 
of the Orange-tips of the genus Teraco/us, are also African. 

In East Africa and Madagascar we meet with the most 
beautiful of all Moths, the genus Chrysiridia. 


This region also, though possessing some African, Palasarctic, 
and especially Australian affinities, is very rich in peculiar or 
characteristic forms. Among these are Thaumantias, and other 
genera of Old World Morphine?, Cethosia, Kattima, Limenitis, 
Athyma, Neptis, Euthalia, Iferda, Da/dorix, Lip/iyra, Prio?ieris, 
De/ras, Ltptocirais, &c. Some of these genera, as well as the 
Danaintr. and Elymniina generally, are almost equally well 
represented in the Australian Region. In On/if/wpfera, tha 
yellow species, including O. magclhimis, the most wonderful of 
all, which is confined to the Philippines, are found within the 
Indian Region, but the only green species belonging to it is 
O. I>rookea?ia, which is found in Malacca, Borneo, and Sumatra, 
and is the typical representative of an aberrant group. But, as 
in Europe, the mountainous regions of India are far richer in 
species than the plains. 


This region presents us with a large number of small genera 
of restricted range, and with many remarkable forms oiPapilio 
and other genera found also in the Indian region. We may 
mention as characteristic forms : Ideopsis, Tellervo, Xenica 
(Australia), Tenaris, Hypolimnas (also represented in other 


regions), Apaturina (Amboina), Mynes, Pro t hoe, Hypochrysops, 
Ogyris, Trapezites (Australia), and Hesjerilla (Australia). The 
great Priamus group of Ornitliopicra, with its green, blue, and 
golden-yellow species, is entirely confined to this region, which, 
nevertheless, is rather poor in Butterflies, especially South 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, though these countries 
are very rich in remarkable genera of Moths. 


See Palaarctic Region {supra). 


It is no exaggeration to say that more than half the known 
Butterflies come from the Neotropical Region. 

The whole of Mexico should probably be included in this 
region, but hardly Cuba, which has very strong affinities with 
Florida. Many of the species of the remaining larger West 
Indian islands, except those generally met with throughout 
Tropical America, have a peculiar character of their own, ex- 
cept Trinidad, which is zoologically part of Venezuela. Whole 
sub-families or even families of Butterflies are almost peculiar 
to Tropical America, such as the Ithomiince, Brassolincc, Heli- 
coniina, Lemoniida (except the Libythei/ue and a very few 
Nemeobiince), and a very large proportion of the Hesperiidte, 
&c. Among a few of the more characteristic genera not in- 
cluded in the groups already mentioned we may notice, 
Lymanopoda, Pronophila, Corades, Morpho, Cethosia, Diane, 
Clothilda, Cybdelis, Catonephele, Dynamine, Catagramma, 
Ageronia, Prepona, Megalura, Adelpha, Agrias, Ancea, 
Pereute, Archonias, Hesperocharis, Dismorphia, Perrhybris, 
Daptoneura, Euryades, and whole sections of Apatura, Papilio, 
and other wide-ranging genera. 

The Equatorial Regions, and especially Tropical America, 


furnish an exception to the rule that mountainous regions 
are the richest in Butterflies. The marvellous exuberance 
and variety of the vegetation is such as to counterbalance the 
influence of mountains in stimulating variety ; and the great 
river-valleys of South America are probably richer in species 
of Butterflies than any other part of the globe. But in the 
south, towards Buenos Aires and Chili, the number of species 
diminishes very rapidly, till it falls below the average Euro- 
pean standard ; and as we approach the extreme south of 
the Continent it is probable that the number of Butterflies 
dwindles even below the productiveness of Greenland. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the Tropics are always rich 
in Butterflies, or that all tropical Butterflies are beautiful. In 
proportion to the productiveness of a country in a state of 
nature, is often its unproductiveness when cleared and cul- 
tivated. Not only are thousands of tropical Butterflies as 
small and dull-coloured as the most inconspicuous of our 
own, but the Indian representatives of European or Japanese 
species are often much inferior to the latter in both size and 

On the Hadits of East Indian Insects, especially 

The following interesting paper, by the well-known Dutch 
collector, M. C. Piepers, was published in the " Proceedings 
of the Dutch Entomological Society," vol. 19. It is of so 
much interest that, by the kind permission of Mr. T. P. New 
man, I am glad to place it on record in a more permanent 
form, by reprinting here my English translation, which 
appeared in the "Entomologist" for November, 1S75. — 
The footnotes are my own. — (W. F. K.) 

" When I collected our indigenous Butterflies in the neigh- 
bourhood of Arnhem many years ago, I observed that several 


of the largest and finest species frequented the neighbour- 
hood of clear running water. I considered the brooks on the 
estate of Mariendaal a good hunting ground, for I had already 
found so many fine specimens there that I always directed my 
steps thither again, sure that sooner or later I should again 
make some good capture. 

" When, ten years later, I again took to the Butterfly-net in 
the East Indian islands, the same thing happened to me there 
also, only, as one who is accustomed to tropical climates 
would expect to find, on a much larger scale than in tem- 
perate regions. In these islands, where the clear mountain 
streams rush foaming over masses of rock, especially where 
the rivers flow swiftest and purest, down waterfalls, or near 
water broken by irregularities of the bed, the haunts of the 
great Butterflies are to be found, and there can one feel sure, 
when there is no want of sunshine, of seeing oneself sur- 
rounded by many forms of these children of the sun, whose 
number and beautiful colours would amaze the Northern 
collector. I say amaze, but his eye and mind would alike be 
ravished with the possession of the beauties of Nature, for 
nowhere does tropical nature show itself more dazzling than 
here, where in the twilight formed by the over-arching of the 
incredibly luxuriant tropical vegetation, due to the heat and 
damp, the mountain stream, in the fierce glare of the sun, 
rushes swiftly down like a broad shining silver streak, breaking 
through the darker hues of the bank, foaming and dashing 
spray over every rock in its path, which is covered at every 
turn with drops of water illumined by the sun into glittering 
jewels ; while above and between, in perfect harmony with 
that life, splendour, and beauty of colour, the richly orna- 
mented flying flowers, which we call Butterflies, flit to and fro. 

" Why do we find Butterflies prefer such places ? It is, per- 
haps, because they are, if I may so express it, of a thirsty 

lxiv Lloyd's natural history. 

nature, and this although they prefer the very hottest sunshine, 
and even seem to find it so necessary that, if the sun is only 
clouded over for a minute, they settle as soon as possible ; and 
if the sun should not shine — in the case of some individuals 
even if it should not shine very strongly — they never leave their 
hiding-place the whole day. I have seen some striking examples 
of this, one of which has, I think, never been recorded, and 
seems at first sight altogether to conflict with the idea that one 
is accustomed to form of the habits of Butterflies. Even in the 
Netherlands we may occasionally see Butterflies alight on damp 
sand, on which the sun is shining, to suck up moisture from 
the ground ; but if, in the East Indian Islands, we walk along 
the sandy or gravelly bank of a mountain stream, or along the 
bed of a nearly dry stream, composed of similar materials, dur- 
ing the hottest part of the day, we shall disturb Butterflies at 
almost every step, especially Papilionidce and Pieridce, which 
sit there on the damp ground to refresh themselves with visible 
pleasure, but with wings closed so that they are scarcely dis- 
cernible ; and you suddenly see swarms of such Butterflies flut- 
tering up into the air from before your feet. I was once travelling 
in South-west Celebes, when my companion suddenly exclaimed 
as we were crossing a nearly dry brook, ' Oh, look, what a 
oeautiful flower !' And on looking where he pointed, I saw 
in the bed cf the stream amongst the damp gravel, a beautiful 
orange-coloured flower with a white centre, about ten centi- 
metres in diameter. The strangeness of the occurrence led 
me to step nearer in order to observe it more closely, when 
what did I see? The flower consisted of two concentric rings 
of Butterflies {Callidryas scylla, Linn.) which had closed their 
wings, which are yellow and orange beneath, and were busily 
sucking up the moisture from the damp sand, and thus repre- 
sented in the most closely deceptive manner the petals of a 
flower. They surrounded five of another white species of 


Pieris similarly occupied, which thus seemed to form the white 
centre of the flower. I still remember the amazement of my 
travelling companion when, on my nearer approach, the whole 
flower dissolved into a swarm of Butterflies. 

'' I afterwards saw another beautiful flower of the same kind, 
in which the petals were composed of a number of the red 
Pieris zarinda, Boisd., along with some yellow and white 
Pierithr, in another part of South-west Celebes, in one of the 
above-mentioned places where Butterflies, especially Papilio- 
nirfce and Pieridcr, love to resort, just above the beautiful 
waterfall of Maros, which Wallace has described ; and I saw 
there at the same time something which I never saw before ot 
afterwards, and had never heard or read of before, for there I 
saw a Butterfly bathing. 

" While I stood on the bank of the river, which forms at 
this spot an apparently still and very clear pool before enter- 
ing the cleft in the rock from which it reappears as a foaming 
and thundering waterfall, a specimen of Papilio hrlenus, 
Linn., came flying over the water. Flying low, as is the 
habit of this species, it came within a short distance of me, 
when I saw it suddenly half close its wings, and dive down 
close beside me, so that the whole body and about a third of 
the wings, which slanted upwards, were immersed ; it then 
raised itself again out of the water, and flew away. We cannot 
require stronger proof of the necessity of moisture to an insect 
which seems so little fitted for contact with water. 

" Just as some plants in the East Indies choose the dryest 
localities parched up by the burning sun, so do some Butter- 
flies select similar spots, such, for instance, as Jiinonia orithya, 
Linn., and without needing rest, enjoy settling on the scorch- 
ing hot sand. And like other plants which choose very damp 
and deeply-shaded localities in the forest, where no ray of sun- 
light can penetrate, some Satyrincz and Cher Butterflies, 
4 E 

Ixvi Lloyd's natural history. 

usually of dark colour, love to haunt these dark and dripping 
nooks. Again, as the most beautiful and vigorous tropical 
vegetation is developed where the fiery heat of the sun is com- 
bined with great dampness, so do the largest and most brilliant 
butterflies delight to frequent such places, where they rejoice 
in the sunshine, and also find the dampness which they so 
much need. It is worth mentioning that among these last 
Butterflies this is not due, as in other insects, to the peculiarity 
of their habits and surroundings, but the explanation is to be 
found either in the food of the perfect insect, or in its care for 
its offspring ; so that it seems as if the nature of the larvre 
which live on plants growing in warm and damp places, and in 
which the peculiarity of the nourishment does not seem to be 
without influence, also remains with the perfect insect, although 
it is no longer useful to it. 

" At the same waterfall of Maros I witnessed another pro- 
ceeding among Butterflies, which I think worth mentioning. 
It is known that male Butterflies, like most other animals, fight 
with each other from jealousy ; but in other respects these in- 
sects are to be considered, as far as I know, very peaceable, 
and by no means quarrelsome creatures. I was, therefore, 
much astonished to observe the following incident : Around 
and over the blossoms of a flowering shrub flew several Butter- 
flies, Precis iphita, Linn., and some Pieridcc, when a Butter- 
fly of gigantic size in comparison with them {Ornithoptera remits^ 
Cramer) came flying apparently with the object of sharing their 
repast. Whether the others were undesirous of the company 
of a guest among them whose appetite would be enormous, or 
not, it is certain that I saw them attack the O. remus, drive it 
away, and pursue it for a short distance, till it was evident that 
it had really taken to flight, when they returned to their 
flowers. I have often seen Swallows and other small birds 
drive away and pursue birds of prey which showed themselves 


in the neighbourhood of their nests, in a precisely similar 
manner : they fly above the great enemy and suddenly drop 
down upon him, or peck him till he tires of the rapid and re- 
peated attacks (against which his size and consequent lesser 
rapidity of flight hinder him from defending himself), and is 
forced to seek safety in flight, when his little enemies do not 
neglect to pursue him for a short distance. This reminds me 
that I have also read of similar attacks of Humming-birds upon 
American Sphinges, arising from jealousy about their food ; 
but in the present instance, the assailants and victors were not 
birds provided with sharp-pointed beaks, but were apparently 
defenceless Butterflies.* 

" Is it then, perhaps, throughout the insect world, " everyone 
for himself" ; and are so many of the lovely winged beautifully 
clothed creatures, apparently so mild and defenceless, really 
vicious ? It cannot be denied that this very rational behaviour 
leads us to think that Butterflies have more understanding 
than is generally supposed. I think the following incident 
will show that they are not deficient in memory. One even- 
ing I saw, in the open verandah of the Harmonic Society, at 
Manghasar, a specimen of a Butterfly which is very common 
there, Precis iphita, Linn. Notwithstanding the very strong 
illumination, this little creature remained sitting quietly in the 
same place on the ceiling during the whole evening. When I 
came to the Society next day I did not see it, but in the even- 
ing it was again sitting quietly in the same place. And as 
civilisation has not advanced so far in Manghasar that it 
is there considered necessary mercilessly to destroy or drive 
away every harmless creature which ventures into or near a 
human dwelling, I had the pleasure of admiring the memory 
of this P. iphita for six days. It was not to be found in the 

* Some of the small European Lycanidce will drive away larger Butter- 
flies, which approach their favourite resting-places, in a similar manner. 

E 2 


daytime, and was then probably absent on business ; but 
every evening for six consecutive evenings, I found it return 
faithfully to the same sleeping-place. Then some accident 
probably befel it, for I never saw any trace of it again. 

" I do not know whether all Butterflies return to the same 
sleeping-place so regularly, but I have the following observa- 
tions to record on the sleeping-places of the Lyccenida and of 
the Micro-Lepidoptera. When you go into an Indian forest at 
daybreak, while the grass and low-growing plants are still quite 
wet with the night's dew, you see Micro-Lepidoptera sitting 
everywhere on the tops of the plants. As soon as the rays of 
the sun begin to make themselves felt, which quickly happens, 
and dry up the plants, the little animals creep slowly down the 
stalks and hide themselves in the moss and among the roots 
of the plants to pass their day's sleep in stillness and darkness. 
An hour after sunrise there is not a trace of them to be seen. 
The Lycccnida, however, which are day-fliers, do just the oppo- 
site at this time. As soon as the sun begins to make itself 
well felt, they creep slowly up along the stalks of the low 
plants ; and when they have basked for a long time on the top 
in the warm sunlight, they fly away. The influence of the 
warmth of the sun on the flight of Butterflies may also be 
noticed from the circumstance that in the Netherlands very 
few Butterflies are seen on the wing before eight o'clock in the 
morning, even during the longest summer days ; and those which 
love great heat, such for instance as the Lycczitido?, do not ap- 
pear in daylight till some time later; whereas in the East 
Indies the Butterfly world is already in full movement by a 
good hour after sunrise.* 

"When Linnaeus made his classification of animals, he estab- 
lished among Lepidoptera a class of twilight-fliers, or Crepuscu- 

* On dull days, or in the evening, I have often seen Polyemmatus agon 
sitting asleep in numbers on grass and rushes. 


/aria. Independently of the fact that other and better princi- 
ples of classification have subsequently been employed, it 
was soon observed that the so-called twilight -flyers are really 
true Night-Moths, which fly during the whole night, and not at 
morning and evening twilight only. But in the East Indies 
we meet with true twilight-fliers, which do not belong to the 
genus Spfa'nx, which Linnaeus considered such, but to the 
great group of Rhopalocera* The sun has scarcely set, before 
we see everywhere, both in Java and Celebes, numbers of the 
common Melanitis kda, Linn., Amathusia phidippus, Linn., 
and Casyupa thrax, Linn., and in Celebes, Debts europa, 
Fabricius; but I never saw these species wandering about at 
night in the moonlight, or entering lighted rooms like the true 
Night-Moths, which are very numerous, although like the latter, 
they sit still and repose all day, and if disturbed only fly a 
little way and settle again directly. I have also seen the 
commonest of these Butterflies, M. kda, flying in abundance 
in the evening twilight ; and I once observed the same with 
D. europa. Moreover, I suspect from the exactly similar be- 
haviour of different species of Mycaksis, and of Elymnias lais 
Cramer, in the daytime, that these should also be classed 
among the twilight-fliers in Java. 

" In every country with which I am acquainted, it is well 
known that many Lepidoptera are very injurious in the larva 
state, but the perfect insect is considered everywhere to be 
harmless. I must tell the truth about this, as I have already 
about their gentleness, and attack their reputation on this 
point also. In South-west Celebes, a small white Moth, an un- 
described species of Sarpophaga, is one of the pests of the 
country. These Moths fly into lighted rooms in the evening 
in incredible swarms, settle upon everything, including the in- 

* The South American Brassoluuz (a sub-family of Nymbhalida\ are 
also twiliiiht-fliers. 


mates, and where they touch the naked skin they leave an in- 
tolerable itching behind.* Besides, they dirty the white walls 
of the rooms everywhere by firmly attaching to them quanti- 
ties of eggs covered with yellow down.f 

" I now turn to caterpillars. I have often been surprised that 
in the East Indies, where there is so great a variety of Butter- 
flies, so few caterpillars should be met with. My observations 
lead me to think that this is to be ascribed to the circumstance 
that probably a large portion of the Indian larvae, as is the case 
with some in the Temperate Zones, avoid the light and heat of 
the day in the ground, and only visit the plants on which they 
feed at night ; besides, as is also the case with tropical as com- 
pared with temperate plants, very few seem to be gregarious, 
at least I never found a great number of larvae together, ex- 
cept those of Bombya waringi, Teysm., a number of whose 
larvae I once met with on a young Fiats benjaminia, Linn.} 

" Among the larvae which I had an opportunity of observing I 
noticed the important fact, long known in Europe, that some 
species seem to desert the plants on which their species origi- 
nally fed, fur imported plants, just as in the Netherlands the 
larvse of Acherontia atropos, Linn., now seem to live by pre- 
ference on the potato-plant, which was introduced from 
America, and cannot be excluded from it, so we find the very 
common larva of the equally common Butterfly, Papilio aga- 
memnon, Linn., both in Batavia and South-west Celebes, 

* In the case of the European Processionary Caterpillars, which possess 
the worst urticating properties of any in this quarter of the globe, it is 
also said that the hairs of the Moths, which they produce, are irritating, 
it would be interesting to know if the larva of M. Pieper's Scirpo- 
p/niga are also urticating. 

f This looks as if the Moth was not a Scirpophaga, but one of the smaller 
Liparida, a family which includes many highly urticating species. 

t The caterpillars of several of the large Saturniida live gregariously 
on trees in Asia and Africa ; and those of an African genus, Anapke, 
of somewhat oubtful position, and its allies are also gregarious. 


always feeding on the leaves of Anuria muricatii, Linn., a 
plant introduced from the West Indies. I also met with the 
larvae of Euphea midamus, Linn., feeding both on an indi- 
genous plant and on the oleander, which was imported from 
Europe as an ornamental plant ; and at Manghasar the larvae 
of Cyllo kda, Linn., were not uncommon on the South Ameri- 
can pampas grass, which I grew in my garden for horse fodder. 
" Among East Indian larvae I also observed the peculiar varia- 
tions and resemblances, perhaps partly explicable by mimicry, 
but always remarkable, which occur among larvae themselves. 
Some, apparently without any rule, which produce allied 
Butterflies, are very similar, while at other times those of 
species which resemble each other very closely (such as the 
European Acror.)da tride?is. Esp., and A. psi, Linn.), always 
exhibit great differences in their larvae ; and again other species 
which are very distantly related, are produced from larvae which 
resemble each other very closely. The larvae of the closely- 
allied Papilio memnon and P. polytes. Linn., differ only in size 
and in their food plant. The little arrow-head shaped larvae 
of Bombya zvari/igi, Teysm., which we have just mentioned, 
is exactly like a diminutive Sphinx larva, and the larvae of 
the widely-separated Amathusia p/iidtppus, Linn., and Lasio- 
campa vishnou, Guerin, though of very similar form, differ 
only in colour and food. Among the larvae of L. vishtiou 1 
once saw something which never occurred to me at any other 
time ; on the whole length of the back some specimens (for 
this larva varies extremely in colour and markings) showed a 
beautiful mark which appeared like a stripe embroidered with 
white and yellow floss-silk, while there was an abundance of 
white and yellow hairs along both sides of the larva. Shortly 
before they changed into pupae, the white and yellow colour 
both of the stripes and of the long hair on the sides, changed 
to violet, without this being due to moulting. 

lxxii Lloyd's natural history. 

" The hairs of the larva of Miresa ?iitens, Walker, figured by 
Herrich-Schaffer as Setora nitens, presented a still stranger ap- 
pearance. When I met with this very beautiful larva it was 
completely covered with so-called spines. I counted eight 
large and twenty-four small ones. After a few days it moulted, 
without seeming to undergo any alteration in its external ap- 
pearance. A few days later it moulted again, and now I saw 
the spines changed into tufts of hairs, some of which resembled 
stiff bristles, and others were more like pencils of hair. Three 
days later the hairs of these bristles united again, so that they 
seemed to form stiff spines as before the moulting ; but three 
days later the hairs again divided, and the previous shape of 
bristles and pencils came back. After this the spiny shape did 
not return, but the same tufts of hair altered their shape daily, 
so that on one day they resembled bristles, and on another 
pencils ; and this continued until the larva became a pupa. 

" During my residence in the East Indies I busied myself 
chiefly with Lepidoptera, and I cannot, therefore, say much 
about insects of other Orders. But I cannot refrain from ob- 
serving, though it is nothing new, how much stronger and 
more conspicuous insect life appears in the tropics than in 
temperate climates. The annoying pertinacity of the flies, 
which always return, however often driven away, is known to 
every inhabitant of the East Indies ; and every housekeeper 
knows that no place of security is inaccessible to the innumer- 
able ants. My watch stopped one night, and when I took it 
to the watchmaker he took a small ant from among the wheels, 
which had availed itself of the narrow opening left lor the 
spring to work in, to squeeze itself into the watch, and taste 
the fine oil with which the works were lubricated. Almost 
every evening hundreds of small insects of all Orders find their 
death in every lamp ; innumerable Cokoptera fly into lighted 
dwellings, whose nearest relations in the Temperate Zone also 


possess wings, but very rarely use them, as well as a harmless 
but very troublesome Gryllotalpa, much dreaded by ladies, 
which much resembles Sphinx convolvuli in its reckless flight. 
Who has not been disturbed at supper-time in the East Indies 
by swarms of termites suddenly flying in and out, or still worse, 
by ill-smelling Orthoptera ? or the intolerable itching caused by 
the species of Lepidoptera mentioned above ? Who has not 
been compelled, by the ravages of termites in linen chest or 
library, to utter the socialistic wish that he had no private 
property ? And above all, among those who cannot always 
remain in the better arranged dwellings of large towns, who 
does not remember those never-to-be-forgotten Indian nights, 
in which poets and lovers might have revelled, but when 
wearied men who wanted sleep were plagued by blood-sucking 
mosquitoes, crawling ants, and other insects, as if by actual 
demon tormentors ? 

" Let me relate a single night's experience, which may serve 
as a small contribution to the still unknown life-history of an 
East-Indian insect. One night I was asleep at Batavia, think- 
ing myself well protected by my mosquito-curtain, when I was 
awakened by a noise. On waking up, I heard a buzzing as if 
my room was turned into a great beehive. My night-light was 
extinguished, probably by the insects which I heard in my 
room having flown into it, but a little light from a gas-lamp 
coming through the window showed me the outside of my 
white mosquito-curtain covered with insects which seemed to 
be some sort of wasps. Of course I had no wish to leave my 
place of protection, but I soon saw that my mosquito-curtain 
was not so well closed as I had thought, and that some of the 
dreaded animals had already discovered the opening left by 
my carelessness. The only safety now lay in a determined 
resolution. I suddenly tore open the curtain, and threw my 
pillows so that I could jump upon them and reach the door 


of the room without the danger of stepping with my bare feet 
on the wasps, which probably covered the floor of the room, 
and so I got out of it. I then called to my servants to bring 
a lighted candle. As soon as they saw the animals they de- 
clared that they did not sting, and handled them without fear. 
Thus reassured I went back to my room, and saw that it was 
filled with insects which appeared to have come up as full- 
grown winged ants from a hole between the stones of the floor. 
It is clearly the habit of these ants to live in the ground in their 
imperfect condition, and when perfect the winged specimens 
fly away. They thought little of the fitness of time and place 
when they ruthlessly disturbed my rest. It was nearly an hour 
and a half before they had all flown out to a light set outside 
the room to attract them. About a year afterwards the same 
thing happened in the same room. I sent the insect to the 
Netherlands, to tlu Leyden Museum, and it has since been 
determined by Ritsema to be Doiylus klitgii, Hagen." 


These are also known as the Scale-winged Insects, and may 
be briefly diagnosed as follows : — 

Haustellate insects, imbibing their food through a haustellum 
or proboscis ; wings four, clothed with scales ; transformations 
complete ; pupa inactive, without detached cases for the sepa- 
rate organs (except occasionally for the proboscis). Plant 
feeders in all their stages. 


Flight diurnal, rarely, in certain tropical genera, crepuscular ; 
antennas long, more or less thickened at the extremity, and 
often knobbed, sometimes hooked beyond the knob ; front 
legs often imperfectly developed, especially in the males; wings 
without a connecting bristle, or frenulum; pupa rarely enclosed 
in a cocoon. 

Before proceeding to consider the various families and 
genera of Butterflies, we will briefly outline some of the more 
important of the various systems of classification which have 
been proposed, referring to the Introduction for all other 
necessary general information respecting Lepidoptera. 

Although many writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth 

2 Lloyd's natural history. 

centuries, and even earlier, published important observations 
on Butterflies and Moths, the real foundation of our present 
classification was laid down by Linnaeus in 1758, in the tenth 
edition of his " Systema Naturae " (vol. i., p. 458). It is as 
follows : — 


Alae IV. imbricatae squamis. 

Os. Linguae involuta spirali. 

Corpus, pilosum. 

Papilio. Antennae apicem versus crassiores, saepius clavato-capi- 

Alae (sedentis) erectae, sursumque conniventes (volatu 


Papiliones dividuntur in VI. phalanges. 

a. Equites. Alis primoribus ab angulo postico ad apicem 

longioribus, quam ad basin, his saepe. Antennae 

— Trojani. ad Pectus maculis sanguineis (saepius nigri). 

— Achivi. Pectore memento, ocello ad angulum ani. 

— — Alis absque fasciis. 
— ■ — Alis fasciatis. 

b. Heliconii. Alis angustis integerrimis striatis ; primoribus ob- 

longis ; posticis brevissimis. 

c. Danai. Alis integerrimis. 

Candidi. Alis albidis. 
Festivi. Alis variegatis. 
./. Nymphales. Alis denticulatis. 
Gemmati. Alis ocellatis. 

Ocellis in alis omnibus. 

— — — primoribus. 

— — — posticis. 
Phalerati. Alis caecis absque ocellis. 


e. Plebeii parvi. Larva soepius contracta. 

Rurales. Alis maculis obscurioribus. 
Urbicolae. Alis saepius maculis pellucidis. 

/ Barbari. Corollarii in loco adjecti, ad ordinem non relati. 

Many writers argue that our nomenclature should commence 
from the twelfth edition of Linnaeus' "Systema Naturae" 
(1767)* and not the tenth; but the Linnean system was fully es- 
tablished in the tenth edition, and was adopted by most authors 
of repute between 1758 and 1767. No alterations of much im- 
portance were made in the twelfth, nor can even Linnreus' own 
species be satisfactorily identified without reference to works 
published by himself and others in the interim. Hence the tenth 
edition is now regarded by most entomologists as their starting- 
point. With respect to Butterflies, the only alterations of im- 
portance in the twelfth edition are the suppression of the section 
Papiliones Barbari, the species which it contained being dis- 
tributed among the other sections ; and the substitution of the 
words " srepe denudatis " for " integerrimis striatis " in the 
definition of the Heliconii. Fabricius afterwards gave the 
name Parnassii to the section indicated by the words " saepe 

The Linnean genus Papilio, applied by him in his earlier 
works to the whole of the Lepidoptera, and in 1758 and subse- 
quently to the whole of the Butterflies, was soon subdivided 
by later authors into smaller genera, and the systems in 
vogue in France and Germany differed somewhat. Thus we 
find Ochsenheimer in 1816 arranging the European genera of 

* This is the rule laid down by the British Association, but as excep- 
tions were admitted, it is not always considered absolutely binding. The 
year 1766 is the date of the first volume of the " Systema " ; but the part 
relating to insects is dated 1767. The eleventh edition (1760) is merely & 
re-print of the tenth. 


Bi/terflies as follows (" Schmettcrlinge von Europa," Band 
if ,:■ 

















It will be noted that, while Linnaeus in 1758 placed the 
Butterflies with imperfect front legs in the middle of his ar- 
rangement, Ochsenheimer and many other German authors put 
them at the commencement of their systems. This arrange- 
ment hid actually been employed by Linnaeus himself in 
some of his earlier works. 

The arrangement of genera adopted by Latreille and Godart 
in 1819-1823 in the ninth volume of the " Encyclope'die 
Methodique," is as follows : — 


















Many authors divide the Lepidoptera into three sections, 
Diurna, Crepuscularia, and Nocturna, according to the times 
of flight of the majority of the species which they include. 
The Diurna correspond to the Rhopalocera, or Butterflies. 

We may here remark that Urania is now regarded by all 
entomologists as belonging to the Moths. 

Boisduval's system (" Species General des Lepidopteres," 
tome i., 1836) is more extended, and is based primarily on the 
mode of attachment of the pupa. 



Succincti. Heliconides. 

Papilionides. Nymphalides. 

Tierides. Brassolides. 

Eumenides. Morphides. 

Lycaenides. Satyrides. 

Erycinides. Biblides. 

Peridromidcs. Libytheides. 


The arrangement of families employed by Doubleday and 
Westwood (1846-1852) in their "Genera of Diurnal Lepidop- 
tera " is a modification and amplification of Boisduval's scheme. 

Papilionidae. Brassolidae. 

Pieridae. Eurytelidae. 

Ageronidae. Satyridae. 

Danaidae, Libytheidae. 

Heliconidae, Erycinidae. 

Acraeidas. Lyeaenidae. 

Nymphalidae. Hesperidae. 


The Ageronida were raised to the rank of a distinct family 
through an error regarding their metamorphoses, and are now 
included in the Nymphalidce. The Eurytelidce (except the 
genus Elynmias, which is either referred to the Satyrida, or 
regarded as a distinct family or sub-family), and even the 
Morphidee, are also merged in the Nymphalid<z by some 
authors, but all the other groups are still generally recognised, 
either as families or sub-families. 

Bates, in a series of papers published from 1862 to iS6f>, 
argued that the Butterflies with imperfect front legs should be 
placed first in the arrangement, as being furthest removed 
from the Moths ; and his views have been adopted by most 
recent English and American Lepidopterists. Except that I re- 
tained the Elymniinm and Morphitue, which Bates was inclined 
to unite with the Nymphalince, as separate sub-families, and 
that one or two names are changed, the arrangement which I 
employed in my " Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidop 
tera" (1871), is nearly the same as that of Bates : — 

I. Nymphalidae. II. Lemoniidae. 

Sub-fam. 1. Danainae. Sub-fam. 1. Libythaeinae. 

2. Satyrinse. „ 2. Nemeobiina^. 

3. Elymniinae. „ 3. Euselasiinas. 

4. Morphine. „ 4- Lemoniince. 
,, 5. Brassolinre. III. Lycaenidas. 

„ 6. Acraeinae. IV. Papilionidoe. 

7. Heliconinae. Sub-fam. 1. Pierinas. 

5. Nymphalinae. „ 2. Papilioninae. 

V. Hesperidai. 

The following summary shows the gradual increase in our 

knowledge of the species of Butterflies : — 


1758. Linnaeus ... ... ... ••• 192 

1767- » 2 73 


1775. Fabricius ... .. ... ... 406 

1793- » "47 

1S23. Latreille and Godart ... ... 1S02 

1852. Doubleday and Westwood... ... 3451* 

1871. Kirby 7695 

Since the appearance of my "Synonymic Catalogue of Diur- 
nal Lepidoptera " in 187 1, enormous progress has been made in 
the study of Butterflies, which I think I may fairly claim to be 
in a great measure due to the publication of the above-men- 
tioned work. But authors differ much in their views as to 
varieties and species, and a considerable number of absolute 
synonyms doubtless remain to be eliminated. Hence I cannot 
attempt to estimate the actual number of species now known 
to entomologists. It should, however, be remembered that 
while in some genera the number of known species has been 
far more than doubled since 187 1, in others the number has 
remained almost stationary. 

In 18S4-1888 Dr. Staudinger published his " Exotische 
Tagfalter," an important work in small folio, with 100 coloured 
plates of Butterflies. His arrangement is that of Doubleday 
and Westwood, omitting the families Ageronidce, EuryteZidce, 

and Liby thee idee. 

A companion volume, commenced by Dr. Schatz, and com- 
pleted, after his death, by Dr. Rober, appeared from 1S85 to 
1S92, and included a most careful revision of all the genera of 
Butterflies, except the Hesperidce. This is illustrated by 
diagrams of the neuration of every genus, and generally of the 
legs, palpi, and antennae also. It is much to be wished that 
some enterprising publisher would venture to issue these valu- 

* This estimate is too high, including many species named but not de- 
scribed, and various duplicate entries of sexes, &c. 

g lloYd's Natural UIstorV. 

able works in English for the benefit of the numerous ento- 
mologists in England and other English-speaking countries, 
Who may not read the German language. 

The system of families adopted by Schatz is as follows : — 

A. Six perfect legs in both sexes ; pupa? attached by the 
tail, and a cross-band. 


a. Front legs with a spine on the tibiaj ; claws simple ; 
inner margin of the hind-wings concave, not embracing the 
body ; sub-median nervure of the fore-wings with a short branch 
at the base of the wings. 


b. Front tibia? with no spine ; claws bifid ; inner margin 
of the hind-wings not concave, but embracing the body when 
at rest ; sub-median nervure not branched, but often forked at 
the base. 

B. Four perfect legs in both sexes ; front legs aborted, the 
tarsi in the male with but one joint, in the female generally 
with five ; claws absent in both sexes ; pupa suspended by the 


c. Larva? smooth, provided with long fleshy appendages ; 
submedian nervure of the fore-wings forked at the base ; front 
legs of female with the tarsi thickened; wing-cells closed. 


d. Larvae covered with small elevations ; sub-median ner- 
vure of the fore-wings forked at the base ; front legs of female 
with long and slender tarsi ; wing-cells closed. 

1'HK ntrtTEiit'LiEs. 


e. Larvae furnished with branching spines ; sub-median ner- 
vure of fore-wings not forked ; median nervure not hooked at 
base ; palpi thick, surrounded by separate hairs ; wing-cells 


/. Larva? provided with branching spines ; sub-median ner- 
vure of fore-wings not forked ; median nervure with a short 
hook at the base ; palpi compressed, with scales on the sides, 
and covered with hair in front ; cells closed. 


g. Larva? smooth or spiny ; cells of both wings, or at 
least of the hind-wings, open, or, if closed, with a slender 
rudimentary (not tubular) nervure. 


h. Larva? smooth or hairy, with a forked tail ; cells of the 
fore-wings closed, those of the hind-wings open. 


i. Larva? generally with a forked tail; hind-wings with the 
cells closed, and a distinct pre-costal cell. 


j. Larva? smooth, with a forked tail; wing-cells closed; 
palpi compressed, set with long bristly hairs. 

C. Four pe;fect legs in the male; front legs aborted, with 
the tarsi consisting of a single joint, without claws. 

Six perfect legs in the female ; front legs considerably 
smaller than the others. 

F 2 



k. Larvae smooth ; pupae suspended by the tail ; palpi very 
large, beak-shaped. 


/. Larvae various ; pupae stiffly raised, or resting on a leaf, 
or even suspended ; palpi normal. 


D. Four perfect legs in the male, the front legs aborted , 
tarsi ending in a horny point, densely spined on the inner 

Six perfect legs in the female, the front legs smaller than the 


E. Six perfect legs in both sexes ; tibiae of the hind legs 
(with a few exceptions) spined ; pupae attached by threads, or 
enclosed in a loose cocoon. 

The careful study which Schatz and Rober have devoted to 
the Butterflies has led to much improvement in the arrange- 
ment of genera, though I do not agree with all their conclu- 

In the first volume of the present work I treat of the 
Nymphalidtz in their broad sense, i.e., Schatz' " Section B," 
for I cannot ignore the many characters which seem to ally 
the Papilionida with the Hesperidte (" Sections A and E " of 
Schatz), and while adopting the sequence of families in his 
" Section B," I prefer to treat them as sub-families. 

Egg. — Very variable in shape and texture. 
Larva. — Cylindrical, often hairy, or furnished with branching 


spines ; sometimes smooth, with horns on the head, and a 
forked tail. 

Pupa. — Generally suspended by the tail, often more or less 
metallic ; very rarely found on the surface of the ground. 

Imago. — Of large or moderate size, rarely small; if slenderly 
formed, generally with rather long wings ; colours very varied ; 
wings often marked with ocellated spots, especially on the under 
surface. Front legs in both sexes much smaller and weaker 
than the others, those in the male with only one or two tarsal 
joints, occasionally obsolete ; those of the female usually with 
four or five joints. 


Egg. — Much higher than wide, leathery, radiate, with nu- 
merous broad flattened ribs and distinct cross-lines, reticulate 
over a small area at the apex. 

Larva. — Smooth, with long fleshy appendages, feeding chiefly 
on Aristolochice. 

Pupa. — Short, stout, often metallic. 

Imago. — Of large size ; basal joint of palpi short ; wings always 
ample, generally long, sometimes very broad and rounded, the 
wing-cells closed ; sub-median nervureof the fore-wings forked 
at the base ; wings generally entire, sometimes slightly scal- 
loped, but never tailed. Male with conspicuous patches of 
raised scales on various parts of the wings, and in many species 
with conspicuous anal tufts of hair; female with flattened, club- 
shaped tarsi. 

Note. — This group was divided by Mr. Moore, in the " Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society of London " for 1883, into a great number of genera, 
of which we have only space to mention a few of the most representative. 

Range, — The Danaince are most numerously represented 


in the tropics of the Old World, but a few species inhabit 
America. The only species which is indigenous to Europe is 
Limnas chrysippus (Linn.). It is common throughout Africa 
and the East Indies, and its range extends to Greece. Besides 
this, however, the North American Anosia menippe (Hiibner),* 
one of the largest species of the group, and an extremely 
abundant insect, which migrates north to Canada, has lately 
spread over the whole of the Pacific Islands, and has probably 
now reached the mainland of Asia. When once firmly estab- 
lished on the Asiatic continent, its extension throughout the 
warmer parts of Asia and Europe and the whole of Africa can 
only be a question of a comparatively short time. Not only so, 
but many specimens have already been taken in England, and 
it is now regarded as almost naturalised, though it is still doubt- 
ful whether it will find sufficient appropriate food to enable it to 
establish itself permanently with us. Its larva feeds on various 
species of Aristolochia, called " Milk-weeds " in the United 
States, and most of the known larvas of the Danaince feed on 
Asclepias and allied plants. 

Habits. — As already noticed, Anosia menippe is an insect of 
powerful flight and migratory habits, but many Danaince have 
a lazy flapping flight, and are very restricted in their range, the 
species found in adjacent islands being often different from 
each other. 

Note.— The Danaince are remarkable for being a highly-protected group 
of Butterflies. They have a peculiar odour, dependent, it is believed, on 
the anal tufts of hair, which render them distasteful to birds ; and it has 
even been asserted that mites will not touch them in collections. Their in- 
teguments, too, are very tough, and hence, even if attacked by birds, they 
might easily escape fatal injury. They exhibit the phenomenon known as 
' ' mimicry " to perfection ; that is to say, various other Butterflies and Moths, 
having no real affinity to them, resemble them so closely as to be frequently 

* Usually called Danaits plexippus or D. archippas ; but it is not the 
true P. plexippus of Linnaeus, nor the true P. archippus of Cramer. 



indistinguishable on a superficial examination ; and it is believed that these 
species share, more or less, in the immunity from danger, of the Butterflies 
which they resemble. It is not uncommon for the female only of the 
mimicking species to resemble its model, the male being totally different. 

The Danaince are also remarkable for the possession of masses 
of raised scales on various parts of the wings of the males. In the 
species allied to Eufilcea these usually consist of "brands,"or long 
dark streaks on the fore-wings, and a large patch on the costa of 
the hind-wings. In those allied to Danaus they usually consist 
of a patch of raised scales on the disc of the hind-wings. These 
tufts conceal the peculiar scales formerly called "plumules," 
but now "androconia,"and are scent-producing organs. They 
are, of course, secondary sexual characters, and probably not 
protective, except, perhaps as a casual subsidiary function. 
These scaly patches are not present in the males of every 
species, and of late years these Butterflies have been divided 
into a great number of genera (which we have no space to 
notice in detail), according to the presence or absence of these 
sexual markings, combined with differences in the neuration, 
&c, and the number of fleshy filaments in such of the larvaj 
as are known. But most of these sections are at present re- 
garded as groups, rather than as genera, by the majority of 

Hestia, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 15 (1S16); Doubl., 

Gen. Diurn. Lepid. p. 94 (1S47); Moore, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 18S3, p. 217; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., 

p. 80 (1886). 

The type is : — 


Papilio lynceits, Drury, Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, ii., 

pi. 7., fig. 1 (1773). 
Idea lyncea, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 195, no. 2 (1819). 


A Butterfly measuring six and a half inches across the fore 
wings, which are rather long and narrow. It is light slaty-grey, 
with many rows of rather large round or oval black spots. 

Mr. Moore considers the Bornean form to represent Drury's 
species, and those occurring in the neighbouring countries to 
be distinct. The locality given by Drury, " Island of Johanna, 
near Madagascar," is certainly erroneous. 

The genus Hestia includes the largest species of Da?iaina>, 
and may be recognised by its size (5 to 7 inches across the 
wings), its long slender antennae, which are scarcely thickened 
at the extremity, and its long, grey semi-diaphanous wings, with 
black nervures, and rows of more or less connected round or 
sagittate spots and stripes. The genus is confined to the Eastern 
Archipelago and the neighbouring portions of the Asiatic con- 
tinent, extending from India, the Andaman Islands, Ceylon, 
Burmah, and the Malay Peninsula, through the islands as far as 
the Philippines and New Guinea. These Butterflies have an 
elegant sailing flight, and they are known to the European in- 
habitants of the countries in which they are found as " Ghosts," 
" Spectres," and " Sylphs." 

The best known larva is that of Hestia malabarica (Moore), 
which is furnished with four pairs of fleshy processes. It is 
ringed with black and yellowish-white, and spotted with red on 
the belly. The food-plant has not been recorded. The known 
pupa? of Hestia are brown, speckled with black, and are much 
longer than those of the other Danaince, more resembling those 
of the Vanessa in shape. 

Mr. Moore divides the old genus Hestia into three : Nee- 
taria, Dalman, in Billberg, Enum. Ins., p. 76, 1820. Type, 
Nedaria idea, Clerck, from Amboina; Sabalassa^looxe,? .Z.S., 
1883, p. 217. Type, Sabalassa eiectra, Semper, Verh. Ver. 
Hamburg, iii., p. 106, 1878, from the Philippines; and true 
Hestia of Hiibner. Type, Hestia lyncea, Drury, from Borneo. 


2. Ideopsiss daos 


Our representative of this group of genera is — ■ 

(Plate IV, Fig. I.) 
Papilio idea, Clerck, Icones, pi. 38, fig. 1 (1764) ; Linnaeus, 
Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.), i., pt. 2, p. 75s, no. 73 (1767); 
Cramer, Pap. Exot., iii., pi. 193, figs. A., B. (1767). 
Idea agelia, Godart, Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 195, no. 1 (1S19). 

This species is now regarded by the authors who subdivide 
ITesfia as the type of the genus Nedaria. It is a native of 
the islands of Amboina and Ceram. Our figure represents this 
species of half the natural size. There are so many allied 
forms that a detailed description cannot be given. 

Ideopsis, Horsfield & Moore, Cat. Lep. Mus. E. Tnd. Comp., 
i., p. 333 (1857) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 80 (1886). 
This genus derives its name from the resemblance of I. daos 
(Boisduval) to Hestia idea (Clerck) ; but the species of Ideopsis 
are smaller than those of Hestia, and have the club of the 
antennae more distinctly thickened. Some species of Ideopsis, 
however, have more pointed brown wings, with the hind-wings 
and the disc of the fore-wings of a slightly transparent grey 
or yellow. 

[Plate IV, Fig. 2.) 
Idea daos Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid., i., pi. 24, fig. 3 
The true Ideopsis daos is a native of Borneo. I abstain from 
quoting more synonymy, as it is still uncertain whether some 
of the Butterflies from South China, Malacca, Sumatra, &c, 
which are usually referred to I. daos may not be distincj; 

j 5 Lloyd's natural history. 


Limnas, Hiibner, Tentamen, p. i (1S10?) ; Moore, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1S83, p. 237. 
Type, Papilio chrysippus (Linn.), from the tropical and sub- 
tropical regions of the Old World. 

This section of the old genus Danaus much resembles 
Danaus plexippus (Plate v., fig. 2) in size, colour, and markings, 
but wants the thickened black veins so conspicuous in that 
species. The larva differs in having the four hinder filaments 
much longer, though the front pair are the longest. 


Papilio chrysippus, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 47 T » n0 - Sl 

(1758); id., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 263 (1764); Cramer, 

Pap. Exot., ii., pi. 118, figs. B., C. (1777) ; Hiibn., Europ. 

Schmett, i., figs. 678, 679 (1803). 
Danais chrysippus, Horsf. & Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. Mus., i., 

p. 126, pi. iv., figs. 7, 7a (transf.) (1S57) ; Trim., Rhop. 

Afr. Austr., pp. 88, 333, pi. 1, figs. 3, 3a (transf. : 1862- 

1866); id., S. Afr. Butterflies, i., p. 51 (1S87); List. 

Rhopal. Malay., p. 20, pi. 1, fig. 10 (1SS2); Marsh. & 

De Nice'ville, Butterflies Ind., i., p. 50, pi. 6, fig. 10 (18S2) ; 

Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 226, pi. 54 (1S83). 
Salatura chrysippus, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i., p. 7, pi. 3 

(18S0: transf.). 
Anosia chrysippus, Semper, Reisen Philipp. Lepid., i., p. 16, pi. 

A, figs. 2, 2a (1886: transf.). 
Limnas chrysippus, Moore, Lepid. India, i., p. 36, pi. 8 (1890: 

Danaus chrysippus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies & Moths, p. 26, 

pi. 11, fig. 5(1878). 


Var. a. Limnas alcippus. 
Papilioalcippus, Cram., Pap.Exot., ii., pi. 127, figs. E., F. (1777). 

Var. p. Limnas dorippus. 
Euplaa dorippus, Klug, Symbolae Physical, pi. 48, figs. 1-4 

This is a reddish-coloured Butterfly, having the wings black, 
bordered and spotted with white. The apex of the fore-wings 
is broadly black, crossed by a white bar of confluent spots, 
near which are several smaller ones. The discoidal cells of the 
hind-wings are surrounded by three black spots (or four, in the 
male, the sexual mark resembling an additional spot). 

This Butterfly is common all over Africa and Southern Asia, 
and is likewise found in Greece. Many years ngo it appeared 
near Naples, having apparently been introduced, but it failed 
to establish itself permanently. 

The larva is bluish-grey, with yellow dorsal and lateral 
stripes, and transverse black lines. As in many allied species, 
the filaments are black, with the base red. The pupa is green 
or pink, with golden spots. 

Several constant forms allied to this Butterfly, with more or 
less white hind-wings, are met with (e.g., L. alcippus, Cramer, 
&c.) most commonly in Africa. Another allied form is Z. 
dorippus (Klug), in which the reddish-tawny ground-colour ob- 
literates the black and white markings towards the apex of the 
fore-wings. Other forms have been named Z. alcifipoides, 
Moore, Z. khigii, Butler, &c. Until these forms h:ive been 
carefully bred from the same batch of eggs we cannot posi- 
tively affirm that they are distinct species, or the opposite. A 
smaller insect, L. pet ilia (Stoll), closely allied to Z. chtysippus, 
is found in Australia. 

There is probably no insect which has so many mimics as Z. 
chrysippus. Among the mimics are the females of Hypolimnas 

1 8 Lloyd's natural history. 

tnisippus (Linn.). Argynnis niphe (Linn.), Papilio cenea (Stoll), 
and (in both sexes) Euphczdra elea (Drury), and various 
species of Moths belonging to the genera Phcegorista, Alefis, 
&c. The closest of these mimics is the female of Hypolimnas 
tnisippus, which, however, can be easily recognised, inter 
alia, by the more festooned outline of the hind-wings and 
the want of the black spots in the centre. The male is a black 
insect, with a large bluish-white spot on each wing. The other 
forms to which we have alluded, D. alcippns, D. dorippus, &c, 
are likewise more or less mimicked by corresponding forms of 
other Butterflies. It is remarkable that although the female of 
Argynnis niphe (Linn.), a common Indian species, mimics L. 
chrysippus, the closely-allied Australian A. inconsians (Butler), 
has a female which resembles the male, notwithstanding the 
presence in Australia of L. petilia, a closely allied representa- 
tive of L. chrysippus. 

Papilio. Danaus, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), pp. 458, 468(1758). 
Danaida, Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., xiv., p. 108 (1S05). 
Danaus, Latreille, Gen. Crust. Ins., iv., p. 201 (1809). 
Danais, Latr., Enc. Meth., ix., pp. 10, 172 (18 19); Doubleday, 

Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 89 (1847) : Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1866, pp. 43, 171; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 

78 (18S6). 
Salatura, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 239. 

Linnaeus gave the names Danai candidi and Danai phalerati 
to the groups now known as Pierincz and Danainff, naming 
most of the species of the two groups after the sons and 
daughters of Danaus. The older authors, such as Fabricius 
and Esper, proposed to restrict the name to the Pierincz, in 
which case Pieris brassica should probably be regarded as the 
type; but Latreille first used the genus in a strictly generic 
sense under the names Danaida and Danais, specifying 

t»ANAUS. *9 

D. plexippus as the type. It appears best to use the original 
Linnean form Danaus, and to associate it with male mytho- 
logical names, included among his Danai by Linnaeus; on the 
principle that a species should agree in gender with its genus. 


{Plate V., Fig. 1.) 

Papilio plexippus, Linn., Syst. Nat. (cd. x.), p. 471, no. 80 

(1758) ; id., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 282 (1764). 
Danais p/exippe, Godart, Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 1S6, no. 35 

Danais bkxippus, Horsf. & Moore, Cat. Lepid. E. I. C. Mus., 

i., p. 124, pi. 4, figs. 6, 6a (transf.) (1857). 
Papilio genutia, Cramer, Pap. Exot, hi., pi. 206, figs. C, D. 

Danais genutia, Marsh. & De Nicev. Butterflies Ind., i., pp. 7, 

52 (1882); Dist. Rhopal. Malay., p. 18, pi. 2, f. 2 (1882). 
Salatura genutia, Moore, Lepid. Ceyl., i., p. 6, pi. 4, fig. 

(18S0); id., Lepid. Ind., i., p. 45, pi. 10, figs. 1, ia-c 

This insect, which is the type of its genus, is a handsome 
Butterfly, measuring three or four inches across the wings, 
which are tawny, or fulvous, with black nervures, and black 
borders, spotted with white. The apical third of the fore- 
wings is black, crossed by a broad white bar, divided into 
spots by the nervures The head and thorax are black, dotted 
with white, and the abdomen is tawny, like the wings. It is a 
common insect in India, and is found in fields and gardens, 
as well as in woods. The larva is black, with white and yellow 
markings, and three pairs of filaments ; the pupa is bright 

Linnaeus confounded this species with the North American 
Anosia menippe (Hiibner), and this Butterfly is often regarded 
as the true Danaus pic.ippus (Linn.) ; but Linnxus describes his 


26 Lloyd's natural history. 

species as having a white band on the fore-wings iike Limndi 
chrysippus, a character not found in any American Butterfly of 
this group. 


Tirumala, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i., p. 4 (*SSo); id., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 230. 

{Plate V., Fig. 2.) 

Papilio timmacce, Cramer, Pap. Exot., i, p). 5S, figs. D., E. 

Danais //V;^/'^,Godart,Encycl.Me'th., ix., p. 191, no. 49 (1S1 9); 

Marsh, and De Nicev., Butterflies Ind., i., p. 4, P 1 - h fl £- 3 

(1882); Staud., Exot. Schmett., i., p. 49, pi. 24 (1885). 
Tirumala limniacce, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i., p. 4, pi. i, fig. 3 

Tirumala limniace, Moore, Lepid. Ind., i., p. 30, pi. 6, figs. 1, 

1 a, ib (1890: transf.). 
We have figured this common East Indian ar:d African insect 
as the representative of an extensive group of species (formerly 
placed in the genus Danaus, but now divided into several 
genera), which are of a brown colour, streaked and spotted with 
green or blue. A nearly allied species to T. limniace is the Aus- 
tralian Butterfly, T. hamata (Macleay), to which some authors 
have erroneously applied the accounts given by travellers re- 
specting the Bugong Moths. The Bugong Moth, however, of 
which the Australians make cakes, is a true Moth (Agrotis spina, 
Guenee), and has nothing to do with T. hamata. The larva of 
T. limniace is yellowish-white, or yellowish-green, with a 
yellow band on the sides, and two pairs of fleshy filaments, 
streaked with black and greenish-white ; a long pair on the 


/. Dcuians -pleodppics . 
Z. TirurrvaLa lumnixjuce 

AMAURiS. 21 

third segment, and a short pair on the twelfth. The pupa is 
green, with scattered golden dots. 


Amauris, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 14 (1816); Moore, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 226 ; Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett., ii., p. 83 (1SS6); Trimen, South African Butter- 
flies, i., p. 56 (1887). 

DanaiSy Sect. 1, Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 89 (1847). 
Type Papilio niavius (Linn.), from West Africa. 


Papilio niavius, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 470, no. 76 
(1788); id., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 253 (1764); Clerck, 
Icones, pi. ^2, f. 2 (1764) ; Cramer, Pap. Exot., i., pi. 2, figs. 
F,G.(i 77 5). 

Da/iais niavia, Godart, Enc. M£th., ix., p. 182, no. 22 (1819). 

A large black species, over three inches in expanse, with 
large bluish-white sub-apical spots on the fore-wings, and a 
great part of the hind-wings filled up with the same colour. 
It is a West African insect, its South African representative 
{A. domiiiicaniiSy Trimen) being larger, with more extended 
white markings. 

Amauris is a genus of small extent, entirely confined to 
Tropical and Southern Africa. The species are of moderate 
size (two to four inches across the wings), and are of a rich 
dark brown, with white or ochreous spots. We have figured a 
species belonging to the closely-allied genus or sub-genus 
Nebroda (Moore), lately described from Matabele Land by Miss 
Emily M. Sharpe, and named after the barbarous but un- 
fortunate king of that country. It differs from the common 
South African N. echeria (Stoll) by the great extent of the 
pale central part on the hind-wings. 

zi Lloyd's natural history. 

Mr. Trimen describes the larva of N. echeria as having five 
pairs of divergent sub-dorsal filaments. It is black, with blue 
and orange longitudinal stripes. The perfect insect has a 
rather high, graceful, soaring flight, presumably somewhat like 
that of Hestia. 

The species of Amauris and its allies are mimicked by 
various species of Pa ft Mo, Hyftolimnas, &c, found in the 
regions which they inhabit; but these can at once be dis- 
tinguished from them by differences in the neuration, &c. 

(Plate VI , Fig. i.) 
Nebroda lobengula, E. M. Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(6), vi., p. 34 (1890). 

Nearest to JV. echeria, Stoll {Amauris echeria, Kirby, Syn. 
Cat. Lepid., p. 8), but differing in the much greater extent of 
yellow on the hind-wing. There is a row of unequal yellow 
spots on the hind marginal border, extending to the sub median 
nervure. The base of the hind-wing is deep brown. 

The fore-wing has a moderately large yellowish spot in the 
middle of the discoidal cell, with a second larger oval spot 
between the first and second median nervules. 

Between the radial or discoidal nervules there are two me- 
dium-sized yellowish spots near the apical portion. At the apex 
of the fore-wing there is a row of small white spots extending to 
the hind margin, with four smaller white spots outside the 
first row of spots, placed about the middle of the fore-wing. 
Along the costal margin there are two white spots. The under 
side of the fore-wing is of a lighter brown, having all the spots 
plainly marked in white with the exception of the two larger 
spots, which are yellow. 

The hind-wing is similar to the fore-wing, having the 
yellow basal area quite as dark as on the upper bide, and the 

EUTLfEA. 23 

spots are white, while near to the pre-costal nervure there is one 
small white spot. 

Exp., 3- 1 inches. 

Hab. — Matabele Land to Nyasa Land. 

This species has recently been obtained in Nyasa Land by 
Mr. H. H. Johnston, and from one of his specimens in the 
British Museum the figure has been taken. 


Euploza, Fabr. in Illiger's Mag., vi., p. 280 (1807) ; Doubl., Gen. 

Diurn. Lepid., p" 86 (1847) > Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1866, p. 268; Moore, op. cit., 1883, p. 288 ; Schatz, Exot. 

Schmett., ii., p. 80 (1886). 
Macroplcca, Butler, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool., xiv., p. 292 (1878) ; 

Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i., p. 9 (1880). 

The type is 


Papilio corns, Fabricius, Ent. Syst, iii., pt. t, p. 41, no. 122 

( J 793)- 
Euplcca e/i'sa, Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 270, 

no. 4 ; Marsh. & De NiceVille, Butterflies Ind., i., p. 72, pi. 

8, fig. 14 (1882). 
Macroplcea elisa, Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, i., p. 9, pi. 5, fig. 2 

Euploea corns, Moore, Lepid. Ind., i., p. 107, pi. 37, figs. 1, ia, 

ib. (1890 ; transf.). 

This is a large brown species from Ceylon, measuring over 
four inches across the wings, on which are several rows of 
sub-marginal white spots. The fore-wings in this genus are 
rather long, and the hind-margins are gradually curved on all 


24 Lloyd's natural history. 

the wings, so that Mr. Butler has named one of them E. semi- 

The species which were formerly included in Euplcea, but 
have lately been divided into several genera, are numerous in 
the Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions, but are very sparingly 
represented in Madagascar and the adjacent islands. They do 
not extend to America or Europe, nor apparently even to the 
mainland of Africa. Their wings are always rounded and 
entire, never angulated or dentated; sometimes long, but some- 
times so broad as to be almost round. They are generally of a 
brown colour, with more or less extensive white, blue, or tawny 
spots, and are often flushed with rich blue. The larvae much 
resemble those of Danaus, &c, and are similarly provided with 
fleshy filaments. 

An American writer gives an odd description of a black, 
white-spotted species from New Guinea (E.papuauj, Reakirt). 
On the fore-wings there is " a submarginal row of seven chalk- 
white spots, .... there are three minute dots, near the 
margin, obliquely below the fourth, fifth, and sixth spots respect- 
fully ! " 

The rows of white or bluish spots above alluded to are very 
frequent in this genus, and are sometimes arranged in rows 
parallel to the hind margin, and sometimes in an irregular 
circle about the middle of the wings, especially on the under 

The species of Eupleca are mimicked by various species of 
Papilio, Hypolimnas, Elymnias, &c, and by several Moths 
belonging to the family Chalcosiidce. 

Hirdapa, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 299. 

Type, Euplcca usipefes, Hewitson. 
The only species belonging to the old genus Euphva for 


which we could find room on our plates is the recently- 
described Hirdapa rezia, Kirby, which belongs to a genus 
differing much in shape from the more typical representatives 
of Euploea. 

The genus Hirdapa is thus characterised by Mr. Moore. 

" Male with short, very broad, fore-wing ; costa much arched ; 
apex acute ; exterior margin long, slightly oblique, and curved; 
hind margin deeply convex towards the angle ; cell very 
broad ; upper discocellular slightly concave, lower outwardly 
oblique ; lower median and sub-median very wide apart, sub- 
median very recurved, with a very short broad sericeous brand. 
Hind-wings very broadly oval, exterior margin oblique ; cell 
broad, with a large pale ochreous glandular patch.'" 

(Plate VI., Fig. 2.) ( $ .) 

Hirdapa rezia, Kirby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), vol. xiii., 
p. 166 (Feb., 1894). 

Exp., c? 2f, ? 2>h inches. 

Male.— Upper side. — Anterior wings dark brown, shading into 
blackish towards the costa, and inclining to rufous-brown 
towards the base and margins ; from the base a large fawn- 
coloured blotch spreads over the wing from above the median 
nearly to the sub-median nervure and above and between the 
two lower median nervules for half their length, the greater 
part of this outer portion being filled up with whitish. Below 
the lowest median nervule, and just before its middle, is an 
oval bluish-grey spot. A row of six violet-blue sub-marginal 
spots between the nervure to above the lowest median nervule, 
the middle ones smallest, the two nearest the costa marked 
with white. 

Posterior wings dark brown, shading into rufous-brown 

G 2 

26 Lloyd's natural history. 

below the cell to the lower part of the hind and inner margins 
as far as the anal angle ; apex dusted with white ; a large 
buff costal patch spreading over the upper half of the cell, but 
not reaching its base or extremity. 

Underside — Anterior wings brown; only the outer part of 
the fawn-coloured patch well marked ; it is smaller and paler 
than above, and ends as a whitish blotch above the lowest 
median nervule. Below the median nervure, and for half the 
length below the lowest median nervule, the wing is pale buff, 
the place of the white spot above being marked by a narrow 
black oval outline ; on the inner margin the wing is whiter 
on both sides of the sub median nervure as far as the anal 
angle ; sub-marginal spots smaller and whiter than above, the 
fifth obsolete. 

Posterior wings uniform rufous-brown. 

Body dark brown, inclining to blackish in front, with a 
white spot behind each antenna ; four spots at the back of 
the head ; a white spot on each side of the thorax in front, and 
diverging crests of grey hair on the front of the thorax above ; 
sides of the head and thorax and base of the wings spotted 
with white beneath. 

Female.— Upper side.— Anterior wings nearly as in the male, 
but the fawn-coloured patch much longer than in the latter, 
and not marked with white, except at the extremity, where 
the white suffusion forms a pear-shaped spot, covering the 
place of the sixth sub-marginal spot ; the sub-marginal spots 
are larger and whiter than in the male, and are continued 
by a seventh, followed below by a short streak, above the 
sub-median nervure ; the fawn-coloured patch nearly extends 
here to the seventh spot ; the white oval spot of the male is, 
of course, wanting. 

Posterior wings rufous-brown, darkest in the centre, dusted 


/. Nebroda Ivhrrifiidti 

?. Hirdapa rexin 

■'I Tell r rvc mis aliens is. 


with grey along the costa, especially towards the tip, but w.'th 
no buff space over the upper part of the cell. 

Under side.— Anterior wings rufous-brown, the pale patch 
very large, fawn-coloured in and just below the cell, the rest 
mostly whitish as far as the inner margin, and along it nearly 
to the anal angle ; of the sub-marginal spots, the two nearest 
the costa are represented as white dots, the sixth is large and 
connected by a neck with the outer part of the pale blotch, 
and there are two small white dots close together between the 
lowest median nervule and the sub-median nervure. 

Head, body, and base of wings below spotted with white 
nearly as in the male, two white streaks at the back of the 
pectus being particularly conspicuous, much more so than in 
the male. 

Hab.— Dinner Island, New Guinea. (II. 0. Forbes.) In 
the collection of the British Museum. 

Allied to Hirdapa usipefes, Hewitson (Euploea usipetes, Ex. 
Butt., ii., Eupl., pi. i., fig. 4), but may be distinguished at once 
by the sub-marginal spots. Hewitson's type of E. usipetes is 
from New Guinea, and appears to be the same species as a 
series from Aru in the British Museum. All these are males, 
and the insect which Hewitson describes as the female is 
evidently Sarobia grayi (Felder). 

Since the above was written, the British Museum has re- 
ceived specimens from various countries apparently interme- 
diate between H. usipetes and H. rezia. 

Kirsch has figured a species of Elymnias (E. tkryal/is), from 
New Guinea, closely resembling Hirdapa ; but it can be dis- 
tinguished at once by its dentated wings, apart from any other 



Hamadryas^ nee. Hiibner, Boisduval, Voy. Astrolabe, Lep., 
p. 91 (1832); Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 134 (1848); 
Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1S83, p. 253; Schatz, 
Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 91 (1886). 

We have been obliged to rename Boisduval's genus Hama- 
dryas, because that name had already been used by Hiibner 
for our common Peacock-Butterfly {Papilio Jo, Linn.) ; so 
we have named it Tellervo, which is the name of the daughter 
of Tapio, the Finnish god of the forests. 

Some authors regard this genus as properly belonging to the 
DanaincE, while others prefer to consider it as an Old World re- 
presentative of the otherwise exclusively Tropical American 
Sub-family Ithomiincc. 

The species of Tellervo are found in the Moluccas, New 
Guinea, Australia, &c. They are small black Butterflies, 
measuring less than two inches in expanse, with rounded wings 
and clear white markings. They are all very similar, and might 
easily be mistaken for species belonging to the genus Neptis 
in the Nymphalince. The type is 


Papilio zoilus, Fabr., Syst. Ent, p. 4S0, no. 163 (1775). 
Hamadryas zoilus, Boisd., Voy. Astrolabe, Lep., p. 91 (1832); 
Doubl. and Hew., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., pi. 18*, fig. 1 (1847). 

A black Butterfly found in Australia, with three large white 
spots on the fore-wings, and the disc of the hind-wings white. 

{Plate VI. , Fig. 3.) 
Hamadryas mysoriensis, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett., i., p. 54 

ItHOMlIN^. 2() 

This species has not been figured before. It is found in 
Misori Island, N.W. New Guinea, and appears to be the same 
as T. ovages (Godman and Salvin), from the Solomon Islands. 
It differs from the other described species of the genus in 
having the white band on the hind-wings more or less broken 
into spots. 

Note. — The genera Lycorca and Ititnaoi Doubleday, which are confined 
to Tropical America, and which were formerly placed in the Heliconiidce, 
when this name was used as a family to include the Heluoniin'X, Ithomiiihc, 
&c, are now usually classed with the Danaimv. They are large long- 
winged insects, measuring about five inches across the wings. The species 
of Lycorea are black and tawny, with yellowish spots towards the apex of 
the fore-wings ; those of I tuna are black, with marginal yellowish spots, or 
are sub-hyaline, with black bands and nervures. Some of them much re- 
semble species of true Hcliconius, &c. 


Egg Not yet described. 

Larva. — Smooth or slightly warty, but without fleshy appen- 
dages, feeding chiefly on Solanacece. 

Pupa. — Short, convex, sometimes nearly as broad as long, 

Imago. — Usually of moderate size ; wings long, slender, 
rounded, often thinly clothed with scales or entirely transparent, 
except on the borders and at the end of the cell ; wing-cells 
closed. Sub-median nervure of fore-wings forked at the base. 
Antennas long and slender ; male without raised scales, but 
with a tuft of hairs below the sub-costal nervure of the hind 
wings (see Plate vii., fig. 3) ; female with the front tarsi long 
and slender. Abdomen with tufts of hair at the extremity in 
the male, and sometimes also in the female. 

Eange. — Entirely confined to Tropical America, if we ex- 
clude Tellervo from the Sub-family. 

30 Lloyd's natural history. 

Habits.— These Butterflies are weak flyers, chiefly frequent- 
ing woods, and are abundant where they occur. Many of the 
species, however, have a very restricted range. 

Characteristics.— The Ithomiiiicc are a protected group, and are 
very closely mimicked by various Pierince. belonging to the 
genus Dismorpliia, and by certain Moths of the families 
Castniidw, Diopiidic, &c. The larger species, with opaque wings, 
belonging to the genera Melanitis, Fabricius, Melncea, Hiib- 
ner, &c, have frequently a close resemblance to tawny 

No species of this Sub-family has tailed, or even dentated, 
wings, and a great number are among the most transparent 
Butterflies known. They differ considerably in arrangement 
of markings and pattern; but their range of coloration 
hardly extends beyond various shades of black, white, tawny 
and yellow. 

We have figured two representatives of the typical genus 
Ithomia, both with transparent wings, to illustrate this rather 
numerous group ; but there is so much sameness throughout 
this Sub-family that we have not thought it necessary to deal 
with the principal genera in detail 


Ithomia, Hiibner,Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 9 (1816); Doubl., Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid., p. 26 (1847); Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. 
Lond., xxiii., p. 537 (1862); Godman and Salvin, Biol. 
Centrali-Americana, Lepid. Rhop., i., p. 48 (1879). 

As this is the typical genus of this Tropical American group, 
it is better to employ it as a family or sub-family name than to 
use Schatz's term, JVeotropidce. The species were formerly 
classed with the Heliconiiihr, and of late years with the 


This typical genus of the IthomiincB probably comprises 
(with a few lately separated from it) about 200 species, and is 
the most extensive of the sub-family. A great number are 
more or less transparent, though some are opaque. The front 
legs of the males are reduced to a mere knob, the tarsi of the 
females are five-jointed, and the lower disco-cellular nervule of 
the hind-wings forms an acute or right angle with the median 
nervure, instead of an obtuse one. 

The type is 


A r ereis vitrca doio, Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett., i., pi. 1 

Itliomia doio, Hiibn., I.e. text (1822 ?). 

A yellowish-hyaline species, with narrower wings than 
I. flora (Cramer). It has narrow black borders, and black 
nervures ; there is an orange-tawny stripe on the fore-wings 
below the narrow costal border, and another above the inner- 
marginal border ; and a sub-marginal orange-tawny band on 
the hind-wings, narrowly edged on both sides with black. It 
is a native of the Lower Amazons. 

Dr. Scudder rightly, as we think, regards this species as the 
type of the genus, being the only one described by Hiibner 
as an Ithomia in the fragmentary text to his " Sammlung." 
Other authors, however, select the following species, the first of 
four (of which /. doto is the third) included under Ithomia by 
Hiibner in his " Verzeichniss." 


Ithomia dry mo, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 9, no. 3 (18 16). 
Papilio diaphana, Cramer (nee. Drury), Pap. Exot., iv., pi. 315 
figs. D. E. (1780). 

A Brazilian species, much resembling I. flora (Cramer), but 

32 Lloyd's natural history. 

with no reddish tawny markings, and with a black mark to- 
wards the end of the cell on the hind-wings. 
We add figures of two other species of Ithomia. 

{Plate VII., Fig. I.) 
Papilio diaphanus, Drury, 111. Exot. Ent, ii., pi. 7, fig. 3 
This species, which inhabits Jamaica, belongs to an extremely 
transparent group with long narrow wings, which is sometimes 
regarded as generically distinct under the name of Hymenitis 
(Hlibner). The tuft of hair on the wings is very conspicuous in 
Drury's figure, from which ours is copied. 

{Plate VII., Figs. 2, 3 ) 
Papilio flora, Cramer, Pap. Exot., iii., pi. 257, figs. B., C. 
This insect is probably a variety of I. astrea, Cramer (Pap. 
Ex., i., pi. 22, fig. D., 1775), but as it is often represented in col- 
lections by specimens differing from that figured by Cramer under 
the name of I. flora, we have been careful to copy his figure 
exactly. Both I. astrea and I. flora are natives of Surinam. 


Egg. — Resembling that of the Da?iaina. 

Larva — Cylindrical, gregarious, with branching spines. 

Pupa. — Long, slender, the thorax angulated, the abdomen 
sometimes with spines or filaments. 

Imago. — Of moderate size, the antenna? strongly clubbed ; 

ACR/E.IKM, 33 

palpi long, divergent, rather thick, and scantily clothed with 
hair, except in Adinote. Wings rounded, rather long, never 
dentated or tailed ; wing-cells closed, sub-median nervure of 
the fore-wings not forked at the base ; median nervure simple ; 
abdomen long, sometimes with a horny appendage in the 

Range. — The Acraina are unknown in the Palsearctic and 
Nearctic Regions, but are very abundant in Africa, south of the 
Sahara, and in Madagascar. Two species only are found 
in the Indian Region, but several inhabit Australia, New 
Guinea, and some of the adjacent islands. One genus {Adi- 
note) is peculiar to Tropical America, and is ratnc. numerous 
in species. 

Habits. — The Acraince are generally weak flyers, frequenting 
gardens and weedy places, and flying low ; but some of the 
woodland species have a higher and stronger flight. In Africa 
they replace our smaller Fritillaries, to which many of the 
species have a general resemblance. They are gregarious 
insects, and often very abundant. 

Note. — The Acrceince are a protected group of Butterflies, 
though less so than the DanaincB, and are mimicked by 
various species of Nymphaliim and Papilionintz. It is even 
thought that the great West African Dmrya antimachus 
(Drury), the largest of all African Butterflies, which often 
measures 8 or 9 inches across its long and narrow wings, has 
been modified in the direction of Acrcca, if it is not an actual 
mimic of some gigantic extinct, or at present undiscovered, 

Most of the Old World species are red or tawny, spotted 
with black ; a large number are more or less transparent, 
especially on the fore-wings; others are black, with white, 
yellow, or reddish transverse bands or spots ; the American 

34 Lloyd's natural history. 

species are more varied in their markings, though rarely 
spotted, and are never transparent. 

The possession of a horny pouch in the females of many 
species is remarkable, for it is a character which attains its 
maximum of development in Parnassius, and other genera of 
Pafiilionincz. The common Australian Acrcza andromache 
(Fabricius) is mimicked by the female of Eurycus cressida 
(Fabricius), a species belonging to a genus allied to Parnassius^ 
and which, curiously enough, likewise possesses a pouch. 

The genus Acrcca was divided by Doubleday into six sec- 
tions, which later entomologists have treated as genera or 
sections according to their various views; and one or two other 
genera have been proposed since. But the genus ALcna pro- 
posed by Boisduval for a small South African species, has 
lately been removed from the Acnci/iic, as it proves to belong 
to the Lyccenidcs. 

Acrcea, Fabr. in Illiger, Magazin fiir Insektenkunde, vi., p. 
284 (1807); Latr.j Enc. Meth., ix., pp. 10, 227 (1819); 
Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 140 (1848); Trimen, Rhop. 
Afr. Austr., p. 92 (1862); id., S. Afr. Butt., i., p. 131 
(18S7); Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 101 (1887). 
Type, Acnca horta (Linn.), from South and West Africa. 


Fapilio horta, Linn., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 234 (1764); Drury, 
111. Ex. Ent., iii., pi. 28, figs. 1, 2 (1782); Cram., Pap. 
Exot, iv., pi. 298, figs. F. G. (1780). 

Acrcca horta, Godart, Enc. Me"th., ix., p. 231 (1819); Triir.en, 
Rhop. Afr. Austr., i., p. 92 (1862) ; id., S. Afr. Butterflies, 
i., p. 134 (1887); Staud. Exot. Schmett., i., p. S2, pi. 7,3 

This is a brick-red insect, with the outer portion of the 

fore-wings transparent ; there is a black bar closing the cell on 
the fore-wings, and sometimes one or two small adjacent spots; 
the hind-wings are spotted with black at the base and in the 
cell, and have an irregular row of spots beyond and below the 
cell ; the hind-margin is black, with a row of red spots, hardly 
separated from the red part of the wing on the inner side. 
The female is more transparent, and the reddish colour is re- 
placed by ochreous. It expands from 2 to 2^ inches. The 
larva feeds on passion-flowers in gardens as well as on native 
African trees. It is a very common Butterfly in South Africa, 
and birds will not eat its spiny, strongly-smelling larvae. 

The typical section of Acrcca includes most of the species 
with more or less transparent wings. Doubleday called it 
Hyalites, in allusion to this feature ; and therefore Dr. Scudder 
is wrong in proposing to restrict the latter name to A. encedon 
(Linn.), an opaque species, which Doubleday considered to form 
a separate sub-section. If, however, any hyaline species in- 
cluded by Doubleday under Hyalites should be considered 
generically distinct from A. horta, then the name Hyalites 
must be revived for it ; but not otherwise. Mr. Trimen 
unites the following sections under Acrcea : Hyalites, Doubl., 
Gnesia, Doubl., Telchinia, Hiibn., and Pareba, Doubl. In 
this he may be correct, except in respect to Pareba, which has 
much longer and narrower wing-cells than the other groups, 
with the disco-cellular nervules straight and oblique. The typical 
species of Pareba is P.vesta (Fabr.), a light ochreous insect, often 
intersected with light brown stripes. It is about 2^ inches 
across the wings, and is common in many parts of the Indian 
Region. Most of the species belonging to the other sections 
named are African. Telchinia viola; (Fabr.), a common East 
Indian species of this Sub-family, is smaller than P. vesta, and is 
of a warm fulvous colour, with black borders, spotted on the 

36 Lloyd's natural history. 

hind-wings with fulvous. There are several black spots on the 
fore-wings, of which the largest are near the costa. It is very 
similar to many African species of the genus or sub-genus 

As an illustration of typical Acrtza, we have figured a newly- 
described species from the Louisiade Archipelago, near New 

(Plate XXXV II. , Fig. 3.) 
Acrcea osnone, Kirby, Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist., ser. 6, vol. 4, 
p. 163 (1889). 

Expanse, about an inch and three-quarters. 

Male and Female. — Fore-wings semi-transparent grey, darker 
along the margins and especially at the tip, with a black spot 
at the base of the cell and transverse black spots in its middle 
and at its extremity. Beyond the cell is a row of three 
smaller more or less confluent spots, and there are two more 
between the branches of the median nervure near their origin; 
there are also two larger spots between the median and sub- 
median nervures, one near the base and the other above the 
middle of the inner margin, and a row of indistinct sagittate 
spots between the nervures on the hind-margin. Hind-wings 
black, with a sub-marginal series of eight oblong buff spots, 
divided by the nervures, those nearest the anal angle emargi- 
nate on the inside. The spot nearest the costa is linear and 
considerably produced inwards ; below its inner edge descends 
a row of three smaller spots, divided by the nervures, and 
within this is another large irregular spot ; in the black border 
is a row of obsolete tawny spots, more distinct as they 
approach the anal angle. 

Under side similar, but on the hind-wings the sub-marginal 
tawny spots are much more distinct, and there are several 
cream-coloured spots in the dark basal portion of the wings, 
which are only indistinctly indicated on the upper surface. 


Body black ; the palpi, two round spots on the pro-thorax 
above, a double row of spots on the sides of the abdomen, and 
transverse stripes beneath, buff. Pouch of the female reddish. 

Allied to the Australian A. andromache, Fabr. ; but the 
latter species is larger, and the buff colour extends over the 
whole hind-wing except at the extreme base and hind-margin, 
being divided in the middle by a single or Y-shaped row of 
confluent black spots. 

The typical specimens are in the British Museum. They 
were collected by Mr. Basil Thomson. 


Acrcea, section iii., Gnesia, Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 141 

In this genus or sub genus the palpi are less swollen and 
more scaly than in typical Acrcea, and the fore-wings are longer 
and narrower, rarely transparent, and the cell of the hind-wings is 
much shorter. The species are generally rather large, brown 
and red, insects, with black spots and borders ; but Dr. Scudder 
has selected G. area's (Drury) from Sierra Leone as the type. 
It has more resemblance to typical Acrcea than the group of 
G. zetes, and the latter group will, perhaps, be ultimately 
separated from Gnesia. 


Papilio eireeis, Drury, 111. Ex. Ent., iii., pi. 18, figs. 5, 6 

A comparatively small species from Sierra Leone, measur- 
ing two inches in expanse. The fore-wings are rather long, 
and are transparent, with the borders and nervures rather 
broadly brown ; the hind-wings are brown, with black spots at 
the base, and a yellow band across the centre ; the body is 
spotted with white- 



The larger species of Gnesia measure from three to four inches 
in expanse. G. zefes (Linn.) is dark brown, spotted with 
black, with a wide red band on the hind-wings, and some 
yellow spots on the fore-wings. G. egina (Cramer) is also dark 
brown, spotted with black, with abroad red band on the hind- 
wings, which is continued on the lower part of the fore-wings ; 
the females are grey or tawny, instead of red. They are natives 
of Africa, and are mimicked by Papilio ridhyanus, White, 
Pseudacrcea tri/neni, Butler, and P. boisdumlii (Doubled.). 


{Plate VII. t Fig. 4.) 

Papilio medea, Cram., Pap. Exot, i., pi. 81, figs. C. D. (1775). 
Papilio medoa, Beauv., Ins. Afr. Ame'r., p. 220, pi. vi., figs. 2, 

2a, 2b (1805). 
Papilio pasipliiie, Ydibr. , Spec. Ins., ii., p. 33, no. 140 (1781). 
Acraa pasiphae, Godart, Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 235, no. 18 


A grey insect, with black borders and spots, and white 
markings. It is a native of Guinea, and is not represented in 
the collection of the British Museum, but Dr. A. G. Butler 
regards it as a variety of the female of G. egina (Cram.), 


Adinote, Hiibn., Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 27 (1816) ; Godem. & 
Salv., Biol. Centr. Amer., Lep. Rhop., i., p. 140 (18S1). 

Acrcea, section Adinote, Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 142 

This name is now generally employed for the American 
species of Acraince. The palpi are only slightly inflated, but 


/. Ltrwrrua aicLfihexruty. 
2.3. do floret-. 
4: (jnevicLs meciecv. 


densely clothed with hair and scales, and the front legs in the 
males are very small. The wing-cells are no narrower than in 
typical Acrcea ; but those of the fore-wings are much shorter 
than in Planema, and the disco-cellular nervules run much 
more irregularly. They are small Butterflies, generally ex- 
panding about \ Y / Z or 2 inches; and they do not reach the 
Nearctic Region. 

They vary very much in pattern from the African species of 
the Sub-family, but have generally cither black fore-wings, 
banded and spotted with tawny or yellowish, and tawny or 
yellowish hind-wings, bordered with black ; or else they are 
black, with red or yellowish markings. 

The t\pe is 


Papilio thalia, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i., p. 467, no. 63 
(1758) ; id., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 230 (1764) ; Clerck 
Icones, pi. 43, fig. 2 (1764); Cramer, Pap. Exot, hi., pi 
246, fig. A. ( 1 7 8 1 ) ; Stoll. Suppl. Cram.., v., pi. i., figs. 6a, 
6b (1787). 

Acrcea thalia, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 240, no. ^^ (18 19). 

This insect, which measures rather more than two inches in 
expanse, is common throughout Tropical America. The fore- 
wings are rather long, brown in colour, with yel'owish basal 
streaks and an oblique row of long spots, separated by the 
nervures, towards the apex. The hind-wings are rust-coloured, 
with brown veins, intermediate streaks, and borders. In the 
female the pale portions of the wings are grey or whitish. 

" Stoll represents the larva of Acrcea thalia as thickly covered 
with blackish spines fringed with brown hairs. It is brown, 
with a black dorsal stripe, and is said to feed on the shrubby 
cotton. The pupa is represented as stouter than that of 


, Lloyd's natural history 

Acrcea viola, white, with some black lines, and a dorsal series 
of five black spines." (Doubleday.) 

The following species represents another section of the 
genus : — 

{Plate XXX VII., Fig. 4.) 
Actinotc sodalis, Butler, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (4), xx., p. 119 
" Allied to A. amida, but the basal half (almost to external 
angle) of primaries rose-red ; the sub-apical band shorter, more 
oblique, and considerably narrower ; secondaries jet-black to 
the base ; abdomen spotted with orange ; primaries below with 
the red area precisely as above, the band being coloured like 
the basal area, the ground-colour yellowish instead of reddish, 
and the veins black. Expanse of wings, 2*2 inches." (A. G. 

Hab. — River Ucayali. 

11 A. soda/is is a very distinct species, allied to A. amida 
(Hew.), A. griseata (Butl.), A. callianira (Hiibn.), and one or 
two other named forms ; but it differs considerably from all of 
them. Mr. Davis obtained eight examples." (A. G. B.) 

The types which are in the British Museum were collected 
by Mr. Walter Davis on the Peruvian Amazons. As mentioned 
by Dr. Butler, there are several other species which resemble 
this ; but the shape and extent of the red markings wi.l be 
sufficient to distinguish the insect figured. 


Ejg. - -Cylindrical, higher than broad, a little flattened at 


Larva. — Clothed with branching spines ; feeding chiefly on 

Pupa. — Furnished with spines and bristles. 

Imago. — Of medium size, usually expanding three or four 
inches across the wings. Palpi clothed with fine hair, and 
hairy in front ; wings rounded, long, never dentated or tailed ; 
sub-median nervure of the fore-wing not forked at the base ; 
median nervure forked at base. 

Range. — A characteristic Neotropical group. One species, 
the black, yellow-striped, H. charithonia (Linn.), extends to 
the more southern parts of the United States. 

Habits. — The Heliconiince are woodland insects, gregarious in 
all their stages. In the evening the Butterflies are said to 
dance in the air like midges, dropping out as they are tired, 
when their places are taken by others. 

Papilio Heliconius, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 466 (1758). 

Heliconius, Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust, et Ins., xiv., p. 10S 
(1805); Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Americana, 
Lep. Rhop., i., p. 143 (1881); Schatz, Exot. Schmett., 
ii., p. 104 (1887). 

Heliconia, Latr., Enc, Meth., ix., pp. 10, 196 (1819); Doubl., 
Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 101 (1847). 

Latreille and Schatz respectively specify H. antiochus (Linn.) 
and H. eucrate (Hiibner) as the type of Heticonius, but both 
are inadmissible, as the former was not described by Linnceus 
till 1767, and the latter is not a Linnean species at all. But 
several species congeneric with H. antiochus were described by 
Linnasus in 1758, such as H. mclpomene, H. eraio, and H. 
ricini ; and H. melpomene may perhaps be taken as the type. 

H 2 




Papilio mclpomene, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), p. 467, no. 55 
(175S); id., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 232 (1764); Cramer, 
Pap. Exot., ii., pi. 191, fig. C (1777). 

Heliconia mclpomene, Godart, Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 208, no. 15 

Heliconius mclpomene, Bates, Trans. Linn. Soc. Loud., xxiii., p. 
557, no. 12 (1862); Godman and Salvin, Biol. Cenlrali- 
Amer., Lepid. Rhop , i., p. 154 (1S81); Staud., Exot. 
Schmett., i., p. 78, pi. 32 (1885). 

A black Butterfly, with a broad red bar across the fore- 
wings. It is common in South and Central America as far 
north as Nicaragua ; and there are a number of closely-allied 

Heliconius is a rather large genus of handsome Butterflies, 
which may easily be known by the characters of the Sub-family 
given above, and by their comparatively large size, and long 
slender antennae. The species of Eueides, Hiibn., the only other 
genus, are much smaller, and have shorter antennas, more 
distinctly clubbed. 

These Butterflies are always black or blue-black, with yellow, 
white, red, and tawny markings. Some are very simply 
coloured, as, for instance, H. mclpomene (Linn.), and its allies, 
which are black, with a broad red band or blotch 0:1 the fore- 
wings. In other species there may be a white or yellow band, 
or even two or three on the fore-wings, perhaps with red or 
yellow markings at the base, at least underneath ; and the hind- 
wings may be banded with white, red, or yellow, or radiated 
with red, blue, or green. We have figured two species, H. 
era/o (Linn.; pi. viii., fig. 1), and H. vesta (Cram.; pi. viii., 
fia 2) which exhibit these radiated markings. There is an in- 


/. Heliccnius ercrfjo. 
2 „ „ ve&tcu 
■ i svli'nnii.*. 



sect which is considered to be a dimorphic form of II. erato, 
as it usually occurs with it, and appears to be actually the 
same species, called H. don's (Linn.), in which the red markings 
are replaced by blue or green. 

Many of these species are very abundant, and have a very 
wide range throughout Tropical America. 

We have figured a third species of the genus, H. sylvanus, 
(Cram. ; pi. viii., fig. 3), which may serve to represent the black, 
tawny, and yellow species. They are more restricted in their 
range, H. sylvanus being a native of Surinam. These tawny 
species are often so closely mimicked by Ithomiintz of the 
genera Mechanitis, Fabr., and MeZincea, Hiibn., as to be almost 
undistinguishable in a cursory examination. 


Egg. — Very variable in form. 

Larva.— Spiny, or with fleshy prominences; feeds on low 
plants, or shrubs. 

Pupa. — Generally more or less angular, rather long. 

Imago. — Generally of moderate size, rarely small ; antennae 
usually with a distinct club; wings ample, sometimes angu- 
lated, or with a short tail ; the cells, at least of the hind-wings, 
open, or closed by a rudimentary nervure ; sub-median nervure 
of fore-wings generally forked at the base; inner margin of 
hind-wings more or less concave. 

The NymphalincB are a very large group of Butterflies, in- 
cluding, with the Apaturina;, a quarter of the whole of the 
Nymfihalidcc, and divided into about 150 genera. Some 
authors include the Morphincc with them, but these are now 
usually treated as a distinct Sub-family. The NymphalincR 
and Apatitriuic may easily be distinguished from every other 


Sub-family, except the Morphines, by the rudimentary front 
legs, and more or less completely open wing-cells. The 
smaller species flutter from flower to flower, but the larger 
species are strong on the wing, and have a robust and sus- 
tained, and, in some cases, a very lofty flight. They have a 
habit, however, of returning constantly to a favourite spot, 
or of settling on the ground in muddy places to drink, or 
else on trees to suck the exuding sap. They are also fond of 
settling on dung, carrion, or other strongly-smelling substances. 

The Nymphalintz and Apaturina may be divided into a 
number of fairly distinct groups, four of which are represented 
in Britain by the Fritillaries, the Vanessas, the White Admiral, 
and the Purple Emperor ; in short, by all our largest and most 
conspicuous species, except those of a white or yellow colour. 
It will be best to treat of the various groups of these extensive 
Sub-families separately, under the different representative gen- 
era which we have selected for illustration. 

Most recent authors do not recognise the two Sub-families ; 
but the larvae of Charaxes and Apaticra differ so much from 
those of the earlier genera, that I have finally decided to treat 
them as a distinct Sub-family, as was done by Boisduval and 
others. It is only right to say that this course was strongly 
urged upon me by the late Mr. Jenner Weir, whose recent death 
is regretted by so many as the loss of a friend, as well as of a good 
naturalist. Though he was a wonderfully well-informed man, 
he wrote little himself, and usually left it to others to publish 
his observations. 

Schatz and Rober, in their great work on the genera of 
Butterflies, divide the NymphalincB (including with them the 
Apaturincz) into twelve groups of somewhat unequal im- 
portance. They have also made several trenchant alterations 
in the position of many of the genera ; and their arrangement 
will, in the main, be followed here. It is as follows : — 


Groups of Genera of Nymphalin^e as arranged dy 


A. Larva clothed with more or less developed spines. 
a. Front tarsi in the female with spines on joints 1-4. 

t Median spur present. 

I. Argynnis group : 

Colaenis, Dione, Cethosia, Cynthia, Argynnis. 

% Median spur absent. 

II. Melitrea group : 

Melitsea, Phyciodes, Coatlantora. 

III. Vanessa group : 

Hypanartia, Vanessa, Precis, Salamis, Kallima, Eurytela. 

IV. Diadema group : 

Hypolimnas, Victorina, Hestina, Euripus, Euxanthe. 

V. Ageronia group : 

Ageronia, Panacea, Ectima ; 
and sub-section: Biblis group, Didonis, Cystineura, Vila. 

b. Front tarsi in the female with spines on joints 2-4 only. 

t Median spur absent. 

VI. Eunica group. 

a. Eunica group (restricted). 

Myscelia, Catonephele, Eunica, Temenis. 

b. Catagramma group : 

Perisama. Callicore, Catagramma, Callithea : 
and sub-section : Gynoecia group : Gynaxia, Smyrna, 

VII. Neptis group : 

Neptis (and Dynamine ?). 

\ \ Median spur present. 


VIII. Limenitis group : 

Limenitis, Adelpha, Athyma, Pseudacrgea, Parthenos, 
Euryphene, Romaleosoma [Euphsedra], and allies 
(with Megalura and Cyrestis ?). 

IX. Euthalia group : 
Euthalia, Symphaedra. 

B. Larva smooth, only the head provided with horns or 
short prickles ; tail forked. 

t Median spur absent. 

X. Apatura group : 

Apatura and allies, Thaleropis, Dichorragia, Apaturina. 

XI. Ancea group : 

Anrea, Hypna, Protogonius. 
Sub-section : Group of Pseudo-Nymphalinas, Aganisthos, 
C.ea, Megislanis. 

I f Median spur present. 

XII. Nymphalis group. 

Siderone, Prepona, Charaxes, Prothoe. 

This arrangement is, however, tentative and artificial, and 
will require considerable modification and improvement before 
it can be accepted as final. Thus, while the long-winged 
Colcenis and Metamorplia seem quite out of place in the 
"Argynnis" group, Argynnis and Me/itcra, and A T eptis and 
Limenitis, appear to be too closely allied to be worth separating, 
as distinct sections. What Schatz calls the " median spur " 
is a short spur-like branch from the base of the median 
nervure of the fore- wings, not a spine, nor a frenulum. 

Metamorp/ia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 43 (iSi6)j 
Godman & Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Amer., Lepid. Rhop.,i., p. 
166 (1SS1); Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 113 (1SS7). 


JletamovpHos cUda. 


The type is 


(Plate IX.) 

rapilio dido, Johanssen, Amcen. Acad, vi., p. 408, no. 74 

(1764), Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.), i. (2), p. 7S2, no. 192 

(1767); Clerck, Icones, pi. 30, fig 2 (1764); Cram. Pap. 

Exot., iii., pi. 196, figs. E. F. (1779). 
CetJwsia dido, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 246, no. 9 (181 9). 
Metamorpha dido, Godman & Salvin, Biol. Centrali-Amer., Lep. 

Rhop., i., p. 166 (1SS1). 
CoLcnis dido, Staud., Exot. Schmett., i., p. S6, pi. 34 (18S5.) 

Metamorpha dido resembles a Heliconius in its very long 
fore-wings, which are slightly dentated ; the hind-wings are 
much more so. It expands about four inches, and is a very 
common Tropical American insect, frequenting cultivated 
ground. It is velvety-black above, with green markings. The 
fore-wings have a green band in the cell, beyond which is a 
broad green band interrupted about the middle of the wing, 
but continued by oblique bands below the lower end of the 
extremity of the cell ; and there are also several other green 
spots. The hind-wings are green at the base, and are marked with 
a row of rather large sub-marginal spots. The under surface is 
green and black, varied with reddish ochreous and silvery- 
white. The larva has several rows of short spines, radiating 
from tubercles, and two very long caudal appendages. It is 
green, with a red and white stripe on each side, and feeds on 

The allied Tropical American genera Colcznis and Dione, 
Hiibner, likewise much resemble the Heliconiimc in their habits, 
long wings and larvae; and Fritz Miiller proposed to include 
them in the same group, notwithstanding their open wing-cells. 
The species of Colcenis and Dione are mostly fulvous Butterflies, 
bordered and varied with brown or blackish ; but one or two are 
reddish. The spee'es of Colcenis are of nearly the same shape as 

4 S Lloyd's natural history. 

Metamorpha, whichmost entomologists have,until lately, included 

in the same genus ; but those of Dione have shorter fore-wings, 
with the hind-margin more excavated, and sub-triangular hind- 
wings. In Colccnis the under surface generally resembles the 
upper, but is paler ; while in Dione the hind-wings beneath 
and the apical half of the fore-wings are still more richly 
spotted with bright silver than in our Queen of Spain 

Respecting the habits of Colanis and Dione, Bates writes 
that " they are seen only in open sunny places, such as waste 
grounds, gardens, and the borders of woods, where flowering 
bushes grow. They are never found in the great forest, but 
seem to be attendants on man, making their appearance 
wherever a clearing is commenced in the woods. They have 
not a very rapid flight, nor much of the floating mode of pro- 
gression when on the wing, but move about somewhat 
irregularly, and settle frequently, their attraction being always 
flowers, and never moisture, or filth on the ground, as is the 
case with the more typical genera of Nymphalidcc" He also 
remarks on their close relationship with the Hcliconiiiuc. 


Ccthosia, Fabr. in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 2S0 (1807) ; Latr. 
and Godart, Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 242 (1S19); Doubl., 
Gen. Uiurn. Lepid., p. 150 (1848) ; Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, 
L, p. 81 (18S0) ; Distant, Rhop. Malay., p. 170 (1SS3) ; 
De Nicev., Butterflies Ind., ii., p. 31 (iSS6);Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett, ii., p. 115 (18S7). 
The types are Cethosia biblis (= P. penthesilea, Fabr., nee. 

Cram.), from North India ; and C. cydippe (Linn.), from the 


The genus Cethosia is characteristic of the Indo- and Austro- 

Malayan Regions, to which it is exclusively confined, and where 

C2TH0SIA. 49 

it seems to represent Argynnis, two species only of which 
range beyond Northern India over the countries occupied by 
Cethosia. The Cethosice are very handsome Butterflies, measur- 
ing about three inches in expanse, with broad dentated wings, 
and generally with elegant festooned markings, at least on the 
under surface, giving them very much the same character of 
coloration as a Turkey carpet, patterns for which might 
easily be taken from these Butterflies. The upper surface is 
generally tawny or fulvous, often spotted with black ; the 
borders, and the apical portion of the fore-wings are more or 
less broadly black or brown, with a white band, or whitish 
markings. The tawny colouring is sometimes replaced by 
white or bluish-white, especially in the females, and one 
species, C. leschenaultii (Godart) from Timor, much resembles 
our Camberwell Beauty, being of a reddish-brown colour above, 
with a broad pale yellow border, divided by the nervures. 

The larvae are spiny, black, banded with red and yel- 
low, and with two protuberances on the head. Like the 
larvae of Metamorpha and its allies, they are stated to feed on 
Passiflone, and are even said to possess stinging properties, no 
doubt resident in the spines, though the larvae of Butterflies do 
not possess the terribly urticating arrangements (described, in 
some cases, as amounting to fascicles of actual stings) which 
render the caterpillars of some Moths so formidable. 

As a representative of this genus we have figured 

{Plate X.) 
Cethosia mahratta, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 
556; De Nicev., Butterflies Ind., ii., p. 34, pi. 22, fig. 98 
Papilio cyane, Cramer (nee. Drury), Pap. Exot, iv., pi. 295, figs. 
C, D. (1780) 

50 Lloyd's natural history. 

This is a very handsome South Indian species, measuring 
nearly four inches across the wings. It has fulvous fore-wings, 
bordered behind with yellowish-tawny, which colour extends 
over the greater part of the hind-wings. The hind-margins 
are black, with the fringes white, and a festooned white line 
within. The apical portion of the fore-wings is black, and 
both wings are crossed by a row of large oval black spots, 
mostly with white borders ; besides which there is an oblique 
white band, cut by the nervures, running from the costa 
towards the middle of the border of the fore-wings. The 
fulvous portion of the latter is marked with two rows of 
spots, diverging hindwards, and continued more regularly on 
the hind-wings ; nearer the base are a few more black spots. 
On the under surface the black portion of the wing is reduced, 
the white markings are rather more extended, and the rows of 
black spots are more regular. 

Until recently this species was confounded with C. cyane 
(Drury), a commoner and more uniformly tawny Indian species. 

Cynthia, Fabr., Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 281 (1807) ; Doubl., 

Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 212 (1849); Moore, Lepid. Ceylon, 

i., p. 52 (18S0); Distant, Rhop. Malay., p. 183 (1883); 

De Nicev., Butterflies Ind., ii., p. 40 (1SS6); Schatz, 

Exot. Schmett, ii., p. 116 (1SS7). 

The type is 


Papilio arsinoe, Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii., pi. 160, f. B. C. (1777). 

It is said by Cramer to be found in the islands of Amboina 
and Sumatra. 

This genus was formerly included with Vanessa, on account 
of the shape of the wings, which have the hind-margins 
scalloped, thos; of the fore-wings slightly concave, and those 


Cethosia maJvraMas. 


of the hind-wings angulated below, and with a strong project- 
ing tooth at the outer angle. Now, however, they are con- 
sidered to be nearly allied to Argynnis, but their shape, com- 
bined with the two large eyes on the hind-wings, will be amply 
sufficient to distinguish them from any other genus of this 
group. They are large insects, four or five inches in expanse, 
and are peculiar to India and the Indian and Austro-Malayan 
islands as far as New Guinea. The sexes a: e very dissimilar, the 
males being orange-tawny or fulvous, and the females brown, 
with blue and white markings. They still require careful study 
in order to determine the number and range of the species, 
and to assign the sexes correctly. As in many other Butterflies, 
the females are much larger than the males. 

{Plate XIX., Fig. I.) 
Papilio Juliana, Cramer, Pap. Exot., hi., pi. 2S0, figs. A. B. 

This fine Butterfly is a native of the Island of Amboina, and 
measures nearly five inches across the wings. It is generally 
regarded as the female of C. arsinoe (Cramer), a fulvous Butter- 
fly, with two large eyes on the hind-wings ; but as this is un- 
certain, it is better to employ the name given by Cramer to the 
present insect, though there is little doubt that the true male 
will ultimately prove to much resemble C. arsinoe. 

In C. Juliana the wings are brown above, and the fore-wings 
are bordered with pale blue, followed by two black lines, one 
marginal, and the other sub-marginal. Within these are three 
irregular rows of white spots and crescents, generally bordered 
with black. In the cell are two blackish transverse streaks. 
The hind-wings are marked with a very broad sub-marginal 
bluish band, with an irregular border on the inner side, and 
are bordered on the outside with large black and bluish-white 


lunules. On the band appear two very large black eyes with 
blue pupils in yellow and black rings. The under side is 
much paler than the upper, and the white spots of the fore- 
wings are united into an almost continuous band, as on the 

Argynnis, Fabr., Illiger, Mag. Insekt, vi., p. 283(1807); Latr., 
Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 10 (1S19); Doubl., Gen. Diurn. 
Lepid., p. 171 (1S4S) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 118 
Various authors have selected A. aglaia and A. paphia as 
types of this genus, but the former seems to have the better 
claim. At present, however, these species are usually regarded 
as congeneric, so that the point is of no immediate conse- 

This genus includes the larger silver-spotted and silver- 
streaked Fritillaries, and our British species may easily be dis- 
tinguished by their comparatively large size (they usually 
measure from two to three inches across the wings), their 
fulvous hue above, spotted with black, and the conspicuous 
silver streaks or spots of the under surface. The antennas have 
a short broad club, the fore-wings are more or less pointed, 
with the hind-margin slightly oblique, and sometimes a little 
pointed, while the hind-wings are rounded and dentated. The 
palpi are prominent, and much thickened, though the terminal 
joint is small and pointed ; two sub-costal nervules are thrown 
off before the end of the cell on the fore-wings, and there is a 
short median spur. 

The larva? are covered with branching spines, and generally 
feed on violets. 

The genus Argyn7iis is peculiar to the Northern Hemisphere, 
and is almost confined to the temperate regions. It is only 


found in Africa along the north coast, which really belongs to 
the European fauna ; and though several very handsome species 
are found in Northern India, the only species properly belong- 
ing to the Indian Peninsular fauna is A. niphe (Linn.), a some- 
what aberrant form, the female of which mimics Limnas 
chrysippus. It is found in India, Ceylon, and Sumatra; and an 
allied species, in which, however, the female resembles the male, 
A. inconstans, Butler, is found in Australia. Several species 
exhibit a tendency to dark green instead of fulvous colouring, 
especially in the female, as in the dark variety of our own 
A. paphia (Linn.), and in both sexes of the South European 
A. ?naia (Cramer). Another remarkable species with a green 
female is A. sagana, Doubleday, a Butterfly found in China and 
Japan, in which the male is very similar to A. paphia, but the 
female is dark green, with large white blotches and spots, giving 
it much the appearance of the genus Athyma, which is allied to 
Limenitis. It is not surprising that when this female was first 
brought from Eastern Siberia it should have been described as 
belonging to a new genus and species, under the name of 
Damora pau/ina, Nordmann. 

Among the Himalayan species is the splendid A. childreni, 
Gray, a very large insect measuring four inches or more in 
expanse, and marked with broad silver interlacing bands on the 
under surface. 

Argynnis is one of the few genera which are as well repre- 
sented in the Nearctic as in the Palaearctic Region. Many 
very handsome species are common in most parts of the United 
States, such as A. idalia (Drury), which measures nearly four 
inches across the wings. The fore-wings are fulvous, spotted 
with black, and the hind-wings are brown above, with a trans- 
verse row of white spots, and a sub-marginal row, orange in the 
male, and white in the female ; beneath there are four rows of 
slightly silvery spots. But the greatest variety is found in the 




Silver-washed F 

.,• v Tlnnei side of the Female. 
ritillary [A rgynms paflua). U ppei siae o 


Upper side of the variety 

of the Female called A. vahsma 

Under side of the female 


/. Z. JLrcjynnis paphia,. 
c/. t; JSjelvbcea cincati. 


South-western United States. One of the most remarkable 
species of the Southern States is A. diana (Cramer), the male of 
which is black, with a very broad orange border, while the 
female, which measures five inches in expanse, is dark green, 
with several rows of white spots towards the margins of the 
fore-wing>, and with broad blue bands towards the margins 
of the hind-wings. 

[Piatt XI., Figs. 1,2; Male.) 

rapilio paphia, Linn., Syst, Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 481, no. 13S 
(1758) • id., Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.), p. 281, no. 1064 (1 761) ; 
Esper, Schmett., i. (1), p. 223, pi. 17, figs. 1, 2; i. (2), p. 
58, pi. 60, fig. 4 (1777). 

Argynnis paphia, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 40 (1827) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 21, pi. 9, figs. 6a-d 
(1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 214, pi. 3, fig. 1 (1883); 
Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 58, 
pi. 10, fig. 1 (1886); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 156, 
pi. 22 (1892). 

Var. a. Argynnis vaksina. 

Papilio valesina, Esper, I.e., i. (2), p. 73, pi. 107, figs. 1, 2 

Argynnis paphia, var. valczina, Lang., I.e., p. 214, pi. 52, fig. 2 


This is one of the largest and handsomest of our British 
Butterflies, sometimes measuring nearly three inches in ex- 
panse. The male is of a rich fulvous, with two rows of black 
spots on the outer half of the wings, in addition to a marginal 
row. There are also several black spots towards the centre of 
the fore-wings, and a thick black interrupted zig-zag line across 
all the wings ; and the fore-wings are streaked with black along 


56 Lloyd's natural history. 

the longitudinal nervures. The female is very similar, but is of 
a more yellowish fulvous; and in the variety A. valesina (Esper) 
it is greenish-brown, with black spots, and some white spots 
near the tip of the fore-wings. There are no black streaks on 
the nervures in the female. On the under surface, the fore- 
wings are marked nearly as above, but the tip is greenish. 
The hind-wings are green, with a silvery streak across the 
centre, and two shorter ones nearer the base; the hind-margin 


Suspended Chrysalid oLArgynnis papliia. 

has a more or less distinct silvery streak. It is found in woods 
in July and August. 

The larva is light brown, yellowish on the back, with two 
dark lines along the sides ; the spines are long and hairy, and 
two, placed on the first segment just behind the head, are con- 
siderably longer than the rest. (See plate hi., fig. 5.) It 
feeds on dog-vio'et and raspberry in May and June. 

This fine Butterfly is very common in woods in many parts 
of England, frequenting the open glades and edges, where 
sometimes several may be seen together, chasing each other, 
or settling on brambles and other flowers. It is a powerful 
insect on the wing, and by no means easy to catch, if frightened ; 
and when it is settled on a b ramble-flow. r, it is of course diffi- 



I. I Argynnis aqlcua . 
O i JJrenUtf.s aiphrns\-rte 


cult to try to capture it without the risk of tearing or entangling 
the net. 

{Plate XII., Figs, i, 2.) 

rapilio aglaia, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 481, no. 140 
(175S); id., Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.), p. 2S1 (1761) ; Esper, 
Schmett, i. (i), p. 229, pi. 17, fig. 3 ; i. (2), p. 57, pi. 60, 
fig. 2 (1777). 

Argyiuiis aglaia, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 39 (1S27); 
Curtis, Brit. Ent, vii., pi. 290 (1S30) ; Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 21, pi. 9, figs. 4a-d (1S7S); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur., p. 200, pi. 50, fig. 1 (18S3); Buckler, 
Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 71, pi. 10, fig. 3 
(1SS6); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. IsL, i., p. 167, pi. 24 (1892). 

Var. Papilio charlotta, Haworth, Lepid. Brit., i., p. 32, no. 37 
(1803); Sowerby, Brit. Miscelk, i., pi. 11 (1S06). 

The Dark Green Fritillary is the commonest and most widely- 
distributed of our larger Fritillaries, and is found in meadows 
and on heaths, frequently settling on flowers, though capable 
of a strong and sustained flight. It is met with in June and 

It generally measures from 2*.{ to 2^ inches across the 
wings, which are fulvous on the upper surface, and darker, with 
a slight greenish shade, in the female. The base is more or 
less black, and the hind-margins are black, with a festooned 
black line running round them, enclosing fulvous spots. Within 
this is a transverse series of larger round spots ; and nearer the 
base are more black spots and short streaks in the cell and be- 
tween the nervures. The fore-wings are fulvous beneath, with 
the tip and hind-margin greenish, more or less spotted with 
silver. The hind-wings are greenish, with a band of silvery 

1 2 


Lloyd's natural history. 

spots across the centre, a row of silvery spots on the hind margin, 
and several more towards the base. 

The larva feeds on dog-violet in May and June. It is 
brownish-black, yellowish on the back, with a row of quad- 
rate lateral red spots, one on each side of each segment, except 

Under side of the variety of the Female called A. charlotta. 

the two near the base. The pupa is reddish, with waved 
streaks of brown. 

This species is not only one of the commonest, but one of 
the most widely-distributed throughout Europe and Asia ; and 
some of the Himalayan, and even Californian, forms resemble 
it so closely that many entomologists have regarded them as 

The variety called A. charlotta has very large silvery spots 
towards the base ; it is purely accidental, and not common. 

{Plate XI II., Figs, i, 2.) 
Papilio aJippe, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.), i. (2), p. 786, no. 212 
(1767); Esper, Schmett., i. (1), p. 232, pi. iS, fig. 1., p. 369, 
pi. 43, fig. 2 ; i. (2), p. 58, pi. 60, fig. 3, p. 120, pis. 74, 
75, figs. 1, 2 (i777)- 


High Brown Fritillary {Argynnis adippe). Upper side of the Male. 

Upper side of the Female. 

\ / 

Under side of the Male. 

(3 i.loyd's natural history. 

Argynnis adippe, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 38 (1827) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 20, pi. 9, fig. 3(1878); 
Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 212, pi. 50, fig. 1 (1S83): Buckler. 
Lame Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 65, pi. 10, fig. 2 
(1S86); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 161, pi. 23 (1892). 

Var. a. Argynnis cleodoxa. 
Argynnis cleodoxa, Ochsenh., Schmett. Eur., iv., p. 1 18 (1S16) ; 

Lang, I.e., pi. 51, fig. 2 (1S83). 
Papilio adippe, Esper, Schmett, i. (1), p. 317, pi. 26, fig. 4 ; i. (2) 
p. 120, pi. 74, fig. 3, p. 127, pi. 76, fig. 2b (I777)- 
Var. b. Argynnis chlorodippe. 

Argynnis chlorodippe, Herr.-Schaff., Schmett. Eur., vi., p. 5 ( 1 S5 2). 
Argynnis adippe, var. chlorodippe, Lang, I.e., pi. 51, fig. 3 

This species is generally rather smaller than A. aglaia, 
measuring two inches or a little more across the wings, and 
although not uncommon in many localities, is much less 
generally abundant than A. aglaia. It is more of a woodland 
insect, though it also frequents heaths, appearing like the 
other large Fritillaries, about July. 

The upper surface of the wings is very similar to that of A. 
aglaia, and the transverse row of black spots consists of five on 
the fore-wings (there being a break between the second and 
third) and three on the hind-wings. In the male, two of the 
nervuics of the fore- wings are thickened. On the under 
surface, the tip of the fore-wings is yellowish, not spotted 
with silver, or with only two or three spots, and the hind-wings 
are also yellowish, with silvery spots, which are rather dull 
towards the hind margins. A row of red spots with silvery 
pupils runs across the hind-wings between the marginal silvery 
spots and the inner row. This shows a certain relationship to 
A. latlionia (Linn.). 



This is a very variable insect, and there are several well- 
marked Continental forms which are considered to belong to 
this species, but they are very different from the British insect. 
One of these is A. chhrodippe, Herr.-Schaff., which is green on 
the under surface of the hind-wings, with bright silvery spots ; 

Under side of the variety A. cleodoxa. 

and another is A. cleodoxa (Esper), in which the pale spots 
are yellow, not silvery. The latter has occasionally been taken 
in England. 

The larva is reddish, becoming olive-green as it grows older, 
with a white dorsal line, and blackish streaks or spots ; it is 
very spiny, and the spines are lighter than the ground-colour. 
It feeds on sweet violet and wild heartsease in early summer. 


{Plate XIV., Figs. I, 2.) 

rapilio niobe, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 48, no. 143 
(175S) ; id., Faun. Succ. (ed. ii.), pi. 2S2, no. 1067 (1761) ; 
Esper, Schmett, i. (1), p. 247, pi. iS, fig. 4; 1.(2), p. 124 
pi. 75, fig. 3(1777)- 

62 Lloyd's natural history. 

Argynnis nkbe, Steph., Ill Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 37 (1827) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 20 (1878); Lang, 
Butterflies Eur., p. 210, pi. 50, fig. 1, pi. 53, fig. 5, larva 
(1883); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Tsl., i., p. 165 (1S92). 

Var. a. Argynins en's. 

Argvnnis en's, Meig., Eur. Schmett., i., p. 64, pi. 14, fig. 5 

Papilio deodoxa (nee Ochsenh.) Esper, Schmett., i. (2), p. 3, 

pl- 94, fig- 3 (1782). 
Argvnnis niobc, var. en's, Lang, I.e., p. 211, pl. 50, fig. 3 


This species has long been reputed British, and is said to be 
occasionally captured in the South of England, and there- 
fore we have figured it in the present volume, though it has not 
yet been clearly established whether the supposed British 
specimens of A. niobe, if of truly British origin, were not 
really varieties of A. adippc. On the Continent, it is at least 
as common a species as the latter, and is met with at the 
same time of year. 

This Fritillary is of the same size as A. adippe, and much 
resembles it. The row of black spots consists of six spots on 
the fore-wings (the gap mentioned in the description of A. 
adippe being filled up with a small spot) and five on the hind- 
wings. In the male, the nervures are not thickened ; and there 
are one or two pale spots near the tip of the fore-wings in the 
female, which are wanting in typical A. adippe. The under 
side of the hind-wings is pale yellow, slightly tinged with 
green, and the pale spots are much more often yellowish (var. 
A. en's) than silvery. There is a row of four at the base, then 
three large ones (between these is a small black or silvery dot, 
wanting in A. adippe); generally traces of another row of 
smaller ones, next a row of seven rather large ones, the central 


■ ar N-W> 

/. 2 Aryvnnis adippe 
J. 4. cJaj lathnrna 


one small ; outside this is a row of red spots with silvery pupils, 
and a marginal row of seven silvery or yellow spots. 

The larva is brownish, with a black dorsal stripe bordered 
with white, a black lateral stripe, and between the two some 
triangular white blotches. It feeds on Viola dorsata in May. 

{Plate XIII., Firs. 3, 4.) 

Papilio lathonia, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 4S2, no. 141 
(1758); id., Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.), p. 282, no. 1068(1761); 
Esper, Schmett., i. (1), p. 238, pi. 18, fig. 2 (1777). 

Argynnis lathonia, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 36 
(1827); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 21, pi. 9, 
fig. 5 (1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 207, pi. 49, fig. 2 
(1S83); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 170, pi. 25, figs. 1, 
ia, ib (1892). 

Although this is the smallest British species of true Argyn- 
nis, only measuring two inches or less across the wings, it is, 
perhaps, the handsomest of all. 

The wings are fulvous on the upper surface, with two rows of 
sub-marginal black spots, and the base is rather broadly black, 
with some additional black spots between this and the band. 
On the under surface the fore-wings are yellowish-fulvous, with 
a few oval silvery spots at the tip ; the hind-wings have a row of 
very large oval silvery spots extending completely round them, 
and a large oval silvery spot in the centre. Between the cen- 
tral spot and the marginal spots there is a red band containing 
a row of silvery dots. The rest of the wing is of a yellowish- 
fulvous, but the large silvery spots cover the greater part of its 

This Fritillary is double-brooded, being found in early sum- 

64 Lloyd's natural history. 

mer and again in autumn. It frequents lanes, open places 
in woods, clover-fields, and similar localities. It is a very scarce 
insect in the south of England, and has once or twice been 
taken in the south of Ireland, but is only to be met with casu- 
ally, though it is much commoner on the Continent. It is 
not unlikely that it is occasionally passed over as Satyrus 
megara (Linn.), which it somewhat resembles when flying, 
though it is a larger and brighter-coloured insect. A very 
closely-allied species, A. isscea, Gray, chiefly differing in the 
more yellowish fulvous of the wings, is common in the Hima- 

The larva is brownish-green, with a white streak on the back 
and two brownish-yellow lateral streaks. The incisions are 
brownish-yellow, and the spines and feet are ochre-yellow. It 
is solitary, and feeds on Heartsease {Viola tricolor), Saintfoin 
(IlcJysarum medicaginis\ Anchura officinalis, and other low 

Brenthis, Hiibn., Verz.bek. Schmett., p 30 (1816); Schatz,Exot. 
Schmett., ii., p. 119 (1887). 

The type of this genus has been given by Dr. Scudder as 
B. hecate (Denis), which is one of the smaller European species 
of true Argynnis, as that genus is at present understood. We 
therefore retain Brenthis, as used by Schatz, with B. selene 
as the type, only provisionally. If permanently used in this 
sense, however, the real type will be B. thore (Hiibn.), a very 
dark-coloured Alpine and Scandinavian Butterfly, allied to 
B. atphrosyne and B. selene ; for no other species congeneric 
with the latter was originally included in Brenthis by Hiibner. 
This genus was formerly included sometimes with Argynnis, 
and sometimes with Melitcea (Curtis, indeed, indicated B. 
euphrosyne as the type of Melitcea, but erroneously), but is now 
frequently treated as distinct. It is really intermediate between 


the two, resembling Argynnis in the general character of its 
markings, and especially in the silvery or purplish markings of 
the under surface, and Mclitcea in its small size, and in its habits. 
The generic characters most resemble those of Argynnis, but the 
palpi are only slightly thickened, and on the fore-wings only 
one sub-costal nervule is thrown off before the end of the cell, 
while the median spur is wanting. In these characters it ap- 
proaches Melitcea, but in Brenthis the tibiae are encircled with 
spines. More important differences, however, are shown by the 
larvse, which are furnished with branching spines in Brenthis, 
as is the case in typical Argynnis. The larvoe of Brenthis, like 
those of Argynnis, feed chiefly on violets. 

Brenthis is a more widely distributed genus than Argynnis. 
It is represented by numerous species throughout the Palsearctic 
Region, and among these several are Arctic and Circumpolar, 
and have been found almost as far north as our explorers have 
yet penetrated, while others are truly Alpine species. It is, 
however, poorly represented in North America, only two 
species, A. bellona (Fabr.), and A. myrina (Cram.), being 
generally common in the United States ; but there is a little 
cluster of somewhat aberrant species found in Chili. 


{Plate XII., Figs. 3, 4.) 

rapiho euphrosyne, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 4S1, no. 142 

(175S); id. Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.), p. 282, no. 1069(1761); 

Esper, Schmett, i. (1), p. 242, pi. 18, fig. 3 ; i. (2), pi. 114, 

pi. 72, fig. 3. (1777). 
Mclitcea euphrosyne, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 135, pi. 

iv., fig. 4 (1827, var.). 
Argynnis euphrosyne, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 18 

(1878); Lang, Butterflies, Eur., p. 198, pi. 46, figs. 5, 

(1883); Buckler, Lame of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., 

p. 77, pi. n, fig. 2 (1886); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., 

p. 174, pi. 25, figs. 2, saf (1S92). 

66 Lloyd's natural history. 

This Butterfly is generally distributed throughout England, 
and is often very common in open spaces in or near woods in 
May, flitting from flower to flower, and is very easily cap- 
tured. On the Continent it is double-brooded, but the autumn 
brood is rarely seen in England. 

It measures about an inch and three-quarters across the 
wings, which are fulvous, with the base more or less broadly, 
and the hind-margins narrowly, black. Within the borders 
are two rows of black spots on all the wings, and there are 
several black spots and short transverse lines in the cell and 
elsewhere, towards the base. The outer marginal row of black 
spots is sometimes united into a festooned line, enclosing 
fulvous spots. The under surface of the fore-wings is marked 
as above, but is yellowish towards the margins, and the hind- 
wings are varied with red, with a marginal row of silvery spots, 
a silvery spot at the base, and a pale yellow central band, 
with one large silvery spot in the middle. There is also a con- 
spicuous black spot in a yellow ring in the cell of the hind- 

The larva is black and spiny, with white lines, and reddish 
pro-legs. It feeds on different species of violet in June and 


{Plate XV., Figs, i, 2.) 

rapilio sckne, Denis and Schiff., Syst. Verz. Schmett. Wien, p. 
321,110. 11 (1776); Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 26, 27, 

732, 733, 733 (i§°3, &c.). 
Papilio euphrosy?ie, var. Esper, Schmett., i. (1), p. 325, pi. 30, 

fig. 1 (i777)- 
Mt'Iitira selene, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i-, p. 34 (1827); 

Curtis, Brit. Ent., ix., pi. 386 (1832). 



Argynnis sefene, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. iS (1878); 
Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 197, pi. 46, fig. 4 (1SS3) ; 
Buckler, Larvre Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 73, 
pi. 11, fig. 1 (1886); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 17S, 
pi. 26, figs. 1, ia-f (1892). 

Notwithstanding its trivial name of "Small " Pearl-bordered 
Fritillary, this Butterfly is very nearly of the same size as the 
last, which it much resembles in its habits and appearance, 
though it is generally a week or two later on the wing. It is 
at least as common an insect, and is also double-brooded, the 
second brood, though common on the Continent, being less 
frequently noticed in England. 

Small Pearl -bordered Fritillary {Aroyiinis seleite). Under side. 

The markings of the upper surface of the wings closely 
resemble those of B. euphrosyne, though the spots towards 
the base have less tendency to form streaks and lines. The 
under surface of the hind-wings has a marginal row of silvery 
spots, followed by a purplish-red band with a large yellow spot 
in the middle ; and next to this is an irregular band of silvery 
and yellow spots. Between this band and a basal row of 
silvery spots is another reddish band. The larva is black, with 
reddish-yellow spines, and brownish-red legs. It feeds on 
dog-violet, as is the case with other Fritillaries. Very curious 
aberrations of this species are occasionally met with, of one of 
which we have given a woodcut on the next page. 



When I first met with these species, I took B. euphrosyne in 
a clearing in a wood in Sussex ; and on revisiting the spot a few 
days later, took B. selcne. I afterwards took the latter species 
by the side of a wood close to Brighton, where I never saw 

Under side of a variety of B. sckne. 

B. euphrosyne ; and I have always found B. selene far more 
abundant than B. euphrosyne near Diisseldoif, in Germany, 
especially in autumn, when it is one of the commonest Butter- 
flies in the woods. 

weaver's fritillary. brenthis dia. 
{Plate. XIV., Fig. 5, 6.) 

rapilio dia, Linnajus, Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.), i., pt. 2, p. 7S5, no. 

277 (1767); Espcr, Schmett, i., pt. 1, p. 221, pi. 14, 

fig. 4; i., pt. 2, p. 66, pi. 61, fig. 2 (1777). 
Melitcea dia, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 34 (1S27). 
Argynnis dia, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 18, pi. 9, 

fig. 1 (1878) ; Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 203, pi. 4S, 

fig. 1 (1SS3) ; Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 1S3 

(!8 9 2). 

The present species derives its English name from Richard 
Weaver, a celebrated collector and dealer in English insects, 
who flourished fifty or sixty years ago. He had a specimen 
which he believed to have been taken by himself in Sutton 


#H 99 

/. .?. Argynnls niobe 
3. ( h MeLtea aBialia 
,5. 6. Brent his dha. 


Tark, near Birmingham. Other examples have been taken in 
England from time to time, but so rarely that very few entomo- 
logists are disposed to admit the claims of this Fritillary to be 
considered a British species. On the Continent, however, it 
is not an uncommon Butterfly in woods, and is double-brooded 
like its congeners, appearing both in spring and autumn. 

It is a somewhat smaller insect than the other species, 
measuring about an inch and a quarter across the wings, which 
are fulvous, with the base black, and the margins likewise 
black, with a festooned line, inclosing rather large fulvous spots ; 
within this is a row of rather large black spots, and the re- 
mainder of the wings is likewise rather more heavily spotted 
with black than in the allied species. The under side of the 
hind-wings is black at the base, followed by a band of three 
silvery and three yellow spots ; between these and the silvery 
marginal spots is a purple band ; and a row of black spots with 
white pupils runs parallel to the marginal spots. 

The larva is dark brown or black, the back paler, inter- 
sected by a black dorsal line, the spines alternately black and 
reddish ; legs black. It feeds on different species of violet. 

During the last fifty years, several species of Butterflies have 
become actually or very nearly extinct in England, and others, 
formerly not uncommon, have become much restricted in their 
range. It is probable that this process has been going on for 
a long time, and that some of the species included by the 
older authors, but now removed from our lists, were species 
already disappearing when the study of entomology first com- 
menced. It is possible that B. dia is one of those Butterflies 
which may have been formerly common, but are now on the 
verge of extinction in England ; for it is not a species likely 
to be accidentally introduced into this country. 


There are several genera closely allied to Argynnis (as 


regards the colour of the upper surface of the wings) in Asia, 
Africa, and America, but none possess the characteristic 
silvery markings on the under surface. Several of these are 
adorned with transverse rows of spots, which are sometimes 
occllated on the under surface. 

Ethiopian Region. 

There are only two genera of this group found in Africa, if 
we except Argynnis itself, the South European species of 
which extend to the African coast of the Mediterranean. 

One of these, Lachnoptera, Doubleday, contains a few 
species confined to Africa. The best known of these is the 
West African L. iole (Fabricius), in which the sexes are very dis- 
similar, an unusual character in the present group. The male 
is tawny above, with a marginal black line, a festooned sub- 
marginal line, and within it a row of black spots. The hind- 
wings are slightly angulated, and have two festooned sub- 
marginal lines, and no marginal line ; the apical half of the 
hind-wing has a large dark patch, by which this Butterfly can 
be at once distinguished from any other, and there are two 
black spots towards the anal angle. On the under surface 
the colour is yellowish-tawny, and on the hind-wings the dark 
patch has disappeared, but there is an interrupted row of black 
spots across the wings, more or less distinctly pupillated with 
white, and edged within with a pearly-grey band. The female, 
which was originally described by Hewitson, under the name 
of Harma hecatcea, is brown, with the outer half of the 
wings white nearly to the hind-margin, the white space being 
bordered and intersected with brown lines. There are four 
brown spots on the hind-wings, on the white band, two 
towards the costa, and two towards the anal angle. The 
under side is pearly-grey, with a slight pinkish lustre, and 
marked with brown and tawny lines on the hind-wings ; there 
are three eyes towards the costa, and two near the anal angle, 


pupilled with white. A closely allied species, L. ayresii Trimen, 
is found at Natal, but in this case both sexes are reddish- 
fulvous, with a black blotch on the middle of the costa of 
the fore-wings. It is described as a very pugnacious insect, 
flying up and down at the edges of woods at a height of from 
six to ten feet from the ground, and attacking and driving away 
other Butterflies. 

The only other African genus allied to Argynnis, which we 
need notice, is Atella of Doubleday. The few species much 
resemble the East Indian forms to be noticed in the next 
section. One of them, A tella phalan fa, Drury, is found in both 
the Ethiopian and Indian Regions. 

Indian and Austro- Malay an Regions. 

These Regions, which it is often most convenient to treat as 
one, as in the present case, possess several remarkable genera 
of the Argynnis group, in addition to Argynnis, Ccthosia 
and Cynthia, which we have already discussed. They all 
extend to India or South China (except, perhaps, Terinos), and 
are represented by numerous species in the different islands 
between India and Australia. 

Among these genera, Terinos of Boisduval is one of the 
most remarkable, as it departs altogether from the usual style 
of coloration in the group. It consists of handsome Butter- 
flies, usually measuring above three inches across the wings, 
which are dark brown or black, often adorned with masses of 
rich purple above, and paler below, with a row of large black 
spots on the disc, bordered within by a festooned grey or 
purplish-grey line. Many species are adorned with grey or 
reddish blotches towards the tips of the fore-wings, and the 
anal angle of the hind-wings. The fore-wings are longer than 
the hind-wings, and the latter are somewhat angulated and 

The genus Cirrochroa, Doubleday, brings us back to the 



familiar tawny colouring of Argvnnis, and the species are of 
about the same size as our English ones, measuring three 
inches across, or rather less, but the fore-wings are shorter, and 
the hind-wings are rather long and less rounded. These Butter- 
flies are tawny above, with brown borders, and with festooned 
sub-marginal lines, followed by an inner row of spots. On the 
under surface they are paler, and generally ornamented with 
one or two straight brown lines, often edged with white. 

The genus Messaras, Doubleday, includes species measuring 
rather less than three inches in expanse. The fore-wings are 
longer than the hind-wings, and the latter are rounded and 
scalloped. The wings are tawny, and the hind-margin of 
the fore-wings is generally brown, edged within by a broad 
yellowish band ; the hind-wings are marked with several fes- 
tooned lines, and an inner row of spots, and on the under side 
usually with a row of large sub-marginal black spots, more or less 
bordered with pearly-white lines ; sometimes these markings 
are reproduced above. Other species are uniform brown, with 
a broad orange-yellow band across both wings. 

The last genera of this group belonging to these regions 
which we shall notice are Atella, Doubleday, and Cupha, 
Billberg. In these genera the fore-wings are longer and 
more pointed than in Messaras, but the hind-wings are 
rounded and scalloped. As in so many of the Eastern Argyn- 
nides, the wings are tawny, often with narrow brown borders, 
festooned sub-marginal lines, and at least one inner row of 
black spots. On the under surface the markings are somewhat 
irregular, purplish-brown and pearly-grey. The largest species 
measure nearly three inches in expanse, but many of those in- 
habiting the islands are much smaller. This genus has similar 
habits to Argynnis, to which it is allied, and the larvae 
feed on various trees, especially willow. Cupha may be dis- 
tinguished from Atella by the slightly angulated hind-wings. 


Neardic and Neotropical Regions. 

As already mentioned, Argynnis is better represented in 
temperate America than almost any other genus of the larger 
Butterflies ; while Brenthis, though not numerous in American 
species, extends down to Chili and the extreme south-west of 
South America. There are, however, two interesting genera 
of the Argynnis group which are peculiar to America, Clothilda, 
Blanchard, and Euptoieta, Doubleday. 

Clothilda is a very handsome genus, consisting of large 
Butterflies measuring four inches across the wings, and greatly 
resembling Argynnis. There are several species inhabiting 
the larger West Indian Islands which are brownish-tawny, 
with transverse rows of large brown spots, the under surface of 
the hind-wings marked with irregularly undulated yellowish 
and whitish lines and spaces on a darker ground. On the main- 
land of Mexico and Central America we find still handsomer 
brown and yellowish-grey species, which become black towards 
the base of the fore-wings, with the middle third of the wing 
on both sides filled up with alternate black and rosy markings. 

Euptoieta is found in all parts of America, frequenting open 
grassy country. There are, however, only two or three species 
measuring from two to nearly three inches across the wings. 
They much resemble the non-caudate group of Atella in 
shape, size, and markings, but the fore-wings are longer at the 
apex, and the under surface is much more uniform in colour, 
without whitish lines, or distinctly-formed eyes ; though a row 
of small sub-marginal white spots, corresponding to larger black 
ones above, is sometimes visible. 

Melitcea, Fabr. in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 284 (1807); 
Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 177 (1848); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett., ii., p. 120 (18S7). 

Type M. cinxia (Linn.). 

K 2 

74 Lloyd's natural history. 

The genus Melitcea includes all the smaller European Fritil- 
laries which are not marked with silver or purplish on the 
under surface, except the Duke of Burgundy Fritillary (Nemeo- 
bius lucina). This is the only British, and indeed almost the 
only European, representative of the family Lemoniidce, and 
consequently a species which will find its proper place in our 
second volume. N. lucina, apart from its structural differ- 
ences and much smaller size, may be at once distinguished by 
the prevailing colour being blackish, with tawny spots, all 
isolated, and those towards the margins of the hind-wings 
enclosing black dots. 

The generic characters of Melitcsa are similar to those of 
Brcnthis ; the club of the antennae is moderately long, very 
large and flattened, and the fore-wings are rather longer than in 
Brcnthis, with no median spur, and the hind-margins of all the 
wings are rounded and slightly denticulated. The tibia? and 
tarsi of the four hinder legs are furnished with two or three 
rows of bristles on the under side only. The palpi are hairy, but 
not thickened. The larva? are provided with short hairy warts, 
but are not set with branding spines, as in Argynnis and 
Brent his. 

The genus Melitcza is widely spread throughout the Palce- 
arctic Region, and is likewise found in North America, where 
it is especially numerous in California. Most of the North 
American species belong to a peculiar group, generally exceed- 
ing the European species in size, and of a black colour, more 
or less spotted with white and red. But in South America the 
genus is replaced by the allied genera Phyciodes, Hiibner, and 
Eresia, Boisduval, the former of which is likewise numerous 
in North America. 

Our three British species of Melitcza are representative jfthe 
three European groups of the genus. The larva? feed on 
plantain, scabious, and other plants growing on waste ground, 


/. 2.JBrervthis srlenr. 
3. l L Metitcea. aurima 
5. 6. .. nvroTiiti 

MELI17EA. 75 

and as over-cultivation rapidly exterminates such plants, and as 
insects as a rule are far less generally distributed, and much 
more easily destroyed than the plants on which they feed, it is 
not surprising that the species of Melitcea are among those 
Butterflies which are rapidly becoming more and more scarce 
and local in England, and are within measurable distance of 
extinction as British species. They are gregarious, and are 
therefore still common in those localities where they are 
permitted to exist at all. A century ago they were probably 
as generally distributed in England as they are at present in 
most places on the Continent. Their absence in Corsica and 
Sardinia is somewhat remarkable. 

These Butterflies have a slow flight, flitting from flower to 
flower on heaths, meadows, open places in woods, and similar 
localities where their food-plants are to be met with. 

{Plate XV., Figs. 3, 4.) 
Papilio aurinia, Rott., Natuiforscher, vi., p. 5 (1775). 
Papilio artemis, Denis and Schiffermiiller, Syst. Verz. Schmett. 

Wien, p. 322, no. 10 (1776); Hiibner, Europ. Schmett., 

i., figs. 4-6, 653 (1803?). 
Papilio maturna (nee Linn.), Esper, Schmett., i. (t), p. 209, 

pi. 16, fig. 2 (1777). 
Melitcea artemis, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 32 (1827) 

Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 84, 

pi. 12, fig. 2 (1886) ; Barrett, Lepid. Brit. IsL, i., p. 196, 

pi. 27, figs. 2, 2 a-f (1893). 
Melitcea aurinia, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 15, pi. 

8, figs. 3-a-d (1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 183, pi 

43, fig. 2 (1883). 

The Greasy Fritillary, though very local, is widely distributed 
in all parts of the kingdom, and is rather variable. It is by 

76 Lloyd's natural history. 

far the commonest of the three British species of Melitcea. It 
appears in May and June, generally frequenting damp 
meadows, though it may be found in dry places also. 
It represents the section of Melitcea in which the upper 
side of the wings is marked with white or yellow spots, paler 
than the ground colour. 

This species measures about one and a half inches across 
the wings, or a little more, though some of the large South 
European forms, which are considered to be conspecific, some- 
times exceed two inches in expanse. The fore-wings are of a 
deep fulvous, marked with several rows of pale yellow spots, 
separated by black lines ; the hind-wings are fulvous, with 
some yellowish spots near the base, and there is a row of 
yellow spots across the centre, and a row of black dots near 
the hind-margin. The hind-margins of all the wings are 
narrowly black, and there are a few yellow dots within the 
border of the hind-wings. The under side is similar, but paler, 
and the markings are most distinct on the hind-wings. The 
whole of the under surface of the wings has a peculiar 
glossy appearance, which has suggested the name of the 

The larva is black above, with several rows of small 
white dots ; it is yellow beneath, and the legs are reddish. 
It feeds on plantain, scabious, and other low plants, in April. 

THE glanville fritillary. melit^a cinxia 
[Plate XL, Figs. 3, 4.) 

Papilio cinxia, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. x.), i., p. 480, no. 137 
(1758) ; id. Faun. Suec. (ed. ii.), p. 2S0, no. 1063 (1761). 

Papilio delia, Denis and Schiff., Syst. Nat. Lepid.Wien, p. 179, 
no. 6 (1776) ; Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 7, 8 (1790). 

Papilio cinxia major, Esper, Schmett., i., p. 312, pi. 25, fig. 2 


Melitcea cinxia, Steph., 111. Brit. Enc. Haust., i., p. $$ (1827); 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 15, pi. 8, figs. 5, a-d 
(1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 185, pi. 44, fig. 1 
(1S83) ; Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., 
pi. xi., figs. 3, 3a (18S6) ; Barrett, Lepid. Brit. IsL, i., 
p. 190, pi. 27, figs. 1, 1, a-d (1892). 

The Glanville Fritillary is the most local species of the 
genus, and is at present almost confined, in England, to a few 
localities in the Isle of Wight. It represents a section of the 
genus Melitcea in which the under surface of the hind-wings is 
marked with rows of conspicuous black spots, and not simply 
with lines. It derives its name from a certain I ady Glanville 
who lived in the reign of Charles II. After her death, it was 
attemped to set aside her will on the ground of insanity, the 
principal evidence relied upon by the disputants being her 
fondness for collecting Butterflies. The species appears in 
May and June, like the other smaller Fritillaries, but, as a 
rule, prefers drier localities. 

The Butterfly expands about three-quarters of an inch, and 
is fulvous, with numerous black dashes and interrupted lines ; 
the base and hind-margins are black. The fore-wings are pale 
fulvous beneath, with a few black dots ; the tip is yellow. 
The hind-wings are fulvous, with some yellow spots near the 
base ; a broad yellow band extends across the middle, and 
there is a row of yellow marginal spots. The yellow markings 
are more or less bordered with black, and there is a row of 
black spots intersecting the central band, another row on the 
marginal series, and several others near the base. 

The larvae are black, with transverse rows of white dots, 
and the head and pro-legs are tawny. They feed on the 
narrow-leaved plantain (Plantago lanceolata), mouse- ear, hawk- 
weed (Hieracium pilosella), and the common germander speed- 
well {Veronica chamcedrys). They generally issue from the 

7S Lloyd's natural history. 

egg towards the end of autumn, and pass the winter before they 
undergo their final metamorphosis. To protect themselves 
against the weather, they assemble in little colonies, and form 
a kind of tent by drawing together some of the leaves of the 
plant on which they feed, and covering the whole with a web 
of silk. 



(Plate XIV., Figs. 3, 4.) 

Papilio a thai ia,) Rott, Naturf., vi., p. 5 (1775) ; Esper, Schmett, 

i- (1), P- 377, pl- 47 (i777). 
Melitcza atha/ia, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 30 (1827) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 16, pl. 8, figs. 7, a-c 
(1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 121, pl. 45, fig. 3 (1883); 
Buckler, Larva? Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 81, pl. 
12, fig. 1 (1886); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 1S5, 
pl. 2, 2a-e (1892). 

Var., Melitcea tessellata. 

Melitcea tessellata, Stephens, I.e. i., p. 31, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2 
This Butterfly is the commonest of the whole genus on the 
Continent, being abundant everywhere in woods and meadows ; 
but it is a very local insect in the south of England, though 
widely distributed ; it is met with in May and June, like the 
other small Fritillaries. It represents the group of Melitcea, 
wherein the species are characterised by being fulvous and 
black above, in varying proportions (but with no paler spots), 
and in having the hind-wings below yellow, with black lines 
and markings, but with no distinct black spots. It was for- 
merly a much more abundant insect in England than at present, 
and was common even on Hampstead Heath, 



It measures from one inch and a half to an inch and 
three-quarters across the wings, which are tessellated in about 
equal proportions with black and fulvous. The under side of 
the fore-wings is pale fulvous, with the black bands of the 
upper surface only visible towards the costa ; the hind-mar- 

The Heath Fritillary {Melitaa athalia). Upper and under side 
of Varieties from the collection of the late Mr. F. Bond. 

gin is straw-coloured. The hind-wings are yellowish-broAvn 
below, with yellow spots near the base, edged with black, and 
a row of large yellow spots, separated by the nervures, across 
the centre, bordered and partly intersected with black. The 
fringe is yellowish-white, spotted with black. 

The larva is black, with two rows of small white dots on 

go Lloyd's natural history. 

each segment, and with tubercles of the same colour on the 
sides. It feeds on different species of plantain in May. 

This is a Butterfly which is liable to many varieties, and the 
central figure on the previous page nearly corresponds to the 
form called M. tessellata (Steph.). 


{Plate XV. , Figs. 5, 6.) 

Papilio pyronia, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 585, 586 

{c. 1800). 
Papilio eos, Ha worth, Lepid. Brit, p. 35, no. 43 (1803). 
Melitcea pyrotiia, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 31, pi. iv., 
figs. 1, 2(1827). 
Very dark varieties, or rather aberrations, of several genera of 
Nymphalina are not uncommon, and that represented on our 
plate is a sport of M. athalia. A specimen like the one figured 
is said to have been taken at Peckham in 1803; and similar 
examples have also been met with occasionally both in England 
and on the Continent. 

This insect, which measures a little more than an inch and 
a half across the wings, has tawny fore-wings, with the nervures, 
as well as some confluent markings towards the base, and a 
sub-marginal line, black ; the fringes of all the wings are spotted 
with black and white. The hind-wings are black, with a tawny 
spot near the base, and a sub-marginal row of tawny spots. On 
the under side the fore-wings are tawny with the tip and hind- 
margin yellow, and showing numerous large black spots towards 
the base ; the fringes have a black line at the base, and are 
spotted with black, and there is also a sub-marginal row of nearly 
connected black spots. The hind-wings are reddish below, 
towards the base, with black blotches ; the basal area is bordered 
by a black line, beyond which is a very broad whitish band, 
followed by a row of reddish lunules bordered on both sides 

AtfEMECA. ol 

with black; outside this, the marginal area is yellow, and 
similarly marked to the corresponding portion of the fore- 


Nearctk and Neotropical Regions. 

The genus Melitcea is well represented in most parts of 
North America ; but in Tropical America, as before stated, it is 
replaced by several closely-allied genera, of which the most 
important are Phyciodes, Hiibner, and Eresia, Doubleday. 
Phyciodes, indeed, extends over the greater part of North 
America as well. These Butterflies much resem' le the small 
species of Melitcea, measuring from an inch to an inch and a 
half across the wings, which are generally brown, with red, 
yellow, tawny, and white spots and markings. The fore-wings 
are broad, and not much longer than the hind-wings, which are 
rounded, slightly denticulated, and frequently covered like the 
fore-wings. The species inhabit open or bush-covered land. 

Eresia includes species somewhat similarly coloured, but 
larger, measuring from an inch and a half or two inches 
across the wings. They are forest insects, with longer and 
narrower fore-wings than Phyciodes ; and many of the species 
greatly resemble small species of Heliconius, or some of the 
black and tawny species of the Sub-family Ithomiince, from 
which, however, they may be at once distinguished by their 
open hind wing-cells. 

Anemeca ehrenbergii (Hiibner) is a curious Mexican species, 
measuring about two inches across the wings, which are black, 
with long whitish radiating lines on the outer half. The hind- 
wings are very pale yellowish-white beneath,, with broad black 
nervures. The wings are rather long, the fore-wings being 
rather longer than the hind wings, and the hind-margins are 

8 2 Lloyd's natural history. 

The genus, Chlosyne, Butler, includes several species found 
in Mexico, Central America, and the northern parts of South 
America, which form a transition from the genera allied to 
Mclitaa to the genera allied to Vanessa. They measure from 
an inch and a half to two inches across the wings, which 
are usually of a brown or black colour, more or less varied or 
spotted with yellow, white, or tawny above, and often with 
red spots on the under side of the hind-wings. The fore- 
wings are usually more or less produced at the tip, and the 
hind-wings are rounded and dentated. 

Araschnia, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmetterl., p. 37 (181 6). 
Type, A. levana (Linn.). 

We have not been able to find space for figures of this genus, 
but it is so well known, and of so interesting a type, that we 
must not pass it over unnoticed. It contains a very few species 
of small size, which are confined to Europe and Northern Asia. 
The antennae have an oval club, the palpi are very hairy, and 
the eyes are also hairy. The wings are denticulated, the fore- 
wings triangular, slightly projecting at a third of their length 
from the tip, and slightly concave from below this point to a 
smaller projection, situated a little above the hinder angle; the 
hind-wings are nearly square, with a slight projection at the 
outer angle. 

There are two very distinct seasonal forms in each species 
of this genus, viz., the spring brood, which is tawny with black 
spots; and the summer brood, which is black with white 
spots, which form an irregular band across the wings. Weis- 
mann and other philosophical writers have written much on 
the European species, as its seasonal dimorphism is con- 
sidered to throw some light on problems connected with the 
origin of species. 



Spring brood. 

Papilio levana, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 480, no. 133 (1758) ; 

Esper, Schmett, i., pt. 1, p. 201, pi. 15, fig. 2 (1777); 

i., pt. 2, p. 55, pi. 59, fig. 5 (1780); Ochsenh., Schmett. 

Eur., i., p. 132 (1807). 
Cynthia levana, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 49 

Vanessa levana, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 14 

(1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 167, pi. 38, fig. . 4 


Summer brood. 

Papilio prorsa, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 4S0, no. 134 (1758) ; 

Esper, Schmett, i., pt. 1, p. 205, pi. 15, fig. 3 (1 777) i 

i., pt. 2, p. 52, pi. 59, fig. 4 {c. 17S0); Ochsenh., Schmett. 

Eur., i., p. 129 (1S07). 
Vanessa prorsa, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 74, 

pi. 7, figs. 4 a, 6 (1878). 
Vanessa levana, var., prorsa, Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 168, 

pi. 39, fig. 2 (1882). 

Intermediate Form. 
Papilio porima, Ochsenh., Schmett. Eur., i., p. 124 (1807). 
Vanessa porima, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 14 (1878). 
Vanessa levana, var. porima, Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 168, 

pi. 39, fig. 1 (18S2). 

As already mentioned, this Butterfly presents two ap- 
parently very dissimilar forms, which Linnaeus called Papilio 
levana and P. prorsa, and by these names they have been 
known ever since. They are found more or less commonly 
in Central Europe, but do not reach either to the extreme 
northern or the extreme southern countries, though they are 

8 4 Lloyd's natural history. 

met with in Western Asia and Siberia. A. levana has been 
said to have been taken in Great Britain, but apparently only 
through the error of Dr. Turton, who translated the " Systema 
Naturae " of Linnaeus into English many years ago, and marked 
various species as British, almost at random, e.g., A. 

The summer brood (A. prorsa) measures rather less than an 
inch and a half across the wings, which are black, with a red 
marginal line. There is also a rather broad white band, in- 
terrupted on the fore-wings, and rather irregular, but broadest 
in the middle on the hind-wings. The fore-wings are also 
marked with a few white dots outside the upper part of the 
white band. The under side is brownish-red, with the white 
band reproduced ; the hind-margins are dull white, and there 
are some whitish dashes near the base. 

The spring brood (A. levana) is fulvous, with scattered black 
spots. There are also three white spots near the tip of the fore- 
wings, and a row of black spots across all the wings. On 
the under side the Butterflies resemble each other more 
than on the upper, but the under side of the A. levafia form 
is more yellow, and the white band is narrower and less 

The larva is spiny, and of a black or greyish colour, dotted 
with white ; the spines are black or yellow, and the fore-legs are 
black, with the extremities yellow. It feeds on nettle in June 
and September. 


The genus Symbrenthia, Hiibner, includes some East Indian 
species, measuring about an inch and a half across the fore- 
wings. They are brown, with fulvous markings, consisting of 
a band in the cell of the fore-wings, an interrupted one 


"beyond, and two or three on the hind-wings ; in some species 
the females are marked with white, instead of fulvous. In 
colour and markings, though not in shape, they greatly resemble 
Neptis, also an East Indian genus. The wings are very short 
and broad, the fore-wings being scarcely longer than the hind- 
wings, and the latter are obtusely angulated in the middle of 
the hind-margin, where there is a projecting angle ; the ex- 
tremity of the inner-margin is slightly sloped outwards, so as to 
form almost a right angle at the anal angle of the wing. 

S. hyppoda (Cramer), the commonest Indian species, flies 
very swiftly, but often settles ; its larva feeds on nettle. 

Hypa?iartia, Hiibner, is a Tropical American genus, resem- 
bling Symbrentlria, but larger (measuring two or three inches 
in expanse), and with longer fore-wings, which are generally 
strongly concave in the middle ; the hind-wings are more rect- 
angular, with a strong tooth or short tail at the outer angle. 
• They are usually tawny, with the apical region of the fore-wings 
brown, and spotted with white or tawny. In H. lelhe (Fabr.), 
a tawny species, the fore-wings are not concave ; while H. 
dione (Latr.) is a brown insect with darker transverse bands, 
and a rather longer tail, which might easily be mistaken for a 
species of Mcgalura at first sight, but for the concavity on the 
fore-wings. There are one or two species found in Africa, 
Mauritius, &c, which have a shorter interval and an additional 
tooth or tail, between the principal tail and the anal angle of 
the hind-wings. One of these, H. delius (Drury), which in- 
habits West Africa, is brown and tawny, having considerable 
resemblance to the South American H. lethe ; while other 
species, found in Africa and in the island of Nossi-Be', near 
Madagascar, Mauritius, Bourbon, &c, much resemble a rather 
small pale-tailed Pyrameis atalanta. Mr. Trimen states that 
their habits are very similar to those of Pyrameis. The larvae 
feed on nettle. 



Pofygonia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 36 (18 16). 
Grafita, Kirby, Faun. Bor. Amer., iv., p. 292 (1837); Doubl., 

Gen. Diurn. Lepid., i., p. 195 (1S48) ; Stainton, Man. 

Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., p. 40 (1857); Schatz, Exot. 

Schmett., ii., p. 124 (1887). 

Type, Poly go nia c. -album (L.). 

Antenna? with the club oval, gradually formed, truncated 
at the end ; palpi thickly scaled above, less so on the back 
and sides, and the scales small and conical, interspersed only 
with a few hairs ; eyes hairy. Wings with the hind margins 
much dentated, the fore-wings deeply concave below the tip, 
and the inner margin concave ; hind-wings with a short tail in 
the middle of the hind margin, and the inner margin grooved 
to receive the abdomen. A white letter-like mark on the 
under side of the hind-wings. 

This genus is peculiar to the Palrearctic and Nearctic Regions. 
In the Old World it does not extend to the Himalayas, though 
one of the Chinese species, P. c.-aureum (Linn.), has been, 
rightly or wrongly, reputed to occur as far south as Penang. 
There are only two recognised European species, one, P. 
c.-album (Linn.), generally distributed, while the other, P. egea 
(Cramer), a lighter-coloured species, with a triangular, instead 
of a semicircular, white mark on the hind-wings beneath, 
belongs to the Mediterranean Sub-region, being found in South 
Europe, Asia Minor, and Syria. Polygonia, however, is one of 
the very few genera of Butterflies that are better represented in 
the Nearctic than in the Pala;arctic Region ; and, in addition to 
species allied to ours, several very large forms, measuring 
nearly three inches across the wings, are found in the 
United States ; and one species extends as far south a? 


^1 f 



/ 2 Polyqonia C album 
3 Van*xS-*a pclycfilorvs 


(Plate XVI., Figs. 1, 2.) 

Papolio c.-album, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 477, no. 115 
(1758); id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 279, no. 1059 (1761); 
Esper, Schmett., i., pt. i., p. 175, pi. 13, fig. 3 (1777) ) i-, 
pt. 2, p. 53, pi. 59, fig. 3 (17S0?). 

Vanessa c.-album, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 42 (1827) ; 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 13, pi. 7, figs. 2, a-d 
(1878); Lang, Eur. Butterflies, p. 170, pi. 39, fig. 4 
(1882); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 12 r, pi. 18, figs. 
1, 1, a-e (1892). 

Grapta c.-album, Buckler, Larvae Brit. Lepid., i., pp. 57, TS2 
pi. ix., fig. 3 (1S86). 

The Comma Butterfly was formerly much more abundant in 
England than at present, and has almost entirely disappeared 
from the south of England, where it was once abundant, within 
the last fifty or sixty years, though there are many localities in 
the midland and northern counties of England, as well as in 
Wales, where it may still be met with. It is a hedgerow insect, 
and is fond of settling on the ground and on the tree-trunks, 
and is frequently found in company with Vanessa polychlorus. 
It appears in June and July, and hibernated specimens are 
sometimes seen in spring. 

The Comma Butterfly usually measures nearly two inches 
across the wings, which are deep fulvous, with the hind- 
margins brown. The fore-wings have three black spots on 
the costa, three in the centre, and one on the inner margin. 
The hind-wings are ornamented with black and brown. The 
under surface is sometimes dark brown, but is often varied with 
greenish or yellowish, and there is always a white mark like 
the letter C on the under side of the hind-wings. 

The larva is reddish in front and white behind. The head 


33 Lloyd's natural history. 

is nearly heart-shaped, and bears two large hairy tubercles, one 
on each side, resembling ears. It is found in June and July, 
and consumes the foliage of various trees, shrubs, and herba- 
ceous plants, such as the elm, willow, currant, hazel, honey- 
suckle, and common nettle. 


Vanessa, Fabr. in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 281 (iS 7); 
Latr., Enc. Meth., ix., pp. 10, 291 (1S19); Doubl., Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid., p. 195 (1S4S); Schatz, Exot. Schmett, ii., 
p. 124 (1S87). 

Type, V. polychloriis (L.). 

Antennae, with the club gradually thickened and rather long, 
the last joint short and obtuse. Palpi thickly clothed with 
broad scales in front, and set with long stiff bristles all round ; 
eyes hairy. Wings dentated, the fore-wings with a slight projec- 
tion below the tip and with a slight concavity below, the inner 
margin nearly straight ; hind-wings with a short projection in 
the middle of the hind margin. 

Larvse gregarious, spiny, except on the first segment behind 
the head ; pupa frequently metallic. 

This genus is peculiar to the northern hemisphere, and 
though not very numerous in species, contains some of our 
commonest and handsomest Butterflies, such as the Peaccck 
and the Tortoise-shells. Most of the species inhabit the tem- 
perate climates of Europe, Asia, and America, but one or two 
extend as far south as India, Ceylon, and the Malay Peninsula; 
as well as to Mexico in the New World. 

Most of the species appear in summer, and hibernate, reap- 
pearing in spring, often in fairly good condition. 


{Plate XVI., Fig. 3.) 

Papilio poiychhros, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 477, no. 113 
(175S); id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 27s, no. 1057 (1761); 
Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 166, pi. 13, fig. 1 (1777). 

Vanessa polychloros, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i.,. p. 42 
(1827); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 22, pi. 6, 
fi S- 5 ( lS 7S), Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 171, pi. 39) fig. 5 
(1882); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 127, pi. 18, figs. 
2, 2a, b ([S92); Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and 
Moths, i., p. 54, pi. 9, fig. 1 (18S6). 

The Large Tortoise-shell Butterfly is not uncommon in many 
parts of the south of England, in and near woods, or flying 
about detached trees, on the trunks of which it frequently 
settles. It may sometimes be seen in gardens, settling on 
flowers, but less frequently. It appears in summer and autumn, 
and hibernated specimens, much duller in colour than the 
newly-emerged individuals, may be found in early spring. 

The Butterfly measures two and a half inches, or more, 
across the wings, which are of a deep fulvous with rather 
broad black margins. The fore -wings are marked with three 
rather large black costal blotches, separated by pale yellow 
spots ; there are also three black spots in the centre of the 
wings, and a fourth near the hinder angle. The hind-wings 
have a large black blotch in the centre of the costa, bounded 
externally by a pale yellow blotch, and only the border of the 
hind-wings is marked with blue lunules. The under side is dull 
brown, with a yellowish mark in the middle of the hind-wings. 

The larva is blackish or brownish, with a yellow stripe on 
the sides, and the spines are likewise yellow. When youm*-, 
the larvae live under a silken web, which they spin for their 
protection, but they disperse after the first moult. They feed 

L 2 

no Lloyd's natural history. 

trees, a habit which on the Continent causes the insect to be 
sometimes regarded as injurious, but in England it is not 
sufficiently plentiful to cause any material damage. The pupa 
is flesh-coloured, with golden spots. 

Two other species closely allied to this are found in Eastern 
Europe. One, V. xanthome/ana, Denis, extends to Northern 
India, and the other, V. v.-album, Denis, is hardly distinguish- 
able from the North American V.j. -album of Boisduval. 

{Plate XVIII., Fig. I.) 
Papilio urttca, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 477, no. 114 (1758), 
id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 21S, no. 1058 (1761); Espcr, 
Schmett, i., pt. 1, p. 170, pi. 13, fig. 2 (1777). 
Vanessa urtictz, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 43 (1827); 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 12, pi. 6, fig. 4 
(187S); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 173, pi. 40, fig. 3 
(1S82); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 131, pi. 19, figs. 
1, 1, a-c (1892); Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and 
Moths, pp. 55, 181, pi. ix., fig. 2 (18S6). 
Although this Butterfly is gregarious, and feeds on nettles, 
yet even nettles are by no means so abundant as formerly, and 
the species is thus much less common than it used to be. Still 
it is to be met with in all parts of the country, in gardens, 
weedy places, lanes, open places in woods, &c, and as it hiber- 
nates, and has a succession of broods, there is not a month in 
the year when it may not be found, for an unusually fine day 
or artificial warmth will sometimes tempt it from its hiding- 
place, even in mid-winter. 

The Butterfly generally measures about two inches across 
the wings, which are reddish-orange, with black hind-margins, 
spotted with blue on all the wings. The fore-wings have three 
black costal spots separated by yellowish ones, and the outer- 



Small Tortoise-shell. Variety 1. 

Small Tortoise-shell. Variety 2. 

Small Tortoise-shell. Variety 3. 

9 2 

Lloyd's natural history. 

most separated from the hind-margin by a white costal spot. 
There is also a large black spot near the inner-margin, with a 
yellowish one outside it, and two small black ones in the centre 
of the fore-wings. The hind-wings have a broad basal area of 
black, with a wide reddish-orange band between this and the hind- 
margin. Theunderside is variedwith light brown andyellowish. 

The larvae feed on nettle, and when first hatched live together 
in small colonies, but disperse as they grow larger and require 
more food. They are blackish and spiny, with yellowish stripes 
on the back and sides. The pupa is beautifully gilded. 

In Corsica and Sardinia this species is replaced by V. ichnusa 
(Bonelli), an insect of a more pronounced red colour, in which 
the two small spots on the disc of the fore-wings are wanting. 
Other species resembling V. urtica, but more remotely, are 
found in North America and Northern India. 

We add woodcuts of three varieties which have been taken 
in England, one of which much resembles V. ichnusa. 

(Plate XVII., Fig. i.) 
Papilio antiopa, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i. ; p. 47 6 > n °- i* 2 ( J 75 8 ) ; 
id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 277, no. 1056 (1761); Esper, 
Schmett, i., pt. i, pp. 163, 324, pi. 12, fig. 2, pi. 29, fig. 2 

Vanessa antiopa, Curtis, Brit. Ent., ii., pi. 96 (1825); Steph., 
111. Brit. Ent. Haust., 1., p. 45 (1827) ; Kirby, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 12, pi. 6, figs. 2, a-c (1878)3 Lang, 
Butterflies Eur., pp. 176, 363, pi. 41, fig. 2 (1882); 
Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl, i., p. 140, pi. 20, figs. 1, ia, b 
(1892); Buckler,* Larva; Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., 
p. 52, pi. 8, fig. 4 (18S6). 

* Buckler received larvae from Leipzig, and the yellow-bordered specimen 
now in his collection in the British Museum was almost certainly bred 
from one of these. It is accompanied by a preserved larva. 


This has always been a very scarce Butterfly in England, and 
very uncertain in appearance. In some years a good many 
specimens are met with, and then, again, several years may 
elapse without more than one or two being seen. The old 
authors sometimes called it the "Grand Surprise," because 
about the year 1789 it appeared suddenly in unusual abun- 
dance. It was also called the Cambenvell Beauty from having 
been first observed in England at that place in 1748. Curi- 
ously enough, it was unusually common in England exactly a 
century later, in 1848. All the English specimens are remark- 
able for their white borders,* whereas in the European speci- 
mens the border is almost always decidedly yelloiv. The 
Butterfly is also common in North America, but the American 
specimens are generally considerably larger, with the border ot 
a more brownish-yellow than in the European ones. It fre- 
quents woods, avenues, gardens, and detached trees, and is an 
insect of powerful flight, but is very fond of settling on fallen 
fruit. Once, on the Continent, I was walking along a road 
which was bordered with bird-cherry trees, and strewn with 
the ripe fallen cherries. The fruit was very attractive to 
these Butterflies, which were flying backwards and forwards 
in numbers between the road and a small river, which ran 
nearly parallel to it at no great distance. 

It used to be said that no British specimens were ever taken 
with yellow borders ; but a few yellow-bordered ones have 
occasionally been met with of late years. In these cases it is 
reasonable to suppose that they were specimens which had 
either been introduced from the Continent, or reared from 
Continental larvae and then set at liberty, in which case they 
would almost certainly fall a prey to the first prowling ento- 
mologist who happened to notice them. 

* This form also occurs, though much more rarely, on the Continent 5 
and Lang specially notes its occurrence, with specimens of other Butter- 
flies closely resembling British examples, in Albania. 

94 Lloyd's natural history. 

The Butterfly, which measures three inches across the wings, 
is of a deep purplish-chocolate colour, with the hind margins 
broadly white (or yellow in Continental and American speci- 
mens). Within this pale border runs a broad black band con- 
taining a row of large blue spots ; and within the band there 
are two short white (or yellow) streaks on the costa of the fore- 
wings. The under surface is of a deep dead black, relieved only 
by the white border and the white marks on the costa of the 
fore-wings. The Butterfly appears in July and August, and 
hibernates, so that it may be found again in spring. 

The larva, like the other species of the genus, is gregarious, 
feeding on willow, birch, and poplar in summer. It is black 
and very spiny, with a row of large red spots on the back, 
intersected by a black line, and the legs are red. 

No other species is known which closely resembles V. antiopa, 
though its black under surface recalls that of V. io. 

In Germany it is called " Trauermantel," and hence some 
of the American entomologists give it the name of the " Mourn- 
ing Cloak," 

Haworth in his " Lepidoptera Britannica," p. 28, remarks re- 
specting the irregular appearance of V. antiopa, and of other 
Butterflies : " There is something very extraordinary in the 
periodical but irregular appearance of this species, as well as 
of Papilio edusa and P. cardui. They are plentiful all over 
the kingdom in some years ; after which P. antiopa in par- 
ticular will not be seen by anyone for eight or ten or more 
years, and then appear again as plentiful as before. To sup- 
pose they come from the Continent is an idle conjecture ; 
because the English specimens are easily distinguished from 
all others by the superior whiteness of their borders. Perhaps 
their eggs, in this climate, like the seeds of some vegetables, 
may occasionally lie dormant for several seasons, and not hatch 
until some extraordinary but unforeseen circumstance awakes 
them into active life." 


/. Vanessa caxtiopa. 
2. ,. to 


Though very common in most parts of the Continent, there 
are many places in which the species is more or less uncertain 
in appearance, as it is in Britain. 

(Plate XVII., Fig. 2.) 

Papilio to, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 472, no. 112 (1758); 
id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 274, no. 1048 (1761); Esper, 
Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 87, pi. 5, fig. 2 (1777). 

Vanessa to, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 44 (1827); 
Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 1 2, pi. 6, figs. 3 a-c 
(1S78); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 175, pi. 41, fig. 1 
(1882); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 136, pi. 19, figs. 
2, 2, a-d (1892); Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies, i., p. 
179, pi. 8, fig. 3(1886). 

The Peacock is one of the most beautiful of our British 
Butterflies, and as it feeds on nettles, is fairly common in lanes 
and open places in woods in most parts of the country, though 
much less abundant than the Small Tortoise-shell. It is found 
throughout Europe and Northern Asia as far as Japan ; but 
does not extend very far south, as it is a much-prized rarity in 
Sicily, and is unknown in Southern Spain and on the north 
coast of Africa. 

The Butterfly measures from two to three inches in expanse, 
and is of a dark red on the upper surface, with brown hind- 
margins. The fore-wings are marked with two central black 
costal blotches, separated by a small yellow spot, and the rest 
of the costal portion of the wing, between the outermost black 
blotch and the border, is varied with yellow, black,blue, red, and 
white, and below these markings are two white spots. The 
hind-wings have a large black crescent-shaped mark on the 
middle of the costa, and between this and the hind-margin is a 
yellowish-white ring, enclosing a very large black spot, in which 

96 Lloyd's natural history. 

are several blue markings. The under surface of all the wings 
is of a deep dead black, as in V. antiopa. The Butterfly 
appears in summer and autumn, and hibernates, reappearing 
in spring. 

The caterpillar, which feeds on the two common species of 
stinging nettle in summer, is black and very spiny. It is 
dotted with white, and the fore-legs are red. 

This Butterfly has no resemblance to any other known 
species on the upper surface, but in the black under side it 
shows a certain affinity to V. antiopa. 


Pyrameis, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 33 (18 16); Doubl., 
Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 202 (1849); Schatz, Exot. Schmett, 
ii., p. 125 (1887). 

Type, P. atalanta (Linn.). 

Antennae with the club short, and pointed at the end ; palpi 
long, gradually narrowed to a point, and clothed with soft and 
short hair ; wings regularly denticulated ; fore-wings some- 
times with a slight projection below the tip, the hind-margin 
below very slightly concave ; inner margin nearly straight ; 
hind-wings with the hind-margin rounded, and without projec- 
tions. Larva spiny. 

This genus is not numerous in species, but they have all 
a strong family likeness, and belong to two groups represented 
by our common British Butterflies, the Red Admiral and the 
Painted Lady. Both of these are insects of very wide distri- 
bution, but the other species of Pyrameis are found isolated 
in widely separated parts of the world, the largest and hand- 
somest being from the Sandwich Islands and New Zealand. 

Our species hibernate occasionally, but not habitually, and 
therefore are much less frequently met with in spring than in 
summer and autumn. 


{Plate XXIII., Figs. 1,2.) 
Papilio atalaufa, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 478, no. 119 
(175S); id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 279,110. 1060 (1761) ; 
Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1. (i.), p. 182, pi. 14, fig. 1 (i777>- 
Vanessa atalanta, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 46 
(1827); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 11, pi. 6, 
fig. 1 (1878); Lang, Eur. Butterflies, p. 177, pi. 41, fig. 3 
(1S82); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. IsL, i., p. 145, pi. 20, figs. 2, 
2, a-d (1892); Buckler, Larvae Brit. Lepid., i., pp. 49. 
174, pi. 8, fig. 1 (18S6). 
The Red Admiral is a very common and conspicuous 
Butterfly, which appears rather late in the summer, or at the 
beginning of autumn, and may then be seen wherever there are 
flowers or fruit, of which it is very fond. It is found in 
gardens, or flying about trees in orchards, just as frequently as 
in lanes or clearings in woods, and it particularly affects ivy- 
blossom. It often flies in company with its congener, the 
Painted Lady, over waste ground, and both species are very 
fond of the slopes or summits of hills. It has a wide range 
over Europe, North Africa, Northern and Western Asia, and 
North and Central America ; but in the Canaries another 
closely-allied species is met with, resembling P. atalanta, but 
with a broader and more irregular red band on the fore-wings. 
This is P. vulcania (Godart), an insect hardly distinguishable, 
except by its more intense red band, from P. indica, of 
Ilerbst, which inhabits North India, China, and Japan. How 
two forms, barely distinguishable as species, should have come 
to inhabit such widely-separated countries, between which they 
are scarcely likely to have been carried by accident, or even 
by design, remains one of the most perplexing of all the many 
difficult proverbs connected with the geographical distribution 
of Butterflies. 


The Red Admiral measures from two to nearly three inches 
across the wings, which are of a velvety-black. The fore-wings 
have a slight projection on the hind-margin, below the tip, 
thus showing a closer affinity to the genus Vanessa than is 
presented by P. cardui; and this has led several authors to 
retain P. atalanta in the genus Vanessa, even when treating 
P. cardui as belonging to a distinct genus. The fore-wings have 
a broad red band running obliquely from the middle of the 
costa to the hinder angle, and between this and the tip are 
several white spots and a blue line. The hind-wings have a 
broad red border, containing a row of black spots, and a blue 
spot at the anal angle; the fringes of the wings are white, 
spotted with black. 

The under surface of the fore-wings is similar to the upper, 
but paler, shading into grey at the tip, and there are several 
additional blue markings ; the hind-wings are varied beneath 
with delicate shades of grey. 

The larva is dull greenish-yellow, or blackish, with yellow 
spines, and an interrupted yellow line on the sides ; the pro- 
legs are reddish. It is solitary, and feeds on nettle in early 
summer. It prefers the seed to the leaves, and usually pro- 
tects itself from the weather by drawing a few leaves round it, 
which it secures by silken threads. 

The pupa is brown, with golden spots. 

Plate XV II I., Figs. 2, 3.) 

Papilio cardui, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 475, no. 107 

(1758); id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 276, no. 1054 (1761); 

Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 133, pi. io, fig. 3 C 1 777)- 
Cynthia cardui, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 47 (1827); 

Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., pp. 49, 174, 

pi. 8, fig. 1 (1886). 


/. Vanessa urtijcce 
2.3. Pyrarrwis rarchu 



Vanessa cardui, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 13, pi. 7, 
figs. 3, a-d (1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 15S, pi. 42, 
fig. 2 (1882), Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., 1., p. 149, pi. 21 
The Painted Lady was formerly considered to be an insect of 
rather irregular appearance in England, but it has apparently 
become more abundant of late years, for although it is com- 
moner in some seasons than in others, it is now nearly always 
to be found in suitable localities, when looked for. It is, how- 
ever, less frequently to be seen in gardens, &c, than P. atalanta, 
preferring waste ground, where it likes to settle on thistles, and 

Variety of the Painted Lady {Pyrantels cardtti). 

other tall flowering plants. It is one of the most interesting 
Butterflies known, for it is literally almost cosmopolitan ; and, 
with the exception of the Arctic Regions and South America, 
there is scarcely a country in the world where it may not be 
found. The Australian and New Zealand specimens, however, 
differ a little, and are sometimes called P. kershawii (McCoy), 
but are hardly to be considered truly distinct. A closely-allied 
species, P. virginiensis (Drury), or, as it is often termed, P. 
huntera (Fabr.), Is found in North America ; it is easily dis- 
tinguished from P. cardui by the sub-marginal row of small 

n 3 


black eyes with blue pupils on the hind-wings. This species 
is found in Madeira and the Canaries, along with P. vulcania 
and P. car J u i ; but it scarcely admits of a doubt that it has 
been accidentally introduced from North America, as stray 
specimens of P. virgmiensts have occasionally been taken in 
England too ; and although it has hitherto only appeared 
in the British Islands singly, at long intervals, it is quite 
possible that if only a s : ngle brood happened to be reared in 
England, the species might become naturalised with us. 

The Painted Lady measures two inches, or two and a half 
inches across the wings, which are black at the base, and 
otherwise of a tawny-orange, varying in intensity in different 
specimens (sometimes with a slight pink shade in extremely 
fresh ones), and streaked and spotted with black. The tip 
of the fore-wings is broadly black, and marked with several 
white spots, and the hind-margin is also black. On the hind- 
wings the hind-margin is spotted with black, and within it is 
an interrupted black line, followed by a row of round spots. 
There is also a blue spot at the anal angle. On the under 
surface, the fore-wings are pink, with the tip yellowish-grey, but 
otherwise nearly the same as on the upper surface. The hind- 
wings are yellowish-grey, marbled with different colours, and 
marked with a large white triangular spot in the centre. There is 
a bluish line, scarcely divided into spots, on the hind-margin ; 
and within it are four black eyes in pale rings. The Butterfly 
appears in summer and autumn. 

The larva is very spiny, of a brownish-grey colour, with 
interrupted yellow lines along the sides. It is solitary, and 
feeds on different species of thistle, also on nettle, mallow, 
artichoke, and several other plants. 

The pupa is nearly of the same hue as the larva, but is 
thickly spotted with gold. 

Like other species of the group, P. cardui sometimes ex- 


hibits some very curious aberrations, one of which is figured 
on p. 99. 


Junonia, Hiibncr, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 34 (1816); Doubl., 
Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 206 (1849) ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., 
ii., p. 125 (1S87). 

The genus Junonia and its allies are the tropical representa- 
tives of our Vanessa, from which they differ by their naked 
eyes. But they can hardly be said to surpass our Vanessa 
either in size or beauty, for though their colours are more 
sharply contrasted, the shading is not so soft, nor the colour so 
harmoniously arranged as in V. io, for example. 

In Junonia the wings are more or less dentated, the fore- 
wings broad, triangular, not much longer than the hind-wings, 
and the hind-margin generally more or less concave. The 
hind-wings are regularly rounded, rather long, and often 
slightly produced at the anal angle, though not to anything 
like the same extent as in Precis (Hubner), in which the anal 
angle is often lengthened out into a short pointed tail. 

The typical genus Junonia occurs in all the warmer parts of 
the Old World (Eastern and Southern Asia as far west as 
Asia Minor), and is also represented in various parts of 
North and South America ; but the greater number of species 
are met with in the East Indies ; and there are several species 
closely allied to the Indian ones in Africa. They are generally 
brown, banded or spotted with buff or tawny, and often with a 
large blue patch, or band, on the hind-wings. Two of the 
Indian species, J. almana (Linn.) and J. asterie (Linn.), are 
tawny, with at least one very large eye-spot on each wing ; but, 
in many species, the eye-spots are rather small. 

The larvae are set with branching spines, as in Vanessa. 


(Plate XIX., Fig. \) 

Vanessa orthosia, Godart, Enc Meth., i.w, p. 821 (1823); 

Lucas, Le"pid. Exot., p. 116, pi. 59, fig. 3 (1835). 
Papilo orithya, (nee L.) Cramer, Pap. Exot., iii., pi. 281, figs. E, 

F; iv.j pi. 290, figs. C, D (1780). 

This is a brown Butterfly, about two inches in expanse, with 
the outer half of the wings inclining to buff or yellowish, the 
colour forking towards the costa of the fore-wings. There are 
two eyes in the sub-marginal region of each wing, which are 
black, with large white pupils on the fore-wings, and surrounded 
with tawny rings ; on the hind-wings they are much larger, the 
pupils are varied with blue and white, and the outer rings are 
reddish, with a narrow black rim. Towards the hind-margin 
are two or three black lines ; and on the costa of the fore- 
wings are two tawny stripes, bordered with black. The under- 
surface, as usual, is paler. 

This Butterfly is found in Amboina. Some of the North 
American species ofijanonia closely resemble it in the unusually 
large eyes. It is also allied to the East Indian and African 
J. orithya (Linn.), which has blue hind-wings. 


Ethiopian Region. 

Although several species of Junonia closely allied to, if not 
identical with, Indian species, are found in Africa, yet the most 
plentiful of African Butterflies of the Vanessa group are the 
species of Precis (Hiibner) ; a genus, however, which is dis- 
tinguished by very slight characters. The wings are generally 
more or less deeply concave on the hind-margin, commencing 
with a projection below the tip, sometimes slightly marked, 
and sometimes forming a strong tooth ; there is also usually a 


A CyrvthxcL JuUaruz. 
2. AnartLcL anuxttheay. 


slight projection above the hinder angle; in some species, 
however, as in the bright blue Precis rhadama (Boisduval), 
from Madagascar, the hind-margin is hardly concave. The hind 
wings are denticulated, and the anal angle is generally produced 
into a point, and sometimes into a short tail, and there is 
frequently a more or less strongly pronounced angular projec- 
tion in the middle of the hind-margin. These are Butterflies of 
moderate size, usually measuring about two inches or more 
across the wings, and are generally brown, with tawny bands, 
or with the tawny colour spread over most of the wing ; 
while P. amestris (Drury) and its allies are blue, with a sub- 
marginal row of red spots. Sometimes there are one or more 
distinctly-marked eyes towards the anal angle of the hind- 

Their habits resemble those of Vanessa. 

Salamis, Boisduval, is another African genus closely allied 
to Precis, but considerably larger, measuring three or four inches 
across the fore-wings, which are always sub-falcate below the 
tip, and then strongly concave ; the hind-wings are strongly 
angulated or sub-caudate at or below the middle of the hind- 
margin. There are also conspicuous sub-marginal eyes on the 
under surface of the wings, represented above by brown spots, 
but the one at the anal angle is well marked on both sides of the 
wings. The most characteristic species of the group are those 
allied to S. anacardii (Linn.), several of which are common in 
Africa and Madagascar. They are white or pearly-white, often 
mure or less suffused with a pinkish iridescence, and with more 
or less broad brown borders and brown sub-marginal spots. 
Other species are blue. 

Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions. 

Precis is represented by several species in these countries. 
They are generally brown, with darker transverse lines, and 
some of them are ornamented with a sub-marginal row of 



red eyes. The wings, as a rule, are much less strongly angu- 
lated than in many of the African species, and only slightly, if 
at all, produced at the anal angle of the hind-wings. 

The genus Pseudergolis (Felder) differs from Precis in the 
very long club of the antennae. The wings are dentated, with 
a slight projection on the hind-margin of the fore-wings above 
the middle. The commonest species, P. veda (Kollar), found 
in North India, measures about two inches across the wings, 
which are of a golden brown, with three black transverse lines, 
the outermost zig-zag, and between the two outer lines runs a 
row of black spots. 

Rhinopalpa (Felder) much resembles the African genus 
Salami's, but the costa of the fore-wings is less strongly arched. 
The tip of the fore-wings is produced, there being a slight pro- 
jection below it, under which the hind-margin is concave, but 
less deeply than in Salamis, nor does the hinder angle project 
so much. The hind-wings are rectangular or obtusely angu- 
lated, with a tooth or short tail at the angle. The colour, how- 
ever, differs very much from that of Salamis. The species of 
Rhinopalpa, which measure two or three inches across the 
wings, are reddish or tawny, with brown borders, or they may 
be brown, with a broad orange band across both wings. Dif- 
ferent species are found in Malacca, the Philippines, Java, 
Sumatra, New Guinea, &c. 

Neotropical Region. 

In addition to the American species of Junonia, the only 
other representative of this group is Napeoclesjucunda (Hiibner), 
a fine insect, four inches in expanse, with a very sharp projec- 
tion on the hind-margin below the tip, under which is a deep 
concavity. The hind-wings are rounded and sinuated, with 
the anal angle projecting inwards in a large obtuse tooth, and 
the outer part of the inner margin is deeply concave. It is a 


dark brown Butterfly, with a broad blue band running across 
the central part of the wings between the middle of the fore- 
wings and the middle of the hind-wings ; there is also a blue 
spot towards the tip of the fore-wings. Bates remarks that it 
"is found only in swampy and thinned parts of the forest that 
clothe the delta-lands of the Amazons. ... It prefers 
the humid cacao-groves on the islands, settling on fallen fruits ; 
its flight is low, but exceedingly swift." 

Kallima, Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 224 (1850) 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 128 (1SS7). 

The species of Kallima are insects of considerable size. 
They are allied to the Vancssce, with the wings very broad in 
proportion to their length, the fore-wings pointed, and some- 
times slightly hooked, and the hind-margin first concave and 
then convex. The hind-wings are much produced at the anal 
angle, within which the inner margin is concave. The projec- 
tion usually takes the form of a short, broad, and rather obtuse 
tail. The wings are usually either brown or blue above, with 
a broad orange-yellow, blue, or white band running obliquely 
from the middle of the costa of the fore-wings to below the 
middle of the hind-margin. On its inner side there are generally 
two transparent spots, but the under side of the wings is far 
more remarkable, for it is always of a more or less varied brown 
or grey, exactly resembling a withered leaf both in colour and 
markings, when the wings are closed. A darker line, corres- 
ponding to the mid-rib of the leaf, runs from the tip of the 
fore-wings to the tail on the hind-wings ; and there are some- 
times lateral lines as well. The species of Kallima inhabit India 
and the Malayan islands. One or two are found in Africa, but 
they differ a little from the types of the genus, as the fore-wings 
are less pointed, and the resemblance of the under side to a 

M 2 

106 Lloyd's natural history. 

withered leaf is much less remarkable. In the African species, 
also, the leaf-like pattern of the under surface is not always 
identical, and the same species often exhibits several forms of 
leaf pattern below. 

(Plate XX., Fig. I.) 

Kallima huttoni, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1S79, P- I2 > 
De Nicev., Butterflies Ind., ii., p. 263, note (1886). 
There are several Indian species of Kallima much resem- 
bling the one figured by us. K. huttoni is a native of Northern 
India, and was originally described from Masuri. It measures 
three inches or rather more across the wings, which are of a 
rather dull blue at the base. The fore-wings are crossed by 
an oblique orange band, moderately broad, and running from 
the middle of the costa to above the hinder angle. On its 
inner side this is narrowly and not sharply bordered with black, 
and is rather irregular ; one of the indentations contains a 
small cblong transparent spot. The outer portion of the wing 
beyond the band is black, with a white sub-apical spot ; the 
apex of the wing is not very pointed ; the blue of the hind- 
wings shades into broad brown borders on the inner and hind 
margins, and there is a zigzag blackish sub-marginal line run- 
ning down into the tail on the hind-wings, and slightly con- 
tinued on the fore-wings near the hinder angle ; the under side 
is brown, speckled with black, and with a blackish line edged 
outside with dark reddish-brown, running from the costa near 
the tip of the fore-wings to the end of the tail on the hind- 
wings. There are also three dark brown stripes running 
obliquely towards it from the basal half of the costa of the fore- 
wings, tint nearest the base being the broadest, and continued 
across the upper part of the hind-wings. A sub-marginal zig- 
zag brown line runs across all the wings, turning inwards about 


/ Z. liiUrtna \nttfom 
• ).iScffh* rvLeornAcLes 
4. Thol-er-ovifi u>tu/i 


the middle of the hind-wings, and running somewhat obliquely, 
and indented to the middle line. At about the point where 
the sub-marginal line is cut by the upper sub-costal nervure, 
another brown line runs obliquely to the central line, nearly 
parallel to the straight lower part of the sub-marginal line. 
Outside this inner line is a row of five very indistinct eyes 
with grey rings and small black pupils, the fifth, however, 
having a white pupil instead of a black one. On the fore- 
wings the oblique transparent spot stands just outside the cen- 
tral line, opposite the point where the first inner line adjoins 
it ; this spot is surrounded by a pale yellowish iris, like those 
on the hind-wings, and there is a row of black spots above it, 
between the nervures, running obliquely outside the central 
line. The sub-apical vitreous spot is also, of course, visible 
on the under side. 

This species is very similar to several others from North 
India, but may be known by its somewhat obtuse fore-wings, 
and the inconspicuous central vitreous spot. In some of the 
other species the tip of the fore-wings is long and pointed. 

The specimens in the British Museum are from Masuri and 


In addition to the African representatives of KaU'una, we 
find the smallest species of this group, belonging to the genus 
Coryphceola, Butler, in Madagascar. The type of this genus, 
C. eurodoce, Westwood, much resembles a Precis in size and 
colour though not in shape ; it measures about two inches 
across the wings, which are brown, with a fulvous band, mar- 
ginal on the hind-wings, but sub-marginal and curving inwards 
to the costa on the fore-wings. The tip of the fore-wings is 
strongly falcate, and the anal angle of *he hind-wings, which are 
rather long and not angulated, is produced into a tail, curving 
slightly outwards. 

icS Lloyd's natural history. 

Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions. 

The species of Dolescliallia, Felder, measure three or four 
inches across the wings, but are, on an average, smaller than 
KaUima. The wings are narrower, the fore-wings being 
slightly produced at the apex, but not pointed or falcate, and 
the hind-margin is slightly and regularly concave. The hind- 
wings are rather long, with the hind-margin gradually curved, 
and are produced into a short obtuse tooth at the anal angle. 
They are reddish or tawny at the base, with more or less of 
the hind-margins, and the apical region of the fore-wings, black. 
They have no transparent spots, but generally well-marked eyes 
on the under surface ; and the leaf-like colouring is not more 
pronounced than in many other genera of Nymphalidce. 

There are several species, the genus ranging from India to 


Anar/ia, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 2,0 ( lSl6 ); Doubl., 
Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 214 (1849); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett., ii., p. 126 (1887). 

This is a small genus of Tropical American Butterflies, 
resembling Vanessa, but belonging to the sub-group with naked 
eyes; and differing from all the allied genera in having the 
first branch of the sub-costal nervure more or less united with 
the costal. The wings are rather short and broad, with open 
wing-cells, and there is a short tail at the outer lower angle of 
the hind-wings. Only about four species are known, but they 
are very common insects; and Bates remarks: "The species 
have the habits and mode of flight of the Vanessa and Junonicz, 
and are found only in open, weedy, and bushy places, chiefly 
in the neighbourhood of towns." 

The larvas are clothed with long, soft, diverging hair on the 


sides of each segment, and feed on Cassava, and other com- 
mon American plants. 


Papilio amalthea, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 478, no. 118 
(1758); Clerck, Icones, pi. 40, fig. 3 (1764); Cramer, 
Pap. Exot, hi., pi. 209, A, B (1780). 

Papilio amathea, Linn., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 288 (1764). 

Vanessa amathca, Godt., Enc. Meth., ix., p. 29s, no. 4 (1819). 

Anartia amalthea, Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 216, pi. 24, 

fig- 5 (i847). 

This pretty insect measures two inches or move across the 
wings, which are dark brown, with a broad red band, variable 
in width, running from below the costa of the fore-wings, 
where it is bifid, nearly to the anal angle of the hind-wings ; 
on the latter it is intersected with a black line. Beyond this 
there are two rows of white spots on the fore-wings, and one 
on the hind-wings, and the fringes are also chequered with 
white. Towards the anal angle of the hind-wings are several 
red spots. The under side is yellowish-brown towards the 
base, and brown towards the margins, the white spots being 
distinct, but the red markings more or less obsolete. The 
body is dull black above, and the club of the antennas is 
tipped with reddish. 

The Butterfly is very common throughout Southern and 
Central America. The other species resemble A. amalthea in 
shape, but are brown, with white transverse bands, and tawny 
markings ; or white, with brown and tawny markings ; always 
with an ocellated spot towards the hinder angle of the wings. 


After Anartia we may place three genera belonging to the 
Vanessa group, which were formerly included with Elymnias 

no Lloyd's natural history. 

and some few other genera in a heterogeneous family called 
Eurytelidce, which is now abolished. The species are of 
rather small size for Nymphalid<x, measuring only about an 
inch and a half, or two inches at most, across the wings, and 
are confined to Africa and the East Indies. The genus 
Eurytela (Boisduval) has rather short, broad, denticulated 
wings, and the fore-wings have usually a slight projection on 
the hind-margin a little below the tip, and a slighter one 
above the hinder angle, and between these the middle of the 
hind-margin is slightly and regularly concave. The hind-wings 
are also emarginat3 in the black and white E. fulgurata (Bd.), 
from Madagascar. They vary considerably in colour ; the 
commonest African species are E. dryope (Cramer), and E. 
hiarbas (Drury). These are brown Butterflies, with a con- 
spicuous sub marginal band, orange-tawny in the former, and 
white in the latter species, this band being broadest towards 
the anal angle of the hind-wings, and tapering gradually towards 
the costa of the fore-wings, which it does not reach. They are 
described by Mr. Trimen as sporting around bushes. One of 
the Eastern species, ii. castelnaui, Felder, from Malacca, Borneo, 
&c, is of a beautiful blue on the upper side of the wings. 

The genus Ergolis, Boisduval, has broader and less dentated 
hind-wings, though the hind-margin of the fore-wings is always 
concave in the middle. The East Indian species are generally 
brown above, wiih dark transverse zig-zag lines, and the under 
side is brown or inownish-red, with dark transverse lines. The 
dilated costal nervure will distinguish this genus from Pseud- 
ergolis, which it much resembles. Except in colour, it also much 
resembles Eurytela, and the larvae of both are spiny, with 
bifid spines on the head. The species of Ergolis frequent open 
bushy places. The African species are brown, often more or 
less suffused and banded with blue. 

Hypanis, Boisduval, the third genus of this little group, is 
found, like the two preceding genera, both in Africa and India, 


but differs from them in the nearly entire margins of the wings, 
which are fulvous, with black markings toward the base, costa, 
and hind-margins ; the under surface of the hind-wings is buff, 
with black spots or white lines. Mr. Trimen describes the 
South African species as frequenting grassy and bushy places 
on the borders of woods, flying low, and not rapidly, and often 
settling on the ground or on the herbage. 


The Butterflies of this section stand between the Vanessa 
and Catagrammcz, and are of moderate size, and usually of 
splendid colours. 

With the exception of the genus Crem's, Boisduval, which is 
African, they are all confined to Tropical America. Most of 
them are black or brown Butterflies, measuring two or three 
inches across the wings, and splendidly adorned with blue, 
green, yellow, white, or orange. Red, so usual a colour in 
Catagramma and its allies, is rather uncommon in the present 
group, and, where it does occur, it is generally confined to the 
base of the under side of the fore-wings. Sometimes the latter 
are more or less produced at the tip, with the hind margin 
slightly concave beneath, and the hind-wings are rounded and 
often slightly denticulated, but never tailed. They are insects of 
strong flight, the males frequenting sunny places, or the banks 
of streams, while the females, which are often very dissimilar, 
and frequently much duller in colouring, conceal themselves 
in the forest, and are much more rarely seen. Some are so 
unhke the males as to have been placed in different genera, 
before their relationship was discovered. The larvae have 
long branching spines on the head, in addition to the shorter 
spines on the body. 

The genus Eunica, Hiibner, is the most extensive of this group, 
and is numerously represented in all parts of Tropical America 

ii2 Lloyd's natural history. 

The species are black or brown, and measure about two inches 
in expanse, and the males are adorned with rich blue or purple, 
differently arranged in various species, sometimes spreading 
over a great part of both wings from the base, sometimes con- 
fined to the fore wings, sometimes forming a sub-marginal 
band, and sometimes forming a sub-costal band on the fore- 
wings. One species, however, E. margarita (Godart), is nearly 
white, but some are brown in both sexes. The females are 
generally brown, with white markings on the fore-wings. The 
latter in this genus are generally not much longer than the 
hind-wings, and are not excavated, though sometimes slightly 
produced on the hind-margin below the tip. The under side 
of the hind-wings is generally light brown, with two transverse 
black lines, and a series of ocellated spots within them, con- 
sisting of a black pupil, sometimes centred with white, and an 
outer black ring, separated from the pupil by a space con- 
colorous with the ground-colour. 

Libythina, Felder, contains only one species, L. cnvieri 
(Godart), found on the Lower Amazons, and in the West Indies. 
It is brown, with the outer part of the fore-wings black, spotted 
with bluish-white, and measures an inch and a half across the 
wings. It may be known from any other Butterfly of this 
group by its very long palpi, and its long hind-wings, which 
are slightly pointed, the hind margin and inner margin con- 
verging in a somewhat unusual manner. Bates describes it as 
not being a forest insect, but as frequenting swampy meadows, 
where both sexes fly slowly about low bushes. 

Closely allied to Eunica is the one African, indeed, the only 
Old World genus of this group, Crenis, of Boisduval. The 
South African species are brown, with tawny markings ; the 
fore-wings are considerably produced at the tips, and the hind- 
wings have a sub-marginal row of eyes on the under surface, 
sometimes indicated above. The species found in Madagascar 
is similarly col jurcd. 


Those met with on both coasts of Tropical Africa are larger 
and broader-winged insects, generally exceeding two inches in 
expanse, and with the fore-wings hardly produced at the tips. 
They are adorned with very delicate tints of mauve or light 
blue; the fore-wings are orange beneath, and the hind-wings 
are banded or spotted with blue and orange in varying pro- 

Mr. Trimen describes the South African species as flying 
about trees, and settling on the trunks and branches ; the pupa 
has a bifid head. 

The handsomest South American genera of this group of 
Nymphalina. are Epip/tik and Afyscelia of Doublcday, and 
Catoneplielc of Hiibncr. In all these the hind-margin of the 
fore-wings is frequently more or less concave below the tip. 

The species of EpipJiile measure two inches or a little more 
in expanse, and there is usually a slight tooth on the hind- 
margin of the fore-wings below the tip. The wings are 
black, sometimes suffused with blue or purple, and broadly 
banded with orange across both wings. There is a second 
band on the fore-wings, present even when the inner band is 
absent, owing to the prevailing colour of the wings being blue 
or brown ; and this is sometimes yellowish, or even white. 
Towards the tip of the fore-wings is a conspicuous white spot. 
On the under surface the fore-wings resemble the upper side ; 
the hind-wings are usually of a purplish-brown, with a sub- 
marginal row of eyes, which, though well-defined, is nearly ob- 
literated by the ground-colour, and there is a whitish mark on 
the middle of the costa. 

The typical species of Myscelia resemble Epiphik in size and 
shape ; but there is a tendency to angulation in the hind-wings 
of several species. The commonest of these is the Brazilian 
M. orsis (Drury), which is of a brilliant blue with white 
spots in the male. It measures about two inches across the 

ri4 Lloyd's natural historv. 

wings ; the female is larger, and is brown, with a white stripe 
in the cell of the fore-wings, white spots on the fore-wings 
and white lines on the hind-wings, arranged in a similar way 
to that seen in so many Eastern Butterflies of the Limeiiitis 
group, especially in the genera Nepiis and Athyina. 

The genus Catonephele, Hiibner, includes the largest and 
handsomest Tropical American species of this group, and those 
in which the sexes are most dissimilar. The males are black 
in the first section, with a broad orange band across both wings, 
which is sometimes interrupted near the tip of the fore-wings, or 
replaced by two large orange spots. The females are black, 
with yellow markings, arranged as in Neptis or Athyma, or are 
black, banded with yellow on the fore-wings, and with either a 
large orange blotch, with black markings, on the hind-wings, or 
with some bluish sub-marginal lines. The second section is 
black, with an oblique greenish-blue band on the fore-wings, 
and a sub-marginal band on the hind-wings, or the hind-wings 
in the male are orange at the base, or banded with orange ; 
the wings being green beneath in both sexes. The species of 
Catonepliek measure three inches across the wings ; and the 
fore-wings, which are nearly entire in the males, are produced 
at the tip in the females, with the hind-margin concave. Bates 
writes : " They are forest Butterflies, the males being seen 
sporting in the gleams of sunlight which penetrate the dense 
shades, and the females wandering among the lower trees. I 
bred one species of this genus, C. aconlius, of Linnaeus. The 
larva is light green, with steel-blue head, and is armed with 
branched spines, two of which on the head are of great length 
and verticillate ; the pupa is light green, varied with pink, and 
has the back of the thorax deeply excavated, and irregular in 

The male of Catonepliek obrina (Linn.) is a black, blue- 
green, and orange Butterfly, with a green under surface. It 


was one of the first insects which attracted the special atten- 
tion of Wallace and Bates near Para, and Dr. Wallace records 
his subsequent disappointment when, on laying down his col- 
lecting-box for a few moments in the verandah of the house 
where they were staying, he found it already full of ants, and 
several of his specimens destroyed. 

Some of the smaller species of this group are fulvous or 
yellowish-fulvous above, with black tips to the fore-wings ; one, 
Peria /amis (Cramer), which does not measure more than an 
inch and a quarter across the wings, is brown above, and 
dull yellow, with transverse black lines and intermediate spots, 
below. It is widely distributed in the north of South 


Catagramma, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lepid., i., pi. 9, fig. 2 
(1836); Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 243 (1850); 
Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 147 (1888). 
Type, Catagramma pygas (Godart). 
There are a great number of middle-sized or rather small 
Nymphalina in Tropical America, distinguished by the absence 
of spines on the first joint of the tarsi in the female, and by 
the spiny larvae. Many of these are adorned with the most 
beautiful colours and patterns, and among them the genus 
Catagramma and its immediate allies hold a conspicuous 

Most of these species are of a velvety-black, with blue, green, 
crimson, or ochreous bands and markings on the upper sur- 
face ; but three of the more important genera can be readily dis- 
tinguished by the markings of the under surface alone. Thus, 
Callicore, Hiibner, is black above, generally with a blue or green 
band across the fore-wings, and a border of the same colour to 
the hind-wings. The under surface of the fore-wings is red, with 

116 Lloyd's natural history. 

a broad black border, crossed by grey stripes, or the apex is 
greyish. The hind-wings are of a light grey, with more or less 
broad and complete black rings running all round, unless par- 
tially interrupted on the costa. Within these are two smaller 
rings, each enclosing two black dots or spots. The English in 
Brazil call these Butterflies " Eighty-eights," on account of the 
similarity of the central markings to the figures 8S. They 
measure about an inch and a half across the wings. The 
species of Perisama, Doubleday, are rather larger, and are 
similarly marked above, but usually have brassy green or blue 
radiating markings at the base of the fore-wings in addition. 
On the under surface, the fore-wings are sometimes marked as 
in Callicore, but are frequently more or less black, with blue 
markings, or are yellow at the base and tip. The hind-wings 
are grey, brown, or yellow, with two parallel lines, and a row 
of small black spots between. In Catagrainma the upper side 
is usually marked with large bands or masses of red, variously 
arranged in different species, and also occurring in the females. 
The red markings are often replaced by orange, or by an inter- 
mediate shade. Many of the species are coloured as in C. 
aslarte (Cramer) which we have figured ; others are marked 
with two very large eyes on the under surface of the hind- 
wings, or with yellow stripes on a black ground, which some- 
times cover nearly the whole of the wing, or are intersected by 
a row of bluish spots. In fact, the species of Catagramma are 
nearly always more or less adorned with blue spots beneath. 
They have a rather lofty flight, and are fond of settling on the 
trunks of trees. Callicore is described as having a rather slow, 
sailing flight, but it shares with some species of Catagramma 
the habit of settling on filth, or at the edges of pools. 


Nymphalis pygas, Godart, Enc. Me'th., ix., p. 423, no. 232 


Catagramma pygas, Blanchard, Voy. Pole Sud, Ins., p. 222, 
no. 7S6, pi. 32, figs. 6, 7 (1814) j Herrich Sch'aff., Ausser- 
curop. Schmett., pi. 9, figs. 15-18 (1853). 
Catagramma hydaspes, Boisd (nee Drury), Spec. Gen. Lep., i., 
pi. 9, fig. 2 (1836). 
A brown Butterfly, flushed with blue in the male, and with 
the base of the fore-wings red below the costa to the end of 
the cell, or beyond, and above the inner margin nearly to the 
hind margin. There is a short macular oblique whitish or 
yellowish stripe across the tip of the fore-wing, and a pale 
b!ue sub-marginal stripe towards the anal angle of the hind- 
wings. On the under surface of the hind-wings there is a row 
of long blue dishes beyond the inner rings; of the latter, 
the uppermost contains four bluish-white spots, and the lower, 

This species, which is the type of the genus Catagramma, 
measures about two inches across the wings, and is common 
in Brazil. 


{Plate XXL, Fi^s. 1,2.) 

Papilio astarte, Cram., Pap. Exot., iii., pi. 256, figs. C. D. 

Catagramma sinamara, Hewitson, Exot. Butterflies, i., Cat., 
pi. 3, figs. 20, 21 (1884:? ?). 

The male of this species measures about two inches and a 
quarter across the wings, which are black above, with crimson 
markings ; the hind-margins are marked with white between 
the nervures. The fore-wings are crimson from the base 
nearly to the middle, except narrowly along the costa ; and 
this colour is continued from the base of the hind-wings as a 
broad band, rounded at the end, nearly to the hind-margin. On 

1 1 8 Lloyd's natural history. 

the fore-wings a crimson band runs somewhat obliquely from 
beyond the middle of the costa to above the anal angle, and 
before the tip is a third short crimson dash. On the hind- 
wings there are two small white dots near the anal angle. The 
under surface of the fore- wings resembles the upper, but there 
is a short ochreous streak at the base of the costa, the red 
band is slightly ochraceous at the extremities, and the sub- 
apical crimson spot is replaced by a short ochreous line, 
followed by a blue one. The hind-wings are black, with an 
ochreous line just beyond the base, curving round close to 
the inner-margin for three-fourths of its length. Beyond this 
is a large oval ochreous figure, starting from the costa, where 
it is slightly incomplete and edged by a black line, filling the 
greater part of the middle of the wing ; within it are three blue 
spots, arranged in a triangle, the uppermost being linear in 
shape, the lower ones rounded ; a short ochreous dash separates 
the upper one from the others. Beyond the oval figure is a 
curved row of eight blue spots, the upper ones linear, the 
lower ones rounded, extending from the costa to the inner 
margin ; and beyond these there is a sub-marginal ochreous 
curved line. 

The body appears to be black, with a red collar; the orbits 
are white, and the legs are spotted with black and white. We 
believe C. sinamara of Hewitson to be the female. It is 
orange-tawny over the greater part of the fore-wings, except to- 
wards the apical region, and has a short yellow stripe near the 
tip ; and the hind-wings are tinged with the same colour at 
the base. 

If C. sinamara turns out to be a distinct species, the female 
of C. astarte will certainly be found to resemble it. The 
Butterfly described and figured by Hewitson as the female of 
C. astarte in the "Transactions of the Entomological Society 
of London " (2), vol. 1, p. 100, pi. n, p. 3, is the true female of 


* > '*"W*JV~ u 

1.2. CatcLgrarrvnicL astca^te 
3. 4. HcematercL pyranvas. 


C. rynjsura (Doubleday and Hewitson), a species quite distinct 
from C. astarte. The latter has frequently been mistaken for 
C. codomannus (Fabricius), the type of which (a male) is in the 
Banksian collection in the British Museum, and is from Brazil. 
It is flushed with rich purple, as in C. texa, Hewitson — a species 
differing much from it in pattern -and the red at the base of 
the hind-wings does not extend below the median nervure. The 
inner-margin is damaged; but the specimen is otherwise 
identical with C. miles, Bates, in which the yellow sub-marginal 
line ceases before the anal angle, and the penultimate blue 
spot throws a spur outwards. In addition, the upper blue 
streak is separated, not by a short yellow dash, but by a nearly 
continuous stripe. 

Of C. miles, Bates writes: "This species closely resembles 
C. astarte in the colours of the under surface, the inner part of 
the black band left between the two yellow circles touching the 
costa, as in C. astarte. It entirely replaces C. astarte on the 
Upper Amazon, and is an abundant insect, especially near 
St. Paulo,* where every day in the showery season numbers 
are seen even in the village, enlivening with their bright crimson 
liveries the dull, muddy streets." 

Cramer described this species from Surinam, and I am not 
quite certain that the specimens which stand in different 
collections from various parts of South America under the 
names of C. astarte and C. codomannus, and which vary con- 
siderably among themselves, really belong to the former species. 
They do not possess the two white dots on the upper side of 
the fore-wings, and the pattern of the under side differs a little, 
especially towards the anal angle, and the bands are yellow 
instead of ochrcous. Of course these differences may be 
due to incorrect drawing or colouring; but I have found that 

* This town, on the Upper Amazons, must not be confounded with the 
province of the same name in South Brazil. 


120 Lloyd's natural history. 

in many cases where such inaccuracies are suspected, the 
suspicion has only been occasioned by attempting to fit a 
description or figure to an allied form from a different locality, 
and that, when one gets the right insect from the true locality, the 
author and draughtsman proved to have been more accurate 
than was supposed. By applying this rule I have often been 
able to re-e-t blLh disputed species, the identity of which had 
been considered insoluble, and I am therefore inclined to believe 
that when an author condemns a description or figure as 
inaccurate, the fault is at least as likely to rest with the critic, 
as with the original describer or artist, though I once met 
with extraordinary discrepancies in figures made from the 
same specimen by different artists. 

IFicmatera, Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 231 (1849); Schatz, 
Exot. Schmett, ii., p. 149 (1887). 
This is a small genus, containing only two South American 
species, much resembling Catagramma % but with rather shorter 
fore-wings and more slender antennae. The hind-wings are 
mottled beneath, without the sharply-defined markings which 
are so conspicuous in Catagramma. 

HjEMATERA pyramus. 

Papilio pyramus, Fabr., Spec. Ins., ii., p. 130, no. 590(1781) ; 
Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., iii., pi. 23, figs. 3, 4 (17S2); Stoll, 
Suppl. Cram., pi. 32, figs. C. C. A. (1790). 

Hccmatera pyramus, Staud., Exot. Schmett., i., p. 122, pi. 43 

{Plate XXF, Figs. 3, 4.) 

This prettily-coloured Butterfly measures about an inch and 
three-quarters between the tips of the wings, or rather less. It 
is blue-black above, with a broad curved scarlet band, which 
extends to about the middle of the hind-wings. On the under 


surface the fore-wings are red at the base, the apical half being 
brown, with grey markings. The hind-wings are irregularly 
mottled with grey and brown, and there is a row of bluish spots 
parallel to the hind-margins, which are yellowish, bordered 
with black and blue contiguous lines. This Butterfly is found 
in various parts of South America, as is also the type of the 
genus, H. thy she (Doubleday and Hewitson), which is smaller, 
with the red colouring of the fore-wings extending to the base. 

In the neighbourhood of Catagramma and its allies is to be 
placed another very beautiful genus of South American Butter- 
flies, Callithea (Boisd.). The species are generally considerably 
larger than those of Catagramma, measuring two inches and 
upwards in expanse, but they may usually be distinguished 
from them at a glance by the pattern and colouring of the 
wings beneath. The type of the genus is C. sapphira (Boisd.), 
in which the male is of the richest blue, with a broad velvety- 
black band running from the middle of the fore-wings to the 
inner-margin of the hind-wings ; the under side is bluish-green, 
with the inner-margin of the fore-wings black, and the hind- 
wings orange at the base, and with three rows of black spots 
parallel to the hind-margin. The female is black, with the base 
of the wings blue, the fore-wings with a broad oblique band of 
pale orange from the middle of the costa to the hinder angle, 
and the hind-wings with a dull green sub-marginal band on the 
lower half. Bates found this species abundantly in the dry 
woods near Santarem, sometimes even entering the town. The 
larva is armed with branching spines, two on the head being 
much longer than the rest. 

Other species of the genus are equally beautiful. They may 
be black, with or without purple at the base, and a marginal 
or sub-marginal band of blue or green on all the wings. Other 
species are blue or purple, with the basal half of at least the 

N 2 


fore-wings generally orange or red ; in these the base of the 
wings is generally broadly orange or red. Different species are 
found throughout the northern half of South America, where 
they seem to be local, but gregarious, and generally abundant 
in their own localities. They may always be known by the 
sub-marginal black spots on as much of the outer half of the 
under side of the hind-wings as the basal colouring leaves 
green. It is true that one or two species of Agrias are simi- 
larly coloured beneath, but these are much larger and more 
robust Butterflies, with dentated hind-wings, whereas the hind- 
margins of Callithea are entire. 


This is a little group of Butterflies peculiar to Tropical 
America, with broad, short wings ; the hind-margin of the fore- 
wings almost entire, and the hind-wings generally slightly den- 
tated, and produced at the anal angle. 

Callizona aceste (Linn.) is a tawny species, with more than 
the apical half of the fore-wings black, crossed by an oblique 
tawny band, and with white spots before the tip, the tip of the 
hind-wings being likewise black. The under side of the hind- 
wings is grey, with black stripes running obliquely outwards 
from the costa, and others running inwards to the inner mar- 
gin. In this genus, the hind-wings, though forming a rather 
long oval, are not denticulated or produced. C. aceste is a 
common South American insect, and is in the habit of settling 
on tree trunks, with its wings held perpendicularly. The larva 
is spiny, with short spines in the head, and the pupa has long 
appendages on the head, as in Ageronia. 

A still commoner insect throughout all Tropical America 
is Gynczcia dirce (Linn.), which greatly resembles Callizona 
aceste in its habits and transformations, but has shorter appen- 
dages on the head of the pupa. It is a larger Butterfly, gener- 


ally expanding over two inches, and the wings are brown ; the 
fore-wings having an oblique sulphur-yellow band running from 
near the base to just above the hinder angle. The hind-wings 
are sub-dentated, with a short truncated projection at the anal 
angle. On the under surface the band is white, and all the 
wings are more or less obliquely striped with intersecting grey 
and black lines, which are tinged with yellow towards the hind- 

Next to this genus Schatz and Rober place Smyrna, 
Hiibner, which includes one or two Butterflies from Mexico 
and Brazil, which were formerly placed near Agrias, Doubl., 
bat the discovery of the larva proves that their true affinities 
are with Gyncscia. They are much larger insects, measuring 
over three inches across the wings, which are marked above 
nearly as in Callizona aceste, but are of a deeper fulvous. The 
hind-wings are dentated, and are slightly excavated on the 
lower part of the hind-margin, and then produced at the anal 
angle into two short obtuse prominences, with a slight depres- 
sion between them. The under side of the hind-wings is 
brown, covered with a number of bluish-grey curving and un- 
dulating lines ; towards the centre runs a straight broad 
whitish band, with irregular edges, and towards the hind- 
margin is a row of variously-coloured eyes in several concentric 

Hypolimnas, Hiibner, or Diadema, Boisduval, as it was 
formerly called, is the typical genus of one of the most remark- 
able sections of mimicking species in the Nymphalincc. The 
Butterflies of this genus are large insects, generally expanding 
three or four inches across the wings, which are rather broad. 
The fore-wings are not much produced, and the hind-margin 
is generally slightly concave. The hind-wings are rounded, 
O." more frequently rather long, and more or less dentated, 

I2 4 Lloyd's natural history. 

rarely sub caudate or concave. The species are all tropical 
or sub-tropical, and are most abundant in the Indian and 
Austro-Malayan Regions, though the first two genera we have 
to notice are peculiar to Tropical America, and are distin- 
guished from the others by the strongly dentated hind-wings, 
with a short tail in the middle of the hind-margin. 

Victorina steneles (Linn.) is remarkable for its superfi- 
cial resemblance in colour to Metamorpha dido of Linnaeus, 
though the green is more broken into blotches on the fore- 
wings, and the cell is not filled up with green. The shorter 
fore-wings, strongly dentated hind-wings, and the black and 
tawny markings between the green blotches on the under side 
will readily distinguish it. Like M. dido, it is common 
throughout Tropical America, and Bates writes: "It fre- 
quents open sunny places, such as deserted plantations and 
the borders of woods." 

The species of Ampkircne, Doubleday, differ from Victorina 
in their shorter and broader wings, and still more in their 
colour. They are brown, with a white band across the wings, 
which is oblique on the fore-wings and sub-marginal on the 
hind-wings ; in V. superba, Bates, from Guatemala, the band is 
edged with blue ; and in V. epaphus (Latr.), the type of the 
genus, the apical region of the fore-wings is tawny. Th e 
smallest species of the genus, V. su/pitia (Cramer), found in 
Guiana, is brown, with a broad transverse white band, inter- 
rupted below the costa of the fore-wings ; it resembles a species 
of Ade/pha, Hiibner, or Pyrrhagyra, Hiibner, in appearance 
in the neighbourhood of which Victorina (which also formerly 
included Amphirene) has been placed by some writers. This 
species only measures about two inches and a half across the 
wings; the other species of the group measure nearly four 
inches in expanse. 

The species of Hypolimnas, Hiibner, are most numerous in 


the Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions. They are generally 
black, with blue and white markings; and the females are 
more or less tawny. One of the commonest species is H. 
misippus (Linn.), in which the male is black, with a white 
oblique band on the fore-wings, a smaller one at the tip, and 
a broader band or blotch on the centre of the hind-wings, all 
bordered on both sides with rich violet-blue. The under side 
of the fore-wings is paler brown, with a broad white transverse 
band, having a brown notch in the middle of the costal end. 
The female is, at first sight, almost indistinguishable from 
Limnas chrysippus (Linn.), but has a large black spot on the 
costa of the hind-wings, and no spots in the centre, where the 
discoidal cell is also quite open. It varies, moreover, in the 
same way as L. chrysippus. It is common in Tropica^ Asia 
and Africa, and has been introduced into the north of South 
America, 'in India and the Indian Archipelago there are a 
great number of closely-allied species, which used to be con- 
sidered local varieties of //. bolina (Linn.). The males are 
very similar to those of H. misippus, but the blue and white 
spots are smaller, and the white band of the under surface is 
narrower, duller, and not indented on the costa. The females, 
however, vary very much ; they are larger than the males, and 
sometimes resemble them, except in having a sub-marginal 
row of white dots; they are sometimes spotted and banded 
with white, with a large tawny blotch on the costa of the fore- 
wings, but sometimes they are entirely brown, with a sub-mar- 
ginal row of white dots, and a few blue spots towards the costa 
of the fore-wings. 

Among the other Eastern species are some which much re- 
semble Euplcea in colouring. Others belong to a group found 
in the Moluccas, &c, of which the largest and best known 
is H. pandarus (Linn.). This often measures nearly five 
inches across the wings, which are black, with a violet-blue 

i26 Lloyd's natupal msTORV. 

blotch on the hind-wings in the male, and connected sub- 
marginal orange markings. The female has two converging 
rows of large white spots on the fore-wings, and a broad sub- 
marginal orange band on the hind-wings, containing a row of 
oval black eyes, ocellated with pale blue. This band is repre- 
sented on the under side of the hind-wing in both sexes, and 
the blue pupils of the eyes are much larger. 

H. salmacis (Drury) is a common African Butterfly, four 
inches in expanse, and broadly banded with blue and white on 
a black ground. 

The African genus Euralia, Westwood, has rather longer 
and narrower fore-wings than typical Hypolinmas. The spe- 
cies are black-bordered, with white hind-wings, a white sub- 
apical band on the fore-wings, and a broader oblique one 
nearer the base, or a white space on the inner-margin. They 
mimic various species of the genus Amauris in the Danaince. 

PseudacrcEa, Westwood, is another African genus, which is 
usually placed in the neighbourhood of Hypolimnas, though 
Schatz and Rober consider it more nearly allied to Lime?iitis 
in its neuration. The species are black, with red spots and 
markings, or black and white, and closely resemble the larger 
species of Gnesia and Planema in colour. Some of the smaller 
species, however, which are found both in Africa and Mada- 
gascar, measure about two inches across, have shorter wings, 
green or white towards the base, and have but little resemblance 
to Acrmincc. 

There are several peculiar East Indian genera of rather 
small extent, which are almost confined to the Asiatic conti- 
nent, and are most numerous in Northern India. One of 
these is Heslina (Moore), the type of which, H. asstmilts 
(Linn.), is a common insect in India and China. It is about 
three inches in expanse, and is of a dark brown, with buff 
streaks and spots arranged in transverse lines on the fore- 


wings, and having streaks which radiate from the base between 
the nervures of the hind-wings, in the same way as in Tirnmala, 
and other genera of green Danaincz. The lower part of the 
hind-margin is broadly black, and marked with a row of large 
red spots. The hind-margin of the fore-wings is slightly con- 
cave, and that of the hind-wings is dentated and very slightly 
angulated in the middle. 

Calinaga, Moore, is a genus which was formerly regarded 
as allied to Pamassius, but is now placed near Hypolimnas 
It is brown, with broad dull white stripes radiating from the 
base, beyond which are larger spots, and then one or two 
irregular rows of spots between these and the hind-margin ; 
the thorax is red, and the antennae unusually short. The 
wings are almost entire. The insect measures about three 
inches in expanse, and is of a very peculiar form, the costa of 
the fore-wings being long, but the hind-margin is so oblique 
that the hind-wings, which are very long, and slightly angu- 
lated in the middle of the hind-margin, project far beyond the 
hinder angle of the tore-wings. The few known species are 
found in Northern India at a considerable elevation. 

Another curious genus is Euripus, Doubl., the type of 
which, E. halilherses, Doubl. and Hew., is a common North 
Indian species, about two inches in expanse. It is black, 
with the base spotted with white on the fore-wings, and 
streaked with white on the hind-wings, having also two rows 
of white sub-marginal spots. The hind-margin of the fore- 
wings is slightly concave below the middle, and the hind-wings 
are slightly angulated, with a deep concavity between the 
tooth at the angle, and the rather projecting anal angle. The 
female, which differs so much from the male that it was origi- 
nally described by Mr. Moore as generically distinct, under 
the name of Hestina isa, is larger, and has longer and more 
rounded wings. It is brown, with a broad oblique white 

128 Lloyd's natural history. 

bar on the fore-wings, and a sub-marginal row of spots ; on 
the hind-wings there are two rows of sub-marginal spots, 
and long white streaks radiating from the base between the 
nervures. This insect greatly resembles the female of Danisepa 
rhadamanthus (Fabr.), which belongs to one of the genera 
allied to Euplcea. 

Several very handsome species which are now generally 
referred to Euripus are met with in Japan ; but they are very 
unlike the small E. halitherses which we have just described. 
The hind-margins of the fore-wings are only slightly and 
regularly concave, and the hind-wings are broad, regularly 
curved, and dentated, but not angulated or emarginate. 
Among these is E. charonda of Hewitson, one of the largest 
and most beautiful Butterflies found in Japan, measuring from 
four and a half to six inches across the wings. The female, 
which is considerably larger than the male, is dark brown, with 
large ochreous spots, which become white towards the base; from 
the middle of the base of the fore-wings runs a slender white 
line. There is a sub-marginal row of ochreous spots round all 
the wings, largest on the hind ones. On the fore-wings there 
are three oblique bands of larger spots, the first consisting of 
a dumb-bell-shaped spot in the cell, with two larger ones below ; 
the second runs from before the middle of the costa to the 
lower sub-marginal spots, and the outermost meets the sub- 
marginal spots at a third of their length. The hind-wings have 
three rows of spots, the second rather irregular above, the 
innermost composed of very large spots below, and very small 
ones above. The male is similar, but is rich blue on all the 
wings, from the base to the second row of spots ; all the spots 
on the blue ground are white, and there is a large red spot at 
the anal angle of the hind-wings. 

This splendid insect flies very high, and it is difficult to 
obtain good specimens of it. It is most easily taken when 


sucking the sap of trees, exuding from the burrows formed by 
the larvae of large Moths belonging to the families Zeuzcridcc 
and Hepialidce. 

Herona marathus, of Doubleday and Hewitson, is another 
North Indian species of this group, with the hind-margins 
dentated, and a slight concavity in the middle of each. It is 
brown, with a tawny band running from the base of the fore- 
wings below the cell, and three, partly macular, bands from the 
costa. The hind-wings have two broad tawny bands, converging 
at the ends, running from the inner-margin, and a sub-marginal 
tawny line towards the anal angle. Most of the Butterflies of 
this group resemble those of other dominant genera, and 
H. marathus is very like some species of Athyma, Westw., or 
Abrota, Moore, genera belonging to the Limenitis group, as 
regards, colour and pattern. 

Among the largest of the North Indian species allied to 
Diadema is Penthema lisarda (Doubleday), which measures 
between five and six inches across the wings. It is black, 
with broad buff radiating stripes between the nervures on the 
disc, and with large sub-marginal spots beyond. In the cell 
of the fore- wings are two or three long spots and stripes; the 
hind-wings having broad buff stripes at the base in and below 
the cell. On the under surface the wings are strongly tinged 
with rust-colour, except on the disc of the fore-wings. The 
hind-wings are dentated, and rather long. 

Another curious species is the Chinese Isodema adehna 
(Felder). It is of a dull black ; on the fore-wings a row of large 
white spots runs from near the base to the hinder angle; 
another short row from the costa, just before the middle ; and 
there are two rows of small sub-marginal spots. On the hind- 
wings is a single row of white sub-marginal spots, diminishing in 
size from the tip to the anal angle. The wings expand about 
three and a half inches, the fore-wings are short and broad, 

j^o Lloyd's natural history. 

and the hind-wings form a long oval, and are regularly curved 
and dentated. 

Among other North Indian Butterflies allied to Hypolimnas> 
Out with the costa of the fore-wings straighter, and the hind- 
wings rounded and but slightly dentated, we may mention 
StibocJiiona, Butler. The Butterflies of this genus measure 
three inches across the wings, with some rows of blue and 
white sub-marginal spots. Neurosigma siva, of Westwood, is 
a pale tawny Butterfly, expanding four inches, with large 
black spots towards the base, and zig-zag lines beyond, while 
the hind-margins of the fore-wings are broadly black, with two 
rows of pale yellow spots. 

Mynes, of Boisduval, a small genus confined to Australia, 
New Guinea, Ceram, &c, is placed near Hypolimnas, by Schatz 
and Rober, though it was formerly considered to be more 
nearly allied to Charaxes (Ochs.). These Butterflies expand two 
inches or more across the wings ; the fore-wings are short and 
broad, and the hind-wings are rounded above, but almost 
rectangular below, with a projecting tooth at the outer angle, 
the space between this and the inner angle being dentated. 
The upper side is of a greenish-white with black borders, 
varying in width, and sometimes reducing the pale basal 
colouring to very small dimensions. The under surface varies 
in a similar way, but is nearly always adorned with red spots at 
the base and in different parts of the wings, and there are 
often yellow or bluish-green markings in addition, to relieve the 
plain black and white. 

Agei-onia, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 41 (1816); Doubl., 
Gen. Diurn. Lcpid., p. 81 (1847); Schatz, Exot. Schmett., 
ji., p. 156 (1887). 

Type, A. cJilo'c (Stoil). 


Antennae rather long, slender, and gradually thickened ; 
palpi rather short ; eyes naked. Wings rather broad, with the 
hind-margins rounded, and only slightly dentated; cells closed 
by rudimentary nervines, the fore-wings with the costa arched, 
and the hind-margin regularly curved. 

"The larvae resemble those of Epical in \Catomphele\ Cal- 
lithea, &c, in being armed with branching spines, and in 
having two longer spines projecting from the summit of the 
head. They differ from the larvae of allied species in having, 
besides the shorter spines of the body, several longer and 
thicker hispid lobes proceeding from the second, third, fifth, 
tenth, and eleventh segments. They feed on the leaves of a 
succulent climbing plant on the borders of woods. 

" The chrysalides have a deep notch on the dorsal surface 
of the thorax, and two long flattened appendages proceeding 
from the head." (Bates.) 

Boisduval and Doubleday treated this genus as a separate 
family, on account of the statement of Lacordaire that the pupa 
is girt with a silken thread ; but on Bates discovering that this 
was an error, the genus was removed to the Nymphahd<e. 
Since then, however, Schatz has pointed out that Dr. W. Muller 
has made further observations in the transformations oiAgcronia, 
from which it appears that the pupa has the habit of raising the 
fore part of its body into a horizontal position in daylight, but 
sinks back into the usual position of the pupre of the Nym- 
fihaHdcv, and hangs by the tail, when in darkness. That the 
species of Ageronia differ considerably both in habits and 
structure appears certain, and if this habit is peculiar to a species 
which was not bred by Bates (as is very possibly the case) it will 
account for his not having noticed it ; for had he done so, he 
would certainly have recorded it. I do not remember that such a 
habit has been noticed in the pupa of any other Butterfly. 
In many respects, this genus is one of special interest. The 


species are not very numerous, but they are extremely abun- 
dant in Southern and Central America, to which regions they 
are confined. They are all of a blue or dark brown colour 
above, with white, brown, or blue spots, and markings, and often 
with a white bar across the fore-wings, especially in the females. 
The hind-wings are sometimes marked with a row of rather 
large, but not very sharply defined, sub-marginal eyes. The 
under surface is in some species brown, with red spots ; in 
others, the fore-wings are marked beneath with black, white, 
and grey in varying proportions, and the hind-wings are 
white, red, or yellow, the borders being often varied with 
black and white. Only one species, A. chloe (Stoll),* is 
noticed by Bates as found in the shades of the forest ; the 
others frequent "orange orchards, and open sunny places in 
the forest, settling on trunks of trees with wings expanded, and 
when sporting or quarrelling with a companion, make a sharp 
cracking noise with their wings."' (Bates.) The peculiar stridu- 
lation of these Butterflies was first noticed by Darwin at Rio 
Janeiro, and recorded by him in the "Voyage of the Beagle." 


(Plate XXII., Fig. 1. Female.) 

$ Papilio arethusa, Cramer, Pap. Exot, i., pi. 77, figs. E. F. 


? Papilio laodamia, Cramer, op. tit., ii., pi., 130, fig. A. (1777). 

This species is common in many parts of Central and 
Southern America. Cramer received both sexes from Surinam, 
but they differ so much, that he naturally supposed them to be 
different species. His figure of the female is here copied. The 

* This is the type of the genus ; it is dark blue, with red spots in the cells 
of the wings, and numerous black ones beyond ; there is an incomplete 
sub-marginal row of black eyes with white pupils, and there are some 
whitish spots towards the tip of the fore-wings. 


female measures three inches across the wings, and the male a 
little less. The latter is of a velvety-black colour, with many 
rows of small blue spots, arranged in two or three rows along 
the hind- and inner-margins, and along the costa of the fore- 
wings, the costa of the hind-wings being light brown. The 
rows of blue spots in the cell of the fore-wings do not extend 
beyond it, and those on the inner-margin cease at about half 
its length, leaving the middle of both pairs of wings free from 
spots, within the sub-marginal rows, from below the costa of the 
fore-wings, to the inner-marginal spots of the hind-wings. In 
the female, which we have figured, the whole surface of the 
wings is covered with larger blue spots than in the male, ar- 
ranged in rows, more or less parallel to the hind-margins, or 
to the inner-margin of the fore-wings. A rather broad white 
band, with a slight yellowish shade and with parallel sides 
above, but sloping outwards to a point below, runs from the 
middle of the costa of the fore-wings to two-thirds of the 
length of the hind-margin. The costa of the hind-wings is of 
a light brown with some reddish markings. 

The body is black above, spotted with blue, and the under 
surface in both sexes is of a dull black (greyish-brown along 
the inner-margin of the fore-wings), and the pectus and base 
of the fore-wings are marked with several crimson spots ; the 
hind-wings are marked with a row of large crimson sub-marginal 
spots, usually obsolete towards the costa, and there is also one 
on the inner-margin. 

The insect varies a little in the number, size, and arrange- 
ment of the blue spots of the upper, and the red spots of the 
under surface, and I have seen no specimens exactly corre- 
sponding with Cramer's figures. Whether these variations are 
local, casual, or betoken closely-allied species rather than 
varieties, can only be ascertained either by breeding, or by 
the examination of large series from different localities. 

134 Lloyd's natural history. 

ageronia amphinome. 
{Plate XXII., Fig. 2.) 
Papilio amphinome, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 473, no. 95 
(175S); Cramer, Pap. Exot, i., pi. 54, figs. E. F. (1775). 

This Butterfly measures about three inches and a half across 
the wings, which are black above, covered with pale blue 
markings of various shapes ; one row of blue spots towards 
the hind-margin of the hind-wings is imperfectly enclosed by 
curves and angles in such a way as to form a series of incom- 
plete oval ocellated spots. From just beyond the middle of 
the costa of the fore-wings, a rather broad white band, with 
irregular edges, runs nearly to the hinder angle. The under sur- 
face is black, the basal area being occupied by crimson mark- 
ings divided by the nervures, and radiating outwards from the 
base, extending, parallel to the inner-margin, nearly to the 
anal angle on the hind-wings ; above the anal angle, the streaks 
are shorter, and partly broken into spots. The white band is 
well marked on the under surface, and more sharply defined 
than on the upper, though its edges are still irregular. There 
is also a row of marginal and sub-marginal white spots on all 
the wings, the latter being replaced on the lower part of the 
hind-wings by the red spots which form a continuation of the 
basal markings. 

It is a common Butterfly in Southern and Central America. 


Panacea, of Godman and Salvin, is considered to be the 
nearest allied genus to Ageronia, but the species are larger and 
more robust, and much more handsomely coloured. The species 
of Panacea, which are found in various countries of the northern 
half of South America, are blue, striped with black towards the 
base, and are black towards the apex of the fore-wings, and 
sometimes on the borders of the hind-wings ; the blue portion of 



the wings is bounded outside, at least on the fore-wings, by a 
broad green band ; the under side of the hind-wings is brown 
or red, with a slightly-marked row of ocellated spots. Of the 
habits of one of the best known species, P. prola (Doubleday 
and Hewitson), found in New Grenada and on the Upper 
Amazons, Bates remarks : " It descends into sunny openings, 
and into open grounds on fine days, entering the houses in 
villages and settling on the whitewashed walls, with its wings 
sometimes expanded and sometimes erect. Its flight is ex- 
tremely rapid and bold." About half-a-dozen species of Panacea 
are now known. 

Batesia, Felder, is another magnificent genus, of which one 
or two closely-allied species or varieties inhabit the north-west 
of South America. They measure about four inches across 
the wings, which are black above, with the base and centre of 
the hind-wings deep blue, and a broad oblique crimson band 
on the fore-wings. The under side shows no blue, but the 
hind-wings are dull yellow with a black border. 

Another South American genus which we may mention here, 
is Ectima, Doubleday, which includes rather small and incon- 
spicuous Butterflies, measuring about an inch and a half across 
the wings, which are shaped nearly as in Ageronia, but the hind- 
wings are a little more square. They are of a slaty-grey above, 
with a white oblique band on the fore-wings ; the under side is 
paler. There are only a few species known, but they are widely 
distributed in South America, and they sit with their wings 
expanded, after the fashion of Ageronia. 

Following the genera which are more distinctly allied to 
Ageronia, are placed some rather isolated Tropical Ameiican 
forms, distinguished by the inflated costal nervure, most of 
which were formerly located, with others, in the Eurytelidce. 

The first of these genera, Didonis, Illibner, is one of the 
most easily recognised of all the American Nymphaliruz. The 

136 Lloyd's natural history. 

Butterflies measure rather more than two inches in expanse, 
and have rounded wings and slightly denticulated hind-wings. 
The wings are smoky-brown, and the hind-wings have a bright 
red marginal or sub-marginal band ; on the underside, which is 
paler, the band is mixed with white, and there are some red 
spots near the base. There are only a few species or varieties, 
differing chiefly in the width of the red band. "The cater- 
pillars much resemble those of Agerojiia, and the Butterflies 
frequent waste ground on the borders of the forest, hovering 
slowly over bushes." (Bafes.) 

Next to Didonis we may place Cystineura, Hiibner, a genus 
with longer and narrower wings, but much smaller (expanding 
about an inch and a half), and very differently coloured. The 
species are black and white, or light brown and white, and 
several are peculiar to the West Indies, while others inhabit 
different parts of Southern and Central America. The prettiest 
is C. dorcas (Fabricius), which is common in Jamaica, and is 
of a pale orange-yellow. 

Vila,, is another South American genus, closely 
allied to the last. These Butterflies fly low, and hover over 
the herbage in the forest with expanded wings. They are 
about two inches in expanse, and are black, with very long 
fore-wings, rounded at the tip, and are not unlike some of the 
Ithomiince in shape, except that the wings, especially the hind 
ones, are broader. They are black, with a white transverse 
stripe near the base, and large white blotches on the fore- 
wings ; on the under side there is a large white blotch on the 
hind-wings also, and the dark portion of the wings is inter- 
sected by tawny stripes. 

The genus Pyrrhogyra includes larger insects, measuring two 
inches and upwards in expanse. The fore-wings are broad, 
hardly longer than the hind-wings, with the hind-margin 
slightly oblique. The '""ind-wings are long and broad, slightly 


dentated, and with a short tooth rather below the middle of 
the hind-margin. The wings are black, with a broad trans- 
verse white or pale green band running across both pairs of 
wings, and sometimes extending to the base and inner-margin 
on the hind-wings. It does not reach the costa of the fore- 
wings, but parallel to its upper end is an oblique stripe from 
the costa, and towards the tip is another small spot. On the 
under side the pale markings are more extended, and the dark 
spaces around and between them are intersected by red stripes. 
In shape and colouring these Butterflies resemble Victorina 
and Adelpha. 

The species of Pyrrhogyra are common and widely distri- 
buted in Tropical America. "They frequent narrow sunny 
openings in the lofty and humid forests, and have a sailing and 
wheeling flight, soaring rapidly to the tops of the trees, if rudely 
disturbed whilst hovering nearer the ground. The larvae of 
Pyrrhogyra tiphus and P. necerea (Linn.) resemble in shape and 
armature those of Epicalia {Catonephele) and Cal/ithea, having 
two long verticillate cephalic spines, and numerous shorter ab- 
dominal spines with radiating smaller spines at their tip." [Bates.) 


Ma/pesia, Hiibncr, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 47 (18 16). 

Type, M. eleucha, Hiibner. 

There is a small American group of tailed NymphalidcR 
comprising the two genera Timetes, Boisduval, and Marpesia^ 
Hiibner. They agree in the following characters : the long 
slender antennas, with an oval club ; the long, thickly scaled 
palpi ; the open wing-cells ; the short spur at the base of the 
median nervure on the fore-wings ; and in the long tailed 
hind-wings. They are generally brown, with pale bands, or 
tawny, with brown bands ; but they differ considerably in shape. 
Timcies has short triangular fore-wings, rarely pointed at 

o 2 

138 Lloyd's natural history. 

the tip, and in the hind-wings one long tail is developed at the 
outer angle, that at the anal angle being generally rudimentary, 
so that the insect much resembles a Papilio in shape. But in 
Marpesia the fore-wings are very long and pointed, and the 
hind-margins are very oblique from below the sub-apical pro- 
jection on the fore-wings to the base of the first tail on the 
hind-wings. The hind-wings are provided with two long tails, 
that at the anal angle being much shorter and broader than 
the other. There are intermediate forms between the two 
genera, but the figures on our plate represent that species of 
Marpesia which exhibits the peculiar characters of the gmus 
in greater perfection than even AT. eleucha (Hiibner), the type 
of the genus, which is nearly similar in colour, though paler, 
but has shorter and broader wings. The latter is more re- 
stricted in its range, being found in the West Indies and the 
Southern United States, whereas AT. peleus'vs, common through- 
out Tropical America. 

The larva of Marpesia peleus is naked, with four long, fleshy, 
filaments on the back, and two others projecting from the 
hinder part of the head. The pupa is likewise furnished with 
several projecting filaments. 

Bates describes the species of Timctes as frequenting 
sunny places in the forest, and flying about and sitting on the 
trees, or resorting to the moist banks of brooks or pools. 


(Plate XXV., Fig. 1.) 

Papilio peleus, Sulz., Abgek. Gesch. der Insecten, pi. 13, fig. 

Papilio thetys, Fabr., Gen. Insect., p. 264 (1777). 
Papilio pet reus, Cramer, Pap. Exot., i., pi. 87, figs. D. E. 
(1776); Stoll, Suppl. Cramer, pi. 2, figs. 2, a-c (1787). 

This curious Butterfly measures about three inches across 


the wings, which are very long and narrow, and of a very pe- 
culiar shape. The costa of the fore-wings is strongly arched, 
and bent downwards at the extremity, just below which, on 
the upper part of the hind-margin, is a strong projection. 
Under this the wing is deeply concave, and then the outline 
runs obliquely to the anal angle of the hind-wings. The hind- 
margins are regularly dentated, and at the anal angle of the 
hind-wings is a broad obtuse tail, curved slightly outwards and 
separated by a curve of about its own length from a rather 
narrower and much longer tail on the hind-margin. The 
wings are fulvous (almost " Fritillary " colour) and are crossed 
by three brown lines varying in width ; between the two first is 
a short streak near the costa of the fore-wings ; and sometimes 
two shorter ones between the base and the first line. The 
outer portion of the costa of the fore-wings, and a sub-marginal 
line, as well as the hind-margin of the .hind-wings, and the 
region of the anal angle, are likewise brown. Towards the anal 
angle of the hind-wings is a slightly marked brown eye, sur- 
rounded by one or two alternating grey and brown lines. The 
under side is of a purplish-brown, with some brown lines, partly 
bordered with whitish in the cell of the fore-wings, and traces 
of the three brown lines, the first and third more or less in- 
distinct, and edged with whitish on the outside, the middle one 
well marked, and edged with whitish on the inside. 

Stoll's account of the larva and pupa is as follows : " The 
head of this beautifully coloured caterpillar is dull yellow, 
with two short rays and small spots of black. The head is fur- 
nished with two long black spines, garnished with short stiff 
hairs. The first five segments of the body are reddish-brown, 
spotted with black. The belly is white, and the anterior legs 
black. The rest of the body is reddish-brown, but from the 
sixth to the eleventh segment the back is of a beautiful yellow, 
and bordered on the sides with short black and white rays. 


The back is armed with four long spines, the last of which 
placed on the eleventh segment, is curved backwards, and very 
similar to the horns with which most of the caterpillars of the 
Sphinges are provided. The intermediate and posterior legs 
are yellow. It feeds on the leaves of the cashew-tree (Ana- 
cardium occidentak), and transforms into a perpendicular chry- 
salis of a yellow colour, spotted with black, garnished with 
black spines on the head, thorax, and back. When the But- 
terfly is about to appear, the yellow colour changes into white." 
" A common insect in Tropical America, in open sunny 
places, gardens, plantations, and banks of streams ; settling on 
flowers, and on the ground in moist situations." (Bates.) 


The genus Cyrestis, Boisduval, is the Old World represen- 
tative of Timetes ; but it includes much more delicately formed 
species, with shorter tails, and generally with a strongly marked 
lobe at the anal angle of the hind-wings. The species are 
generally white, with or without darker borders, and marked 
with 6lender transverse lines of black, or pale yellow; some 
species are brown, with a transverse white band, and others 
are yellow instead of white. They have a stronger flight than 
might be expected from their weak conformation, and are in 
the habit of settling on the under side of leaves. The species 
measure from two to three inches across the wings, and in- 
habit India and the Malayan islands as far as New Guinea. 
One or two white species are found in West Africa and 

In typical Cyrestis the first and second sub-costal nervules of 
the fore-wings are emitted before the end of the cell, but Dis- 
tant has separated two or three of the smaller species formerly 
included in the genus, in which only the first sub-costal nervule 
is emitted before the end of the cell under a distinct genus, Cher- 


sonesia, Distant. The few species of Chersonesia known are 
found in India, Malacca, Java, &c, and hardly measure an 
inch and a half in expanse. They vary in colour from pale 
ochraceous to fulvous, with transverse brown bands, and the 
projecting tooth or tail of the hind-margin of the hind-wings is 
nearly obsolete, and the lobe at the anal angle wholly so. 


Limenitis, Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 281 (1807) ; 
Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 274 (1S50); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett, ii., p. 157 (1888). 

Type, Z. Camilla (Linn). 

Eyes hairy ; antennae long, thickening gradually from near 
the middle almost to the apex, the club being slender and 
elongated; palpi not approximating at the tip, bristly, the 
basal joint shortest and nearly oval, the second very long, and 
the terminal joint elongate-ovate, ending suddenly in a point ; 
fore-wings rather longer than broad, the hind-margin slightly 
oblique, about as long as the inner-margin; hind-wings rounded, 
the hind-margins slightly denticulated ; abdominal groove 
well marked ; legs alike in both sexes, the front pair short and 
slender, the tarsus consisting of a single joint ending in a small 
claw, the other tarsi with two claws, and a small pulvillus 
between them. 

The larva has a bifid head, obtuse fleshy projections on the 
back and numerous shorter spines, fringed with hair (Plate hi., 
fig. 7). The pupa has also a bifid head. 

Limenitis is at present a very ill-defined genus, and is used 
to include a number of species from Europe, Asia, the 
Eastern Archipelago and North America, which differ greatly in 
structure and neuration. Of the three European species which 
are generally referred to it, Z. ca?nilla is the only one which 
has hairy eyes, and the little group represented by Z. Camilla 


Linn. ( = L. Sibylla), and Z. drusilla, Bergstr. ( = Z. Camilla, 
D .mis), is entirely confined to Europe and Northern and Western 
Asia. Z. drusilla, which is common on the Continent, is more 
bluish-black than L. Camilla, and the white spots are more 
numerous and more detached. It differs a little in its habits, 
although it so much resembles Z. Camilla in appearance, and 
feeds, like the latter, on honeysuckle ; but it appears a little later 
in the summer, and prefers to sport round bushes. 

Linnaeus, in 1767, described the sexes of Z. sibylla under the 
names of Papilio sibylla and P. Camilla, but the latter name was 
subsequently adopted by continental entomologists for Z. dru- 
silla, though our "White Admiral" was generally called Z. 
Camilla by the older English waiters on entomology. This once 
gave rise to a very curious error. An amateur naturalist who 
used to travel about in out-of-the-way parts of the country, and 
make all sorts of wonderful discoveries, once announced that 
he had caught the White Admiral in a county where it had 
never been seen or heard of before, and where it was most un- 
likely to be found. On being asked to verify his assertion, he 
produced a specimen of Z. drusilla. If this Butterfly is ever 
rediscovered in the locality where he professed to have found 
it, it will be enough ; but until then, it is hardly uncharitable 
to imagine that he may have been fishing with a silver hook 
for Z. Camilla, and captured a continental specimen of Z. 
drusilla instead. 


[Plate XX III., Fig. 3 ; larva, pi. ill, Fig. 7.) 

Papilio Camilla, Linn., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 304 (1764); id. 
Syst. Nat. (xii.), i., p. 7S1, no. 187 (1767 s * ; Esper, 
Schmett., i. (1), p. 188, pi. 14, fig. 3 (1777) ; Aurivillius, 
Recens. Crit. Lepid. Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 101 (1S82). 


\ /> 

/. 2 Pyrantels ataianla 
3 . Ltm eniti.y i >.caniHcb. 


Paftilio prorsa, Linn., Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 303 (1764, nee 

Linn., Syst. Nat. 175S et 1767). 
Papilla sl/'llla, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii.), i., pt. 2, p. 781, no. 

iS5 A i 767) ; Esper, Sehmett., i., pt. 1, p. 187, pi. 14, fig. 2 


Limenitis Camilla, Curtis, Brit. Ent, iii., p. 124 (1S26); 
Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 52 (1127). 

Limaiitis slbylla, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 23, pi w, 
figs 2, a-e (1878) ; Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 162, pi. 38, 
fig. 1 (1S82); Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and 
Moths, i., p. 36, pi. 7, fig. 1 (1S86); Barrett, Lepid. 
Brit. I si., i., p. 117, pi. 17 (1892). 

This is one of the many insects which are almost confined 
in England to woods in the southern counties, where it was 
formerly much more abundant than at present. It has an 
elegant sailing flight through the glades and along the edges of 
woods, and appears in June and July. The contrast of black 
and white in this Butterfly makes it a very conspicuous object 
on the wing. Its flight is sustained, but not very lofty. 

Haworth (" Lepidoptera Britannica," p. 30) remarks: "The 
graceful elegance displayed by this charming species when 
sailing on the wing, is greater perhaps than can be found in 
any other we have in Britain. There was an old Aurelian of 
London, so highly delighted at the inimitable flight of P. Camilla 
that long after he was unable to pursue her, he used to go to 
the woods, and sit down on a stile, for the sole purpose of 
feasting his eyes with her fascinating evolutions." 

The Rev. Revett Sheppard, writing in Miss Jermyn's "Butter- 
fly Collector's Vade Mecum " (ed. 2), p. 121, likewise says: 
" In its beautiful flight, when it skims aloft, it rivals the Purple 
Emperor, which it strongly resembles in appearance." (This 
appears to me to be rather an exaggerated statement.) "It 
seems, however, unlike the Latter to avoid the sunbeams, for it 


frequents the glades of woods, where it rapidly insinuates itself 
by the most beautiful evolutions and placid flight through the 
tall underwood on each side of the glades, the insects appearing 
and disappearing like so many little fairies." 

The White Admiral measures about two inches across the 
w'ngs, which are of a brownish-black colour, with the fringes 
spotted with white, and a row of more or less confluent white 
spots across all the wings, interrupted in the middle of the fore- 
wings, but more regular on the hind-wings. There are also 
some white spots near the tip of the fore-wings, and an indistinct 
one in the cell, which latter is much larger and better marked 
in the allied species, L. drusilla (Bergstr.). 

Towards the anal angle of the hind-wings is a rusty blotch 
marked with two black spots, and there are two rows of obscure 
dark spots between the white band and the hind-margin. The 
prevailing colour on the under side is brownish-yellow ; all the 
white spots of the upper side are visible, with the addition of a 
few others, and most of them have a faint pearly lustre. The 
base of the hind-wings and the body beneath are pale blue, and 
the yellowish-brown portions of the wings are streaked and 
spotted with black. The antennae are rust-brown at the tip and 
on the under side. 

We add woodcuts of the under surface of the usual form of 
this Butterfly, and of both surfaces of one ol" the black varie- 
ties which are occasionally met with. The larva is green, with 
rust-coloured hairy tubercles, and a white line on the sides. 
The belly and pro-legs are paler, and the head is red. It 
feeds on honeysuckle in May. 

The allied species, L. drusilla (Bergstr.), is not uncommon 
on the Continent ; it has a bluish shade, a distinct white dis- 
coidal spot on the fore-wings, and a broader and straighter white 
band on the hind-wings. Owing to the confusion in the names, 
I append the principal synonymy of the continental species. 



White Admiral [Limcnitis Camilla). Under side. 

Variety of White Admiral. Upper and under sides. 

146 Lloyd's natural history. 

limenitis drustlla. 

Papilio sibylla, var. Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., ii., pi. 16, figs. 1, 2 

(1773); Cramer, Pap. Exot., ii., pi. 114, figs. C. D. (1777). 
Papilio Camilla, Den. and Schiff. (nee Linn.), Syst. Verz. 

Schmett. Wien, p. 172, no. 3 (1776); Hiibner, Eur. 

Schmett., i., figs. 106, 107 (1794?). 
Papilio lucilla, Esper (nee Den. and Schiff.), Schmett., i., pt. 1, 

p. 351, Taf. 36, fig. 2 (1777). 
Papilio drusilla, Bergstrasser, Nomencl., iii., pi. 67, figs. 5, 6 

Limenitis sibylla, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i., p. 52, note 


Litnenitis Camilla, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 23 
(1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 161, pi. 33, fig. 3 (1SS2). 

Neptis, Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 2S2 (1807); 
Westw., Gen. Diurn.Lepid., p. 270 (1S50); Moore, P. Z. S., 
1S58, p. 3 ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 152 (18S8). 

The type is 


Papilio accris, Lepechin, Reise, i., p. 203, pi. 17, figs. 5, 6, 
(1774); Esper, Schmett, i., pt. 2, p. 142, pi. 81, figs. 3, 

4 (1783)- 

Neptis accris, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 22 (1S7S); 
Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 165, pi. ^8, fig. 3 (1S82). 
A black species, expanding from one and a quarter to two 
and a quarter inches across the wings. The fore-wings have 
a transverse row of white spots, interrupted opposite the white 
trifid basal streak, and the hind-wings have a white transverse 
band towards the base, and a row of white spots between this 
and the hind-margin. 

NEPTIS. 147 

It is common throughout the East Indies, and Western and 
Central Asia, and is also found in some parts of Eastern 
Europe. The reddish-brown larva has two spiny tubercles on 
the third, fourth, and eleventh segments, and feeds on Orobus 
vermis in spring and summer. 

These Butterflies much resemble the species of Limenitis, 
the best known form of which is our " White Admiral," but 
the fore-wings are shorter and more rounded, and have no spur 
at the base of the median nervure. They are most numerous 
in Southern Asia, but extend to the border-countries of the 
Indian and Palcearctic Regions, and are found in China and 
Japan. Several species, too, are met with in Western Asia, 
and two extend to Eastern Europe. The genus is also found 
in Africa, but the species are less numerous there than in the 
East Indies. 

Nearly all the species are black or brown, with white or 
tawny markings, usually consisting of a streak from the base 
of the fore-wings, often broken into two or three parts, a 
broad band reaching across the wings, and a narrow sub- 
marginal line, more or less interrupted. One curious species, 
N. raddei, Bremer, is nearly black. It is found on the Amoor 
river and in Japan. 

Mr. Trimen describes the South African species of Neptis as 
frequenting wooded spots, where they flit slowly about the trees, 
and settle on the leaves, often with their wings extended. 


{Plate XX., Fig. 3.) 

Neptis nicomedes, Hewitson, Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 

vol. 10, p. 205 (1874). 

Male. — Above dark brown. Both wings crossed at the 

middle by a broad band of white (oblique on the anterior wing, 

x ^8 Lloyd's natural history. 

transverse on the posterior), followed by a band of indistinct 
grey spots, and by three sub-marginal linear bands of white ; 
the inner band (which is most distinct on the anterior wing) 
broken into spots. Anterior wing with two white spots within the 
cell, the one near the base minute, the other broader ; a bifid 
white spot on the middle of the inner-margin. 

Under side. — As above, except that it is paler, and that the 
posterior wing has the base of the costal margin broadly white, 
and a linear white spot below it. Expanse. r6 inch. 

This species was taken in Angola by Mr. Rogers, one of Mr. 
Hewitson's collectors. The above description is copied from 
the original. 


Indo- and Austro-Malayan Sub-regions. 

The Eastern species referred to the genus Limenitis are 
large and handsome Butterflies, sometimes measuring as much 
as five inches across the wings. They are sometimes green or 
greenish-brown, frequently with a transverse white band, but 
many species have the greater portion of the wings reddish- 
tawny, with a white band across the middle, or some large 
white connected spots in the middle of the fore-wings. 

Lebadea ( Felder), another East Indian genus, much resembles 
Limenitis, but the species are dull tawny and brown, with rows 
of connected white and brown zig-zags across the wings ; the 
tip of the fore-wings is generally whitish. They measure rather 
less than three inches in expanse. 

Pandita (Moore) is another small genus, including a few 
species found in the Malay Peninsula and the neighbouring 
islands. They measure two inches, or a little more, across the 
wings, which are broad and rather short, with the hind-margins 
of the fore-wings not concave. The wings are fulvous, more 


or less brown at the base, and traversed by broad, slightly un- 
dulating brown lines. 

The genera Ifeftis, Athyma, and Abrota are all very 
similar in colour and markings, and are all confined to the 
Eastern Hemisphere, except Neptis, a few species of which 
extend to Africa and Eastern Europe, as we have already 
mentioned. They are almost all black or brown, with white 
or tawny markings. These generally take the form of a band, 
often more or less interrupted or macular, running from the 
middle of the costa of the fore-wings, and curving round to the 
inner-margin of the hind-wings. Beyond this, there is often 
an outer, narrower band, at least on the hind-wings, and often 
a row of dots or a sub-marginal line in addition. In the cell 
of the fore-wings is often a basal streak, either entire, or broken 
into two or three sections. Sometimes the male is white and 
the female tawny, or vice versa, and sometimes there is a white 
or tawny belt at the base of the abdomen. 

Parthenos, Hiibner, is another genus which is confined to 
the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere, and which contains 
some of the largest and handsomest Butterflies allied to Li- 
menitis. They measure about four inches across the wings, 
which are more or less dentated, though the fore-wings are not 
concave; the hind-wings are often more or less angulated. 
The wings are generally dark brown, varied with green, lilac, 
or tawny, but there is always a row of large white spots running 
obliquely from within the tip of the fore-wings towards the 
inner-margin ; and from the base of the fore-wings, and the 
base of the inner-margin of the hind-wings, several short broad 
black bands run out into the wing. 

Ethiopian Region. 
The African species of Neptis, one of which we have figured, 
need not detain us ; they resemble the Indian species, but 
are generally rather smaller. 


The genus Catuna, Kirby, is peculiar to Africa, and is 
rather varied in colouring, though not numerous in species. 
These Butterflies measure about two inches across the wings ; 
some resemble the genera Hamanumida or Aterica, in shape 
and colour, being brown, with large black spots, and buff mark- 
ings ; while C. ccenobita (Fabricius) resembles a large Neptis, 
with markings of a slightly bluish-white ; but the sub-marginal 
markings of the fore-wings are in the form of white arrow-heads. 

Some of the remaining genera much resemble the Indian 
genera allied to Enthalia, Hubner, but of these Schatz and 
Rober make a separate group, chiefly on account of the great 
dissimilarity of the larvae. 

Hamanumida decdahts (Fabricius) is a very common African 
Butterfly, not remarkable for its size or beauty, but for the 
peculiarity of its coloration. It is scattered all over with 
white spots on a pale brown ground, very much after the 
fashion of a Guinea-fowl, a bird found in the same countries. 
The under side is ochreous-yellow, with more or less distinct 
white spots. The Butterfly is said to resemble Pyrameis cardui 
in its habits, and often to settle on the ground. It has been 
stated that its colour, which varies a little, is assimilated to 
that of the soil in the different localities in which it is found. 
It measures rather more than two inches across the wings. 

Of the remaining African genera, four are rather numerous 
in species, and all are peculiarly characteristic of the Fauna of 
Tropical Africa. In southern Africa they are hardly repre- 
sented, and what is more singular, one genus only is repre- 
sented, by a single species, in Madagascar. 

The genus Aterica, Boisduval, includes species of moderate 
size, measuring two inches or more across the wings. The 
fore-wings are short and the hind-wings rather long and some- 
what narrow, the hind-margin not being rounded, but some- 
what contracted. The type A. rabena, Boisduval, the only 


species of this series found in Madagascar, is of a rich 
tawny colour, with the apical region of the fore-wings broadly 
black, and crossed by two oblique rows of yellow spots, 
the inner one formed of larger and nearly connected ones ; 
the tip of the hind-wings is also black. The rest of the 
species all inhabit Tropical Africa, and differ considerably in 
colour and markings. One, A. cupavia (Cramer) is black, with 
two oblique rows of buff spots on (he fore-wings, and a large 
oval spot, or short transverse band, in the middle of the hind- 
wings. The males of other species are brown, green, or tawny, 
crossed by daiker bands or spots, while the females have 
usually an oblique white stripe across the fore-wings. 

Schatz has lately founded the genus Ctenandra for C. opis 
(Drury), a species which differs considerably from Aterica, 
especially in the slightly angulated fore-wings. The male, 
which Drury described as a distinct species, under the name 
of Papilio afer, measures a little more than two inches across 
the wings, which are black, with transverse blue stripes, and 
some white spots near the tip of the fore-wings. The hind- 
wings are narrowed as in Aterica, but are more distinctly den- 
tated, and are angulated towards the anal angle. The female 
is larger than the male, and is tessellated with large black spots 
and bands on a pale brown ground ; a pale yellow band runs 
obliquely from the inner-margin of the hind-wings to the 
middle of the fore-wings, and between this and the costa is a 
row of white dots; the hind-wings are broader and less strongly 
dentated and angulated than in the male. 

Cymothoe, Hiibner, is a genus including larger and hand- 
somer species, measuring from two to four inches across the 
wings. The fore-wings are usually more or less concave, and 
the hind-wings are more rounded than in Aterica, and often 
slightly produced at the anal angle. The sexes generally differ 
considerably. Some of the smaller species are of a bright red 


152 Lloyd's natural history. 

in the males, almost blood-red ; in the females, the margins 
and the greater part of the fore-wings are brown. In other 
species the males are yellow, varying in different species from 
a very pale straw-colour to a deep tawny ; and the females are 
black or tawny, with white markings, sometimes in the form of 
a white transverse band as in Limenitis, sometimes as white 
z'g-zag lines, and sometimes as large white spots on the fore- 
wings, a great part of the hind-wings being occasionally 

Euryphene, Boisduval, is another genus, allied to those 
which we have been considering. The males of many of the 
smaller species resemble Aterica, being blue, brown, or tawny, 
with dark bands, and the females are usually tawny or reddish, 
with two white bands across the black tip of the fore-wings. 
In one section of the genus, however, the hind-wings and the 
inner-margin of the fore-wings are of various shades of green, 
and there is a white or yellow band across the apex of the fore- 
wings. These species much resemble the genus Euphcedra in 
colouring, but the under surface is generally marked with a 
transverse or curved line, and the hind-wings are narrower 
and less strongly dentated. 

Euplitcdra, Hiibner, is one of the most beautiful and charac- 
teristic of all the genera of African Butterflies. Most of the 
species are of considerable size, expanding three inches and 
over, and always of conspicuous colours, fulvous, green, red, 
orange, or blue. The first group is of an orange-red, with the 
tip of the fore-wings broadly black, and marked with a large 
white blotch or band, and the hind-wings have a black border 
marked with a row of large white spots. Many African Butter- 
flies and Moths, of half a dozen families and genera, are 
marked in this manner, so as to produce a greater or less re- 
semblance to the abundant and highly-protected Limnas chry- 
si h u%. 


Euphccdra perseis (Drury) is brown, with large yellowish- 
white spots on the fore-wings, and the inner-margin and the 
hind-wings, except the borders, are rose-coloured. E. zampa 
(Westwood) is green above, with a short whitish oblique streak 
near the tip of the fore-wings ; it has large white sub-marginal 
spots on the hind-wings, and more or less of the base of the 
hind-wings, and the greater part of the wings beneath are dull 
orange. E. harpalyce (Cramer) and its allies are brown above, 
with or without a transverse white or yellow stripe near the tip 
of the fore-wings, or they show a broad blue sub-marginal stripe 
on the hind-wings, tapering to the costa ; the under side is 
green. Other species are velvety black above, with more or 
less of bronzy green on the wings, and the dark apex of the 
fore-wings crossed by a white or yellow stripe ; the base of the 
wings is generally rose-red below, and sometimes above ; in 
E. xypete (Hewitsoi?) the greater part of the under side of the 
hind-wings is crimson. 

Neogean Species. 

Several species of true Limenitis are met with in the United 
States. They are generally larger Butterflies than their Euro- 
pean representatives, measuring about three inches across the 
wings, which are black, often with a white bar across, and with 
red spots on the under side, and sometimes also above. Most 
of the species have the wings more dentated than those of 
the Old World, and sometimes angulated. The prevailing 
colour is black or dark brown, with bluish markings ; but 
L. anhippus (Cramer) forms an exception. It is of a rich 
tawny or fulvous colour, with conspicuous black nervures, and 
except that it is considerably smaller, it closely resembles 
Anosia menippe, Hiibner, belonging to the Danaince, the 
commonest and best protected of all the North American 


p 2 


Lloyd's natural history. 

But the principal American genus allied to Limenitis is 
Adelpha, Hiibner. The species are very numerous through- 
out Tropical America, and one or two species extend as far 
north as California. A special historical interest attaches to the 
genus, as it was these species which first turned the attention of 
the late Mr. Hewitson to the study of Exotic Butterflies. He 
was at first, in the days of Curtis and Stephens, a diligent 
collector and observer of British insects of all Orders, and was 
likewise a well-known ornithologist, giving special attention to 
oology. But the time came when he discovered, as he says, 
in one of his own works, that a Butterfly might be beautiful, 
even if it was not a British species; and he became thoroughly 
fascinated with the study, disposed of all his other collections, 
and devoted the rest of his life to the formation and illustra- 
tion of his great collection of exotic Butterflies, now in the 
British Museum. In its day, this collection had no rival, 
except the collections of Boisduval and "Wilson Saunders. 

As Mr. Hewitson used to relate to his friends, he was one 
day at Stevens' auction rooms, when he was attracted by a 
box containing several different species of Adelpha (Hiibn.), 
or, as the genus used to be called, Heterochroa (Boisd.), all much 
alike and yet all obviously distinct. This seemed to him a 
remarkable fact at that time, and he bought the lot. As he 
turned round he saw Professor Westwood, who said to him, 
"What! Are you buying Butterflies?" "Yes, I am," he 
answered ; and this incident turned the whole current of his 


When this happened, we do not exactly know, for though 
Hewitson's first papers on Exotic Butterflies were on the genus 
Heterochroa, they were only published in the "Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History " in 1847; whereas, in the pre- 
vious year, Edward Doubleday had commenced his great work 
on the " Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," which was completed 


after Doubleday's death Dy Westwood, and was illustrated 
throughout by Hewitson. It is therefore probable that Hewit- 
son had already commenced the formation of his collection 
before that time, especially as he began to publish his own 
"Exotic Butterflies" as early as 1S51, and before the actual 
completion of the " Genera." 

But to return from this digression, into which the recollec- 
tion of an old friend has allured us, to the American genus 
Adelpha. These Butterflies are of moderate size, generally 
measuring about two or two and a half inches across the wings. 
The fore-wings are short, and the hind-wings are generally 
rather long, and sometimes dentated towards the anal angle, 
which is more or less produced. Most of the species have a 
transverse white or, more rarely, a green band across both wings, 
or on the hind-wings only ; sometimes this is reduced to a 
large spot on the latter. On the fore-wings there is usually a 
tawny band or large blotch towards the apex or surmounting 
the white band ; other species have brown hind-wings, and the 
fore-wings have an oblique red or white band, or a straight 
ferruginous one. Bates describes them as having a sailing 
flight over bushes and low trees ; like Limeniiis, also, some 
of the species will sometimes settle on the ground in moist 

The genus Dynamine, Hiibner, occupies rather an isolated 
position in the series of South American Butterflies. Bates 
placed it near Pyrrhogyra, and states that the flight is similar, 
but much weaker, and that the pupa is similar ; but Schatz 
and Rober refer the genus to the neighbourhood of Limeni- 
tis, on account of the short bristle-bearing warts, and the 
absence of horns on the head of the caterpillar, which is 
shorter and more cylindrical than is usual in the Nymphalidce. 
Bates describes the pupa of his D. leiuothea as green, with 
he dorsal surface of the abdomen reddish, and with two short 

156 Lloyd's natural history. 

curved processes on the back, one at the base of the abdomen, 
and one near the front border of the thorax. Miiller, as quoted 
by Schatz and Rober, says the pupa has two short horns on the 
head, and two strong beak-like projections on the second and 
fifth segments. Bates does not mention horns on the head. 
More information is much needed respecting the transforma- 
tions of the various species of Dynamine. They differ con- 
siderably, and will probably be sub-divided into two genera. 
The pupa described by Bates belonged to the first section ; 
that described by Miiller probably to the second. In those 
of the first section, the sexes much resemble each other. 
They are white, with black borders, generally with a blue 
mark at the base, and with some white spots towards the tip 
of the fore-wings. On the under surface they are coloured 
nearly as above, but the margins are interlined with reddish, 
bordered with pale blue, and there are other reddish lines 
and markings on other parts of the wings. The hind-wings, 
except the base and margins, and sometimes a reddish blotch 
on the costa, are usually quite white beneath. These are 
among the smallest Ny»iJ>halincz, some of them hardly 
exceeding an inch in expanse, and might easily be mistaken 
for Le/noniidce or Lyccenidcz at the first glance. 

The species belonging to the second section are larger 
insects, measuring from an inch and a half to nearly two 
inches across the wings. The males are most frequently 
bronzy-green, with the margins, and especially the tip of the 
fore-wings, black, with green or white, or more rarely, dull 
yellow spots. In the male of D. erchia (Hewitson) a great 
portion of the outer part of the wing is orange. The green 
varies much in shade, being sometimes golden-green, or bluish- 
green ; but there are two or three species in which the males 
are of various shades of bright blue, with narrow black borders, 
and the tip of the fore-wings broadly black, scarcely, if at 


J 57 

all, spotted with white. The females arc very different, being 
dark brown, with the tip of the fore-wings spotted with white. 
From near the base of the inner-margin of the hind-wings 
a white stripe runs obliquely upwards to the middle of the 
fore-wings ; this is sometimes absent. Beyond this is a much 
broader white band, generally extending over more or less 
of the fore-wings, and outside this is generally a third and 
more slender sub-marginal line ; occasionally the females are 
tinged towards the base with the green colouring of the 
males. On the under surface, both sexes are marked some- 
what as in the female above, except that the black part of the 
fore-wings is varied with blue lines and tawny lines or spaces. 
On the hind-wings, the dark transverse bands of the wings are 
either entirely tawny or are narrowly edged with black ; some- 
times, however, the hind-wings are nearly white beneath, with 
narrow transverse lines. The hind-margin of the hind-wings is 
generally much paler than above, and often presents a very 
characteristic mark, which, when present, admits of no mis- 
take respecting the genus. It consists of two large eyes, 
with white or blue pupils in black and tawny rings. 


These form a restricted group closely allied to the African 
genera of the Limenitis group, but they may be treated as a 
separate section on account of the remarkable structure of 
the caterpillars, which are furnished with very long plumose 
appendages almost like feathers. The numerous and closely 
allied species of Euthalia and Tanaeria are almost confined 
to India, the Malay Peninsula, and the adjacent islands, but 
species of Symphcedra are met with as far east as New Guinea 
and Australia. They measure from two to four inches across 
the wings. 

The genus Euthalia, Hiibner, has triangular fore-wings, 

158 Lloyd's natural histcry. 

and more or less dentated hind-wings, a little longer than 
broad. A great number are brown above, with straight or 
zig-zag brown lines ; the males of several species have blue 
borders to the wings, which become narrower and often cease 
before reaching the costa of the fore-wings. Many species 
are broadly white towards the borders and intersected with 
a zig -zag black line. Some species are ornamented with red 
spots below, and sometimes also above, while the larger ones, 
which measure four inches in expanse or thereabouts, are 
generally brown or greenish-brown, with white or pale yellow 
markings. The larvae feed on the mango as well as on other 
less familiar plants. 

Tanaecia, Butler, differs from Euthalia, chiefly in the ter- 
minal joint of the palpi being slender and bristle-shaped 
instead of obtusely pointed. The species are not very nu- 
merous, and inhabit the Malay Peninsula, and the large adjacent 
islands of Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. These Butterflies are 
generally under three inches in expanse, and resemble the 
section of Euthalia in which the males are brown with a blue 
border, and the females have a bluish white band towards the 
margins, intersected by a zig-zag line. 

Symphcedra, Hubner, has short fore-wings, with the costa very 
slightly oblique, and very slightly, if at all, emarginate ; the 
hind-wings are regularly rounded and dentated, but the species 
differ much from Euthalia in the arrangement of their colour 
and markings. One of the smallest and commonest species 
is the Indian S. nais (Forster) which measures a little more 
than two inches across the wings. It is of a rich fulvous colour, 
with a narrow black border, two short black stripes running 
from the costa of the fore-wings, and a black line or row of 
dots beyond ; the under side is darker, with some yellowish 
marks. Another, and larger, species, S. ceropa (Linn.), which is 
met with in the Moluccas, and is found as far as Australia, is 

Ar.vruRiNTE. 159 

dark brown, with a broad fulvous band towards the margins ; 
these are narrower, and spotted with black in the females of S. 
dirtca (Fabricius) and its allies. These species are met with in 
the Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions generally, and are large 
and conspicuous Butterflies, measuring from three to four and 
a half inches across the fore-wings, which are longer and more 
pointed than in S. nais, which is the type of the genus. The 
males are black, with a sub-marginal green band, tapering in- 
wards, on the fore-wings, and a broad sub-marginal purple band 
on the hind-wings ; the under surface is rusty-brown, with the 
lower and outer half of the fore-wings black, spotted with 
white. The females are brown, with white or pale yellowish 
spots in the cell of the fore-wings ; an oblique band slop- 
ing inwards from the costa nearly at its extremity, and angu- 
lated below, where it runs to the base ; and a sub-marginal 
row of spots more or less tinged with orange. The sub- 
marginal spots are continued round the hind-wings, where 
there are three rows of spots running outwards from the 
inner-margin ; at their extremity they converge slightly, and 
the outermost curves upwards to the costa ; the under side is 
often suffused with pale blue. These Butterflies are easily 
attracted by fruit, especially pine-apple. 


Eggs. — Large, few in number, globular and hard, not so 
high as broad, with obscure ribs and cross-lines at the base 
only, usually forming tetragons, with minute projecting points 
at their intersection. 

Larva. — Generally green, smooth, slug-shaped (spiny in 
Aganisthus), tapering at the ends, with two or four protuber- 
ances on the head, and often a bifid tail. It feeds on trees. 

Pupa. — Short and broad, often with a bifid head, generally 
green, but not metallic. 

160 Lloyd's natural history. 

Imago. — Very robust, and generally of large size, the wing- 
cells open, or closed with a rudimentary nervule ; hind-margin 
of the fore-wings nearly always more or less concave ; hind- 
wings often tailed ; antennae long, thick, gradually produced 
into a well-marked club ; eyes naked. 

Ran^e. — -With the exception of Apafura, which is found over 
the greater part of Europe and North America, the Apaturina 
are almost entirely tropical or sub-tropical Butterflies, and 
the range of the genca is usually restricted to a single geo- 
graphical region, within which that of the different species is 
necessarily still more restricted. They are. however, insects 
of powerful flight, but as they are forest-loving and mostly 
tree-feeding species, they never seem to stray far from the 
neighbourhood where they lived as caterpillars. Their habits 
are sufficiently discussed under the genera and species, which 
we now proceed to notice. 

Entomologists have never been in accord as to whether the 
Apafura group should be treated as a separate section of the 
NymphalineRi or not. I have already mentioned (p. 44) that 
the late Mr. Jenner Weir was convinced of the propriety of 
the former course, and I am glad to adopt his views upon the 
subject, as a tribute to the memory of a kind friend, on whose 
judgment one could always rely. 

Apctura, Fabr., in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 280 (1807); 
Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 302 (1850); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmctt., Li., p, 165 (1888). 

Type, A. iris (Linn.). 
Eyes naked ; antennae long, thick, straight, the club elongate- 
ovate ; palpi long, and projecting beyond the head, with the 
basal and terminal joints of nearly equal length, the latter 
conical and scaly, the intermediate one very long, slender, 


curved and bristly. Fore-wings somewhat triangular, the 
costal nervure very strong, the hind-margin sbghtly scalloped ; 
hind-wings with the hind-margin regularly curved and slightly 
scalloped ; front legs small and imperfect in both sexes, the 
tarsi often indistinctly jointed in the male. 

Larva smooth, with two horns on the head. Pupa likewise 
with a bifid head. 

The genus Apatitra is the only British representative of an 
extensive group oi Nyniphalidce with naked larva, which authors 
have usually included in the sub-family Nymphalince. It is widely 
distributed throughout the world, except in Africa; but the 
tropical species are generally much inferior to our own both in 
size and beauty, though one or two Indian and South American 
species are remarkable for the brilliant white or silvery colouring 
of the under surface. There are only two European species, 
A. iris (Linn.) and A. ilia (Denis), the latter of which differs 
from ours in having a distinct eye-spot towards the hinder 
angle of the fore-wings above, and in the more regular mark- 
ings of the hind-wings beneath ; and it has a tawny variety 
known as A. dytie (Denis). The European species are insects 
of very lofty flight, but occasionally descend to drink at muddy 
places in pathways, or they may be attracted by dung or 
carrion. They are by no means uncommon in various parts 
of the Continent, and may often be seen flying together. The 
male of A. it's especially likes to sport about the tops of trees, 
and generally seeks the highest elevation. I once took a 
specimen at rest at the top of a high hill which happened to 
be covered, not with trees, but with bushes. 

Haworth's account of its habits has often been quoted, but 
it is so good, that we may be allowed to copy it once more 
from his " Lepidoptera Britannica" (pp. 19, 20). 

" The Purple Emperor of the British Oaks is not undeservedly 
the greatest favourite of our English Aurelians. In his manners 

1 62 Lloyd's natural history. 

likewise, as well as in the varying lustres of his purple plumes, 
he possesses the strongest claims to their particular attention. 
In the month of July he makes his appearance in the winged 
state, and invariably fixes his throne upon the summit of a lofty 
oak, from the utmost sprigs of which, on sunny days, he per- 
forms his aerial excursions ; and in these, ascends to a much 
greater elevation than any other insect I have ever seen, some- 
times mounting higher than the eye can follow, especially if he 
happens to quarrel with another Emperor, the monarch of some 
neighbouring oak ; they never meet without a battle, flying up- 
wards all the while, and combating with each other as much as 
possible, after which they will frequently return again to the 
identical sprigs from whence they ascended. The wings of 
this fine species are of a stronger texture than those of any 
other in Britain, and more calculated for that gay and powerful 
flight which is so much admired by entomologists. 

" The Purple Emperor commences his aerial movements from 
ten to twelve o'clock in the morning, and does not perform his 
loftiest flights till noon, decreasing them after this hour, until 
he quite ceases to fly about four in the afternoon, thus emu- 
lating the motions of that source of all his strength, the sun. 
The females, like those of many other species, are very rarely 

seen on the wing Moses Harris 

tells us that 'the females are not met with on the wing so 
often as the males, some of which are very plentiful, but the 
females rare to be seen, of which the Purple Emperor is 
one capital instance. I have been informed Mr. Whitworth 
caught thirteen in one day, and but one female amongst 

"I can readily credit this, for in three days I took myself twenty- 
three (nine of them in one day), but never took a female at all. 
The males usually fly very high, and are only to be taken by a 
bag-net fixed to the end of a rod twenty or thirty feet long. 
There have been instances, though very rare, of their settling on 


the ground near puddles of water, and being taken there. When 
the Purple Emperor is within reach, no fly is more easily taken 
than him; for he is so very bold and fearless that he will not move 
from his settling-place until you quite push him off ; you may 
even tip the ends of his wings, and be suffered to strike again." 

In the satirical poems of i: Peter Pindar " (Dr. John Wolcott) 
published at the end of the last century, there is an amusing 
story of a tulip-fancier and an entomologist, and there seems to 
be no doubt that the Butterfly referred to is the Purple Emperor, 
though it is not a very likely Butterfly to be found in a flower- 
garden, and still less so to lead an entomologist a wild-goose 
chase over the beds ; for if startled, it would probably soar 
away at once to the nearest high tree in the neighbourhood. I 
know of no Butterfly called " The Emperor of Morocco " in 
any entomological work. 

The tulip-fancier was showing the entomologist his garden, 
and was descanting on his treasures, 

" When from a heap of dung, or some such thing, 
An Emperor of Morocco reared his wing." 

The entomologist rushed after it, trampling down all the 
tulips, regardless of the shouts of his friend, who came up with 
him at last, just as he had lost sight of the Butterfly. 

" Did you not see him ? " asked the entomologist. "Who ? 
What ? " asked the distracted tulip-fancier. " The Emperor of 
Morocco," replied the entomologist. The tulip-fancier mourn- 
fully relaxed his grasp, murmuring: — 

" Mad, madder than the maddest of March hares ! " 

{Plate XXIV. ; larva, Plate III., Fig. 6.) 
Papilio iris, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 476, no. no (1758) j 
Esper, Schmett, 1. (1), p. 139, pi. n, fig- 1 (i777) \ ' l - ( 2 )t 
p. 109, pi. 71, fig. 4(i7 81 )- 

164 Lloyd's natural history. 

Apatura iris, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 50 (1027); 
Curtis, Brit. Ent., viii., pi. 338 (183 1); Kirov, Eur. Butter- 
flies and Moths, p. 24, pi. 11, figs. 2, a-c (1878); Lang, 
Butterflies of Europe, p. 156, pi. 34, fig. 2, pi. 36, fig. 2 
(18S3); Buckler, Larva? of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, 
i., p. 42, pi. 7, fig. 2 (1886); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., 
p. 105, pi. 16 (1892). 

Var., Apatura iole. 

Papilio iole, Den. and Schiff., Syst. Verz. Schmett. Wien, p. 

172, no. 3 (1776) ; Esper, Schmett., i. (1), p. 376, pi. 46, 

fig. 1(1778?). 
Papilio iris, Esper, Schmett., i. (1), pp. 109, 114, pi. 71, fig. 1 • 

pi. 72, fig. 1 (1781). 
Papilio beroe, Fabr., Ent. Syst., iii. (1), p. 111, no. 341 (1793). 

The Purple Emperor appears to be almost confined in 
England to the south-eastern counties, and it is doubtful 
whether it has ever been taken as far north as Yorkshire. It 
is only to be found in large old woods, where these still exist. 
Although the caterpillar feeds on sallow, the Butterfly, which 
appears in July, is fond of flying about the tops of tall trees, 
especially oaks. It is still fairly plentiful in suitable localities, 
though no longer found close to London, as was the case less 
than a century ago. 

The Purple Emperor measures from two inches and a half 
to three inches and upwards across the wings, which are dark 
brown in the male, shot with brilliant purplish-blue, except on 
the hind-margins, which are of a light brown. There are 
several white spots towards the tips of the fore-wings, and also 
some larger ones running from the middle of the wing to the 
inner-margin, and continued as a slightly curved band across 
the hind-wings. Towards the hinder angle of the fore-wings is 
a rather indistinct round black spot, and towards the anal 


Apatura, iris 


angle of the hind-wings is a conspicuous black spot in a tawny 
ring ; the hind-margins are also sometimes more or less inter- 
lined with tawny. 

The female is larger than the male, and of a paler brown, 
and the purple reflection is wholly absent. On the under side 
the fore-win^s are rusty-brown, inclining to black in the 
middle, with a large ocellus towards the hinder angle, corre- 

Purple Emperor (Apattira iris). Under side c f Female. 

sponding to the indistinct spot above. There are two black 
spots towards the ba.e, in addition to the white marks corre- 
sponding to those on the upper side. On the hind-wings the 
white band is broader than on the upper side, with its outer 
side more irregular ; the eye towards the anal angle is smaller ; 
and the base and marginal portions of the wing are greyish, with 
something of a pearly lustre, and with a faint undulating brown 
line running along the hind-margin. The body is black above, 
and the legs and under side are greyish-white. The figures in 

1 66 Lloyd's natural history. 

our plate represent both surfaces of the male. We add wood- 
cuts of the under side of the female and of the upper side of the 
rare variety A. iole (Denis), in which the white band on the 
hind-wings is absent. 

Upper side ot the Variety {A. iole). 

The larva is green, with several oblique yellow lines, and 
with two horns on the head tipped with red, and with a yellow 
stripe down the outer side. It feeds on sallow, and sometimes 
on aspen and poplar, and may be looked for in spring. 

The pupa is likewise of a pale green, with a bifid head. 

Thakropis, Staudinger, Cat. Lep. Eur., p. 17 (1S71); Schatz, 
Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 166 (iSSS). 
This genus was founded to receive a moderate-sized, but 
very handsome, Butterfly from Asia Minor, which was originally 
described by Eversmann as a Vanessa, and shortly afterwards, 
by Herrich-Schaffer, as an Apatura. The discovery of the 


larva, however, which is smooth and tapering at the ends, with 
two short horns on the head and a bifid tail, prove it to be 
allied to Apatura, from which the Butterfly differs by its hairy 
eyes and closed wing-cells. 

As the Butterfly is a species of considerable interest, and 
has only hitherto been figured in a few scarce and expensive 
continental works, we are glad to give it a place on one of our 
plates. One or two African species have lately been referred 
to Thaleropis, but it is not quite certain that they actually 
belong to that genus, 

(Plate XX., Fig. 4.) 

Vanessa ionia, Eversm., Ent. Russ., v., p. in, pi. 13, figs. 1, 2 

Apatura ammonia, Herr.-Schaff, Schmett. Eur., i., p. 6, 
Nachtrag, figs. 542-545 (1851). 

This Butterfly is found on the southern shores of the Black 
Sea, at Amasia, &c. It measures about an inch and three 
quarters across the wings, which are of a yellowish- fulvous, 
sometimes varied with white and yellow. The base is broadly 
black, and there is a small eye at the hinder angles of all the 
wings. There are also some irregular basal spots. The under 
side of the hind-wings is blue or yellow, with a dark central 
band, not reaching quite across. 

Although Eversmann's and Herrich-Schaffer's descriptions 
and figures were published in the same year, the official permit 
in the work of the former bears date January 10, whereas the 
parts of Herrich-Schaffer's work, in which the insect was in- 
cluded, are only the third and fifth of the eight parts pub- 
lished during 1851 




Various species of Apafura, brown, green, or blue, with 
orange-tawny, or brown and orange-tawny, markings, are found 
throughout Central Asia, as far as Japan, where insects almost 
identical with the European A. ilia and its varieties occur. 
Most of the other Apaturce also unmistakably resemble those 
of Europe. Several species are found in Northern India, one 
of which, A. namouna, Doubleday, resembles A. iris, but is of a 
brilliant blue in the male, instead of being shot with purple, 
and has a satiny-white under side, with an oblique tawny band 
towards the margins of the wings. A. chevana (Moore) has a 
very similar under side, but is brown above (though with a 
purple gloss when fresh), with white markings like an Athyma, 
to which genus Moore originally referred it. Most of the other 
Indian species are much smaller, and duller coloured ; being 
dull brown, or only suffused with dull purple. 

The genus Chlorippe, Boisduval, includes the South American 
species allied to Apatura. The hind-margin of the fore-wings 
is more concave, and the hind-wings are longer, and much 
narrowed to the anal angle, which is sometimes pointed, and 
is sometimes preceded by a slight tooth. The species are 
rather smaller than in Apatura, and the males are purple, 
with white or tawny spots towards the tips, or banded with 
blue, green, tawny, or white; the females are brown, with 
white bands or spots, and tawny markings ; in some species 
the under surface of the hind-wings is of a most beautiful 
silvery white. 

The North Amencan representatives of Apatura, which are 
i laced in the genus Doxocopa, Hiibner, are brown and tawny 
Butterflies, measuring two or two and a half inches across 
the wings, with white spots on the fore-wings, and sometimes 
a sub-marginal row of spots on the hind-wings. 


Returning to India, &c, we find several small but interesting 
genera allied to Apatura. Eulacura, Butler, is represented by 
E. osteria (Westwood), which is found in Malacca, Java, and 
Borneo. It measures two and a half inches across the wings, 
which are brown, with a bluish-white band in the male, not 
extending to the costa of the fore-wings. The female has 
a bluish-white sub-marginal line, and a broad and somewhat 
irregular band of bluish-white within it on the fore-wings. The 
under surface is bluish-white, varied with pale tawny lines and 
markings ; towards the hinder angle of each wing is a well-marked 
white or tawny eye, with a black pupil. The fore-wings are 
much longer than in typical Apatura, the hind-margin being 
oblique as well as concave ; the hind-wings are regularly curved 
and dentated. The female much resembles some species of 
Euthalia and Tanaecia in its style of colouring, but its shape 
and the eyes of the under side (which in the female are slightly 
visible above) will distinguish it. 

Dichorragia, Butler, likewise somewhat resembles Euthalia. 
In the North Indian D. nesimachus (Boisduval) the wings are 
brown, with zig-zag grey and bluish-grey markings, and many 
large black spots The wings are broad, the fore-wings with 
the hind-margin only slightly oblique or concave, and the hind- 
wings rounded, dentated. and more strongly produced at the 
anal angle. It expands about three inches. 

Castalia, Moore, is another genus, including species with 
longer fore-wings, deeply concave below the middle of the 
hind-margin, and with the hind- wings rounded and dentated. 

The fore-wings are black, with bands of orange-tawny and white 
spots ; the hind-wings are mostly orange-tawny with black veins. 
On the under surface this portion of the wing is divided by 
broader black veins and intermixed with white spaces ; towards 
the base are some pale blue spots. The Butterflies measure 
about three inches across the wings. 

Q - 1 

ijo Lloyd's natural history. 

Dilipa morgiana (Westwood) is another North Indian species, 
much resembling Apatura in shape and size, but with hairy eyes, 
and closed wing-cells. It is brown, with two oblique orange 
bands on the fore-wings, and a very broad one on the hind- 
wings ; as in Castalia, there are no eyes towards the hinder 
angles of the wings. 

The largest species of the Apatura group is Apaturina 
erminea (Cramer) from Amboina, which measures about four 
inches across the wings. The fore-wings are longer than the 
hind-wings, with the hind-margin only slightly concave, and 
the hind-wings have a rounded and slightly dentated hind- 
margin, and form a long broad oval, which is not contracted 
or pointed at the anal angle, as is more or less the case, at 
least, in the male, in most of the genera allied to Apatura. 
It is brownish-black above, broadly purplish-blue at the base, 
and with an oblique row of large pale yellow spots on the 
fore-wings ; towards the anal angle of the hind-wings is a 
large eye, most distinct beneath. This genus also has closed 

The last genus of this group which we shall notice is Belcyra, 
Felder, containing a group of white Butterflies found in the 
Himalayas and in Amboina, with broad black borders to the 
fore-wings and a few black spots scattered irregularly towards 
the margins of the wings. The wings are broad, the fore-wings 
short, with the hind-margin nearly straight, and the hind-wings 
are dentated, with an angular projection in the middle of the 


Protogonius, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. ioo (1S16); 

Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 313 (1850); Butl., P. Z. S., 

1873, p. 773, 1875, L, p. 35; Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., 

p. 171 (1SS8). 

The long narrow wings of this genus, and the distribution of 


ils colours, black, tawny, yellow, and white, give it much out- 
ward resemblance to one of the Heliconiince, or to Lycorea, or 
Melincsa, among XheDanaince and IthomiincB ; but the wing-cells, 
closed by very slender rudimentary disco-cellular nervules, and 
the dentated wings, show it to be one of the true Nymphalince. 
The antennae are rather short, and are produced into a long 
club, not pointed at the end. The fore-wings have an arched 
costa, and the hind-margin is only slightly oblique to the 
middle, where it throws out a strong tooth. Below this the 
hind-margin curves strongly to the hinder angle, and like that 
of the hind-wings, is strongly dentated. In the middle of the 
hind-margin is a moderately long spatulate tail. 

There are a considerable number of forms of this genus, 
which were originally considered to belong to one variable 
species ; but latterly they have been treated by Butler and 
others as distinct. They chiefly differ in varieties of pattern and 
arrangement of the various colours; but there is also some 
difference in the size and shape of the tooth on the hind- 
margin of the fore-wings, and in the length of the tooth at the 
anal angle of the hind-wings, which is scarcely marked in some 
forms, and becomes a strong sharp projection in others. They 
are all natives of Tropical America. 

" Found flying near the borders of the forest, and settling on 
extended branches with its wings closed perpendicularly." 

There is little doubt that the various species of Protogonius 
mimic those of Lycorea in their various localities. Thus 
P. ochraceus, Butler, from Trinidad, mimics L. fiavesce?is 
Kirby, from the same locality. 


{Plate XXV., Fig. 2.) 

Papilio fabius, Cramer, Pap. Exot, i., pi. 90, figs. C. D. (1776). 

172 Lloyd's natural history. 

This curious Butterfly measures nearly four inches in 
expanse. The fore-wings have a rounded projection just 
below the apex, below which the hind-margin is concave and 
oblique, and at half the distance below the first prominence 
and the hinder angle, is a much stronger obtuse projection, 
below which the hind-margin is much more oblique to the 
hinder angle. The hind-wings are short, and much more 
strongly dentated than the fore-wings, and have a rather long 
obtuse tail in the middle of the hind-margin, and a slight 
pointed projection at the anal angle. The inner-margin forms 
a gutter to receive the abdomen, and is concave beyond to the 
anal angle. The fore-wings are black, the costa reddish- 
tawny nearly to the middle, and the lower part of the cell filled 
up with reddish-tawny nearly to the extremity ; this forms the 
upper part of a large patch, which is continued obliquely 
towards the anal angle, near which its lower end is produced 
to a point. The outer side of this patch is slightly marked 
with yellow. Below the extremity of the reddish-tawny stripe 
on the costa, a broad band, divided into long spots by the 
nervures, irregular in outline on both sides, and with the last 
spot but one the longest, runs slightly obliquely nearly to the 
base of the tooth on the middle of the hind-margin. Above 
the lower end of this band is a row of four sub-marginal yellow 
spots running from the costa. The hind-wings are black, with 
a reddish-tawny band running from the base, and occupying 
most of the upper portion, but not extending much below the 
cell ; the inner-margin is also tawny, shading into yellowish 
towards the body. There is also a sub-marginal row of four 
white spots, mostly linear, running from the anal angle to the 
root of the tail. On the under surface the prevailing colour is 
yellowish-grey, varied with large irregular blotches of purplish- 
brown towards the base and hinder angles of the wings, and 
with spaces thickly speckled with lighter brown beyond. 

ANJEA. 173 

This species much resembles a Lycorea in the general ar- 
rangement of its colours, and very probably occurs in company 
with Lycorea ceres, figured by Cramer on the same plate, both 
insects being from Surinam. 

This species differs from all the described members of the 
genus, except P. hippo na (Fabricius ; which appears to be the 
insect figured by Stoll, Suppl. Cram., pi. 2, figs. 1, ad (1787); 
with its earlier stages), in the much less extension of the reddish 
colour on the hind-wings ; in most of the other species it 
covers the whole surface nearly to the sub-marginal spots. But 
P. hippona differs in having only one or two sub-apical yellow 
spots on the fore- wings, and the yellow band much narrower ; 
the wings are also much less dentated, and the tooth on the hind- 
margin of the fore-wings is shorter and more obtuse. Stoll's 
insect was probably from Surinam ; there is a specimen of what 
appears to be the same species in the British Museum from 


These form the A?i(Ba group of Schatz and Rober, and are 
all confined to Tropical America. They are Butterflies of cju- 
siderable size, generally measuring about three inches across 
the wings, and are adorned with bright colours. The genus 
Ancea, Hiibner, itself is very numerous in species, which have 
a strong family likeness, though differing very much in the out- 
line of the wings. The latter are broad, and the hind-margin 
of the fore-wings is sometimes nearly straight, or even slightly 
convex. The tip is frequently pointed, or even strongly 
hooked, in which case the hind-margin is often first concave, 
and then convex above the hinder angle, which is also some- 
times hocked downwards, and followed by a concavity on the 
inner-margin. The hind-wings are ample, and the hind-margin 
is sometimes rounded and slightly dentated, with the anal 


angle more or less prominent ; but more frequently the wings 
are more or less angulated, with a tail at the outer angle. 

Some of the species are pale coloured above, such as A. 
electra (Westwood), from Mexico, a straw-coloured Butterfly 
with black borders, and the hind-wings more or less tinged 
with tawny ; the fore-wings are hooked, and the hind-wings 
have a spatulate tail, the anal angle also being produced into 
a short tail. But most of the species are black, generally blue, 
green, or purple at the base, and often crossed with blue bands 
beyond ; in A. cyanea (Godman and Salvin), from Ecuador, the 
male, except on the black borders, is of the richest purple, with 
a broad blue sub-marginal band from the inner-margin of the 
hind-wings to the middle of the fore-wings, and two blue spots 
towards the outer half of the costa. The hind-margin of the 
fore-wings is oblique, and the tail of the hind-wings rather 
short and pointed. 

Another very handsome species is A. panariste (Hewitson), 
from Bolivia, in which the black wings are richly glossed with 
deep blue, and there is a broad yellow space on the costa of the 
hind-wings. In shape it resembles A. electra, but the fore- 
wings are longer and more sickle-shaped. 

Other species are red, often more or less glossed with purple, 
sometimes on the fore-wings only, and sometimes on all the 

The under sides are generally grey, ochreous, or brown, 
mottled with darker, and occasionally crossed by a dusky line. 
The Butterflies are forest insects of strong flight, and may be 
found settled on the trunks of trees, sucking the sap. They 
appear to represent the genus Charaxes in the New World, 
exhibiting the same variations in outline, and some of the 
species being very similarly coloured ; but the correspondence 
is with African and not with Indian species, and is chiefly to 
be seen in some of the blue forms, such as Charaxes ethalicn, 
Boisd., &c 


/. Marpeaias peleus. 
Z. rroLogomus fahuvs 


So far, however, Anaa has never been considered very 
closely allied to Charaxes, and whether future investigations 
will establish a closer affinity between them than outer re 
semblance, remains to be seen. 

Hypna, Hiibner, is a genus closely allied to Ancea, and, 
like it, is widely distributed through Tropical America, though 
it does not contain many species. The latter are closely 
allied, and were formerly all regarded as varieties of one and 
the same species. They expand three inches or more across 
the wings, which are of a glossy brown above, with a slight 
greenish shade ; sometimes the hind-wings are reddish above. 
The fore-wings are falcate, though not very strongly so, and 
the hind-margin is slightly concave beneath. The hind-wings 
are long, angulated, and strongly dentated, with a moderately 
long spatulate tail at the outer angle. The lower part of the 
inner-margin is concave. There is a broad pale-yellow band 
running from before the middle of the costa of the fore- 
wings to the hinder angle, as in Gyncccia, which Hypna 
much resembles in general coloration above, though not in 

On the under side the wings are mottled with purplish-brown 
and dull green, and marked with metallic silvery spots. Bates 
describes these Butterflies as frequenting the borders of the 
forest, and settling on projecting branches of trees. 


The species belonging to this group are not numerous, and 
are all Tropical American. They are large and robust in form 
and were formerly placed near Charaxes ; but the discovery of 
the transformations of Aganisthus shows that they have strong 
affinities with the typical Nymphalince. They are probably 
an intermediate group, connecting the Nymphalincz with the 


Aganisthus odius (Fabricius) is a very large brown Butterfly, 
measuring four or five inches across the wings. It is common 
throughout the whole of the warmer parts of America. The 
fore-wings have a strong projection on the hind-margin below 
the tip, below which the hind-margin is suddenly and deeply 
concave, and then more gradually, but strongly, convex above 
the hinder angle. The hind-wings are rounded, but gradually 
produced below into an obtuse point at the anal angle. The 
wings are black above, and fulvous at the base ; on the fore- 
wings the fulvous portion of the wing sends out a broad 
obtuse projection a little above the middle of the wing, nearly 
to the hind-margin. Before the tip is a white spot. On the 
under surface the wings are transversely, but not sharply banded 
with lighter and darker brown, and slightly shaded with green. 
The wing-cells are open. The larva is set with branching spines, 
and has two clavate horns on the head ; the pupa is long, and 
laterally compressed, with horns on the buck 

" It is an insect ot extremely rapid flight. I have seen it 
only in open sunny places in the neighbourhood of towns." 

Coea cadmus (Cramer) differs from Aganisthus by the tailed 
hind-wings, and the closed wing cells. It is smaller and less 
robust than A. odius, with narrower wings, but is very similarly 
coloured. The fore-wings are less produced, and are of a 
deeper red at the base, but this colour ends more obtusely than 
in A. odius ^t two-thirds of their length ; towards the lip are 
several white spots. The hind-wings are rounded and dentated, 
and there is a moderately long, slender, acute tail on the middle 
of the hind-margin. The under side is brown, with zig-zag 
black lines. 

This species very greatly resembles Pycina zamba (Double- 
day and Hewitson), which is found in Venezuela, but, in the 
latter species, the hind-wings are more reddish above, and 


are without a tail. The under side is marbled and mottled as 
in Pyrameis, and Schatz and Rober consider it to be allied to 
that genus. 

Megistanis (Westwood) is another genus closely allied to Coea, 
though with much superficial resemblance to Charaxes, from 
which it differs by its closed wing-cells, and the short fork 
formed by the fourth and fifth sub-costal nervures on the fore- 
wings. The species measure about three inches across the 
wings, which are black with white spots towards the tip, and have 
generally a broad blue or orange band running from the middle 
of the fore-wings to the anal angle of the hind-wings ; nearer 
the costa of the fore-wings are one or two large spots corres- 
ponding to the band. The under surface is light blue or buff 
with black lines and spots. The Butterflies measure about four 
inches across the wings ; the fore-wings are slightly emarginate, 
and the hind-wings strongly dentated, with a short pointed tail 
at the end of the upper median nervule. They have a wild 
and rapid flight, and are fond of settling on damp mud. 

Charaxes, Ochsenheimer, Schmett. Eur., iv., p. 18 (1S16) ; 

Butler, P. Z. S., 1S65, p. 623 ; Schatz, Exot. Schmett, ii., 

p. 175(1888). 
Nymphalis, Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., xiv., p. 82 (1805) ; 

id. Enc. Me'th., ix., pp. 10, 329 (1819-23) ; Westw., Gen. 

Diurn. Lepid., p. 306 (1850). 

Type, Charaxes jasius (Linn.) 

This genus is somewhat allied to Apatura, but the body and 
antennae are much thicker, and the latter gradually thickened ; 
the fore-wings have the costa strongly arched, and the hind- 
margin deeply concave, and the hind-wings are generally pro- 
vided with two tails, varying in length and shape. 

i 7 8 


The larvae have generally four horns on the head, and a 
bifid tail. 

This genus contains a considerable number of Indian, 
African, and Australian species ; they are insects of consider- 
able but not usually of very large size, about three or four 
inches being the usual expanse. One species only is European; 
it is found on the shores of the Mediterranean, and is prob- 
ably derived from an Abyssinian species which greatly 
resembles it. It may have straggled down the Nile in former 
times, and then have become modified in the Mediterranean 
Sub-region ; but neither the Abyssinian nor the European 
species is found in Lower Egypt at the present day. 

With few exceptions, the Indian and Australian species are 
tawny, pale green, or pale yellow, with black borders ; or are 
black, more or less broadly banded with the paler colours. 

The species of this genus have a very lofty and powerful 
flight, and are very difficult to capture. They may sometimes 
be attracted, like other high flying Butterflies, by strongly- 
smelling substances, and sometimes they suck the sap exuding 
from trees. They have also a habit of frequenting the same 
twig, and returning to it after a longer or shorter flight. Some 
species have a very extensive range in Africa, being met with 
from Abyssinia to the West Coast, and to Natal, while others 
are much more restricted in their range. Some, such as C. 
eupale (Drury), which is one of the smaller species, are remark- 
able for the unusual character of their colouring, which is light 
green in the species just mentioned ; but others, such as the 
European C. jasius and its allies, are distinguished by the 
beautiful patterns of the under surface. They may be divided 
into a considerable number of small groups, which some 
authors consider to be of generic value. 

In some species, as in C. jasius, the sexes are nearly alike, but 
in others they are very dissimilar both in form and colouring. 


Charades . fasius 


Mr. Trimen, in his " Rhopalocera Africa? Australis" (p. 166), 
makes the following remarks on the habits of the South African 
species of Charaxes : " All, as far as is known at present, are 
inhabitants of woods, where they delight to settle on the stems 
or lofty twigs of timber-trees, frequently darting from their 
resting-places, and sporting about with a rapidity which might be 
inferred from their massive thorax, and strong, cleanly cut 
wings. Again and again, even when roughly scared from their 
seat, will they return to the same position. They do not 
appear to relish the honey of flowers, but the moisture that 
exudes from the bark of trees forms their favourite food. Oc- 
casionally, too, they are attracted to earth by some damp 
substance, and the more strongly-scented such substance be, 
the more likely are they to settle on it. The males are always 
the higher, more rapid, and frequent flyers, and females are 
consequently the oftener captured, though anything but slow 
in their movements." However, in his recently-publishec 
" South African Butterflies," he mentions that the species o: 
Charaxes may sometimes be attracted by honey, or by th< 
sweet compound called " sugar," which English entomologist: 
use to attract Moths ; and that many of the smaller species an 
in the habit of frequenting flowers. 

{Plate XXVI.) 

Papilio j'asius, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii.), i. (2), errata (1767); 
Drury, 111. Exot. Ins., i., pi. 1, fig. 1 (1773); Esper, 
Schmett., i. (2), p. 29, pi. 99, figs. 1, 2, p. 61, pi. 104, 
figs. 2-8 (1790 ? ). 

Papilio jason, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii.), i. (2), p. 749, no. 
26 (1767); nee Syst. Nat. (x.) i., p. 485, no. 171 
(1758); Cramer, Pap. Exot, ii., pi. 186, figs. A. B. 
(1777); iv., pi. 329, figs. A. B (1780). 

x 8o Lloyd's natural history, 

Charaxes jasius, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 25, pi. 
ii, fig. 4 (1878); Lang, Butterflies Eur., p. 154, pi. 34, 
fig. 1, pi. 36, fig. 1 (1882). 

This Butterfly is the only European representative of the 
genus to which it belongs. It is found in most of the countries 
bordering on the Mediterranean, France, Italy, Greece, Algeria, 
&c. In Southern France it is perhaps most abundant in the 
Isles of Hyeres, though it occurs as far north as Lyons. 

It measures from two and a half to three and a half inches 
across the wings, which are of a silky brown with a slight 
reddish tinge. All the wings have a marginal yellow border, 
cut by the nervures, and shading into orange towards the tip 
of the fore-wings, and into yellowish-green at the anal angle of 
the hind-wings. On the fore-wings the costa is yellowish-red, 
and there is a marginal row of orange spots running from the 
costa, sometimes represented on the hind-wings by a spot on 
the costa. Within the band there is generally a row of four 
small blue spots towards the anal angle of the hind-wings. 
The yellow band of the hind-wings is narrowly bordered with 
black, and the tails are also black. 

On the under side, the wings, from the base to beyond the 
middle, are of a deep purplish-red colour, with many stripes 
and spots of olive-brown bordered with white ; this is folluwed 
by a bluish-white band, broader on the hind-wings than on 
the fore-wings, where it is sometimes only slightly marked; 
outside this, on the fore-wings, is a row of orange spots 
bordered outside with black, and separated by a grey space 
from the orange hind-margin ; on the hind-wings the white 
band is followed by a series of dark red spots, beyond which 
the wing is orange nearly to the hind-margin, which is more 
narrowly edged with black than on the upper side. The inner 
side of this orange space is more or less clouded with black; 


and towards the anal angle is a row of blue spots, paler than 
above, and partially bordered with black. 

" The caterpillar, which in its early stage is green, becomes 
afterwards of a yellowish hue, and its skin is, as it were, 
shagreened and transversely plaited. Its head is singularly 
armed with four vertical yellow horns, tipped with red, of 
which the two intermediate are the longest. A yellow line 
passes along each side of the body in the region of the 
stigmata, and the back is marked with four indistinct orange 
spots. The true feet are black, the membranous ones green. 
It feeds on the leaves of the strawberry-tree {Arbutus utiedo), 
and never eats except during the night. Its habits are very 
lethargic. During daytime it remains fixed and motionless on 
its favourite plant, which it resembles in colour, and thus 
escapes observation. The chrysalis is smooth, thick, carinated, 
and of a coriaceous texture, the colour pale green. Two 
broods or flights of the perfect insect are produced each year, 
the first in June, the second in September. The caterpillars 
of the autumnal brood survive the winter and are not trans- 
formed into chrysalids till the ensuing May. The perfect 
insects are then produced in about fifteen days. These 
speedily deposit their eggs, which are hatched in June, and after 
three months occupied in the usual transformations, the second 
flight appears in September, and continues the race in the 
manner above-mentioned. In many parts of France the 
Butterfly is named the ' Pasha with Two Tails' " * 

Further particulars respecting the habits of this interesting 
Butterfly, from the observations of Mr. de Vismes Kane, will 
be found in my " European Butterflies and Moths" (pp. 23, 24), 
to which I must refer the reader. The French entomologists 
often use rotten cheese as a bait to attract this and other high 
flying Butterflies within reach. 

* Wilson's " Illustrations of Zoology," fol. 27, 


C jasius is closely allied to C. epijasius (Reiche), an 
Abyssinian species, which is chiefly distinguished from it by 
possessing a large patch of pale blue on the upper side of the 

hind-wings. . . 

In Drury's "Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, vol. i., 
p 2 , and vol. iii-, p. 4; (Westwood's edition), will be found an 
>unt of the habits of C. castor (Cramer), a common West 
African species, which much resembles C. jasius beneath, but 
which is tawny on the upper side, with broad brown borders, and 
has much shorter tails on the hind-wings. It was first brough 
from Sierra Leone by Smeathman, a naturalist who visited tl 
place in the last century, and whose observations on the insects 
which he collected are of permanent interest and value. It 
flies in the heat of the day with amazing rapidity, and seldom de- 
scends within eight feet of the ground. It glances from the promi- 
nent branches of one tree to those of another as swiftly as a 
Swallow, and turns its head about instantly to the glade or 
path and will not suffer any person to approach within a 
striking distance of it, but darts away on the least motion of 
the body. If the collector exert his patience, it will at 1 
become more familiar and careless, and is then to be caught 
upon some particular branch, to which it will appear more 
attached than to another." These observations have been 
erroneously supposed to apply to Papilio antimachus (Drury) 
(cf. vol. iii., p- 2). 


Papilio xiphares, Cramer, Pap. Exot, iv, pi. 37 7, ngs. A. B. 

Papilio ] thurius, Godart, Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 354, no. 15 

Nymphll xiphares, Godart, Encycl. Med,., ix., p. 357, no. ,5 
(1823) i Trimen, Rhop. Air. Austr, p. 167 (1866). 


Charaxes xip/mres, Trimen, S. Afr. Butterflies, i, p. 34* 

(1887). i _ v 

Papilio thyestes, Stoll Suppl. Cram, pi. 32, figs. 2, 2 li. 


This is a handsome South African Butterfly, measuring 

from three and a half to four and a half inches across the 


The male is blue-black above, with rows of blue and white 
spots on the fore-wings, and there is a broad blue band across 
the hind-wings, which have two rows of sub-marginal lunules, 
and two short tails. In the female the spots arc larger and 
whiter, and the blue band is replaced by a yellow one. Ihe 
under 'surface is light brown or grey, with numerous blue and 
white lines, with a white band, less marked in the male, and a 
sub-marginal row of black lunules bordered with yellow. 

Mr. Trimen (Rhop. Afr. Austr, p. 1 70) gives the following 
account of the habits of this conspicuous species : " Their 
favourite haunts are the open spots on, or near, the outskirts 
of a wood, where they settle on the bark or projecting twigs 
of the trees, frequently glancing off, suddenly disappearing 
among or over the opposite trees, and as suddenly returning 
to the spot so abruptly l&t. I have several times seen three 
or four specimens together, settled high up on a lofty tree-stem, 
busily imbibing the moist exudations from its bark. When so 
engaged, they walk over a little space with much importance 
of action, contemptuously snipping their glossy wings at im- 
pertinent Diptera and other insects, who presume to share 
their repast. I have sometimes suddenly roused the female 
from quite a low bush, when she darted up and away with 
such velocity that a single vain stroke of the net was the most 
I ever had an opportunity of making. One day, however, 
this single instinctive sweep of the net was successful." 

f 84 Lloyd's natural history. 

{Plate XXVI 1., Figs. I, 2.) 

Papilio tiridates, Cramer, Pap. Exot, ii., pi. 161, figs. A. B. 

(1777); Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., iii., pi. 23, figs. 1, 2 (17S2). 
Nymphalis tiridates, Godart., Enc. Meth., ix., p. 354, no. 14 

(1823); Trimen, Rhop. Afr. Austr., p. 172 (1866). 
Charaxes tiridates, Staud. Exot. Schmett., i., p. 169, pi. 59 

? Papilio tnarica, Fabr., Ent. Syst, iii. (1), P- 113. n0 - 34^ 

(1793); Donov., Nat. Rep., ii., pi. 37 (1824). 

This species was orginally described by Cramer as from 
Java and Amboina ; but although he corrected the error in his 
" Errata," giving the locality as Guinea, subsequent authors per- 
petuated it, even as late as Westvvood in his edition of Drury's 
"Illustrations of Exotic Entomology," published in 1837, and 
Duncan in the volume on Exotic Butterflies in the " Natural- 
ist's Library" 1840. Westwood, indeed, adds the equally erro- 
neous locality of Rio Janeiro, on the authority of a correspon- 
dent of Drury's. Since then, however, the insect has become 
well known as a native of West Africa, and was also described 
as inhabiting South Africa by Mr. Trimen on Boisduval's 
authority ; but as he has excluded it from his later works, it 
is to be presumed that its reputed occurrence in South Africa 
is more than doubtful. 

The male measures about four inches across the wings, 
which are of a very deep blue-black, with brown nervures ; 
and there is a double row of blue spots towards the margins 
of all the wings. The incisions, and a sub-marginal row of 
lunules on the hind-wings, are yellowish. On the under sur- 
face, the wings are of a brownish grey, somewhat glossy, and arc 
ornamented with black streaks and spots edged with blue 
towards the base, more or less bordered with yellow, and 


1 . 2 . Charaaces tiruLcctes 
3. ,. etheocLe>s 


followed by rows of more or less continuous yellowish spots 
partly bordered with blue. Towards the hinder angle of the 
fore-wings are two blue lunules, bordered with black and yel- 
low, and on the hind-wings is a sub-marginal row of violet 
ocellated spots, preceded and followed by a row of yellow 
lunules. The tails are rather short and slender, the first 
longest. The body is dark brown above, with four white 
spots on the head ; beneath it is yellowish. The antennas arc 
black, with the palpi yellow beneath. 

The female, described by Fabricius under the name of 
Papilio marica, and correctly stated by him to come from 
Africa, is brown above, with a white band and white spots on 
the fore-wings, and some blue and white spots towards the 
margins of the hind-wings. 


{Plate XXVII. , Fig. 3.) 

Papilio etheocks, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii., pi. 119, figs. D. E. 

Nymphalis etheocks, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 355, no. 17 

The female of this Butterfly was first brought from Sierra 
Leone. It expands about three and a half inches, and is of a 
shining bluish colour above, while across the middle of the wings 
runs a broad white band, with greenish reflections. On the 
fore-wings this band is divided into spots, and commences on 
the costa with a row of four small ones in a line with the outer 
limit of the band. At and above the end of the cell, beyond 
the level of the inner edge of the band, is another row of three 
small spots, and there is a detached one in the upper part of 
the cell at about two-thirds of its length. The portion of the 
hind-wings beyond the hand is blackish, bordered outside 

ii 2 


with white, and then by nearly connected green sub marginal 
lunules, the hinder angle of the fore-wings being also marked 
with a green spot. Towards the anal angle of the hind-wings 
are two black spots. 

The under side is of a pale coffee-brown, with sonle short 
blue lines and streaks towards the base, bordered with black. 
On the fore-wings are three round black spots in blue rings 
near the base, and the two lowest white spots of the band are 
produced nearly to the hind-margin, and are each marked at 
three-quarters of their length with a large black spot. On the 
hind-wings the lower part of the white band is bordered out- 
side with green, and then, much more extensively, with blackish, 
and the white lunules are bordered outside with blue, most 
broadly towards the anal angle. The space between these 
lunules and the anal angle, including the innermost tail, which 
is the shortest, and the area reaching nearly to the root of the 
other tail, is green, with four prominent black spots, two of 
which are close together near the anal angle. 

The male, as in the numerous closely-allied species of this 
group, is probably smaller, of a deep velvety black, with some 
detached blue spots on the fore-wings, and some slight white 
or greenish markings towards the hind-margins of the hind- 
wings. There is no specimen exactly resembling Cramer's 
figure, from which the one in our plate is copied, in the col- 
lection of the British Museum ; and Drury (" Illustrations of 
Exotic Entomology," iii., pi. io)has figured a different, and not 
very closely allied, West African species of Charaxes, C. etesipe 
(Godart), under the name of Papilio etheodes. 


Ethiopian Region. 

The genus Fal/a, Hiibner, is so closely allied to Charaxes 
that Mr. Trimen does not consider it worthy of separation 


The species expand three or four inches across the wings, 
which are broad, the fore-wings not much longer than the hind- 
wings, and the latter more square than is usually the case in 
Charaxes, with a strong tail at the outer angle. They are black, 
with white or tawny markings, which may extend from the base 
to the middle of the wing, followed by sub-marginal rows of 
tawny spots, as in P. varanes (Cramer), or may consist of trans- 
verse bands across both wings, varying in width. P. varanes 
is common in most parts of Africa, and is described by Mr. 
Trimen as less rapid in its flight than the typical species of 
Charaxes, and as frequently descending to sport about trees 
and bushes. It is also fond of the sap exuding from trunks of 
trees. The pupa is remarkable for possessing two pairs of 
small yellowish black-tipped tubercles on the anal pedicel, and 
two on the ventral surface, close to the pedicel ; the head is 

Another African genus included by many entomologists 
with Charaxes is Monura, Mabille, which differs much more in 
shape from typical Charaxes than does Palla. M. zingha 
(Cramer) is a well-known West African Butterfly, expanding 
about three inches. The fore-wings have the hind-margin 
hardly concave, but the hind-wings are at first rounded and 
dentated, and then curved outwards to form a broad lobe at 
the anal angle, with a projecting tooth on the outer side. The 
wings are black, broadly red at the base, with this colour run- 
ning up nearly to the tip of the fore-wings. The wings are 
black or buff beneath, with black spots at the base, blue spots 
in the middle and towards the anal angle of the hind-wings, 
and the hinder half of the fore-wings is red. 

The genus Euxanthe, Hiibner, which is confined to Africa 
and Madagascar, has no very near allies, but is considered by 
Schatz and Rober to be allied to Charaxes, which it resembles 
in neuration, but not in shape. These Butterflies measure four 

1 88 Lloyd's natural history. 

inches in expanse, and have very broad, rounded, hardly den- 
ticulated wings, the fore-wings being hardly longer than the hind- 
wings. The species are black, with green or yellow transverse 
markings, and sometimes white spots ; more or less of the 
centre of the hind-wings is usually green. 

Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions. 

To these regions belongs the small genus Prothoe, Hubner, 
the type of which, P.franckii (Godart), is about three inches 
in expanse, with broad short wings, and the hind-margin of the 
fore-wings nearly straight, while the hind-wings are angulated, 
and produced into a short broad obtuse tail at the outer angle. 
The Butterfly, which is found in Java, is black, with a broad 
oblique white band edged with blue on the fore-wings ; towards 
the tip are some white spots. The under-side is brown, varied 
with grey, and, on the hind-wings, with greenish : it is marked 
with black spots and zig-zag lines. There are several closely 
allied forms in Malacca, &c, with the band blue, sometimes 
without any white admixture. In P.ausiralis (Guerin), and its 
allies, which are found in New Guinea and the Moluccas, the 
hind-wings are concave below the middle, and produced into 
a short broad lobe, but are hardly sub-caudate. These Papuan 
species of Prothoe are black Butterflies, rather larger than P. 
franckii, with very broad white or pale yellow bands on the 
hind-wings, and often on part of the fore-wings likewise. 

The largest and most beautiful species is P. cafydonia, 
Hewitson. It is more than five inches in expanse, and is 
found in Malacca and Borneo. It is black, with the base and 
hinder half of the fore-wings primrose-yellow nearly to the 
margins, where the colour ends in a zig-zag outline ; nearer the 
tip is an oblique row of spots of the same colour. The hind- 
wings are bluish, shading into primrose outside, with a broad 
black border; the outer angle forms a large rounded lobe. 
The under surface is black and brick-red, varied with primrose, 


and in smaller proportions, with white, flesh-colour, blue, 
&c. It is a rare insect ; the first specimen captured by Dr. 
Wallace had settled on dung, and it was twelve years before a 
second was brought to England. Hewitson considered it one 
of the most beautiful species with which he was acquainted. 

Neotropical Region. 

The genus Zaretes, Hiibner, is remarkable for the dead- 
leaf pattern of the under surface of the wings, which is more 
pronounced than in any other Tropical American Butterflies. 
The species are of moderate size, generally about two inches and 
a half in expanse. The fore-wings are pointed, with the hind 
margin, and the outer part of the inner-margin concave ; the 
hind-wings are produced into a short tail at the anal angle. 
The species vary from pale ochreous to reddish-fulvous, and 
there are often two transparent spots on the fore-wings. The 
few closely-allied species are common throughout Tropical 
America, inhabiting thinned parts of the forest. 

Ccenophkbia archidona (Hewitson), from Archidoha in New 
Granada, is a much larger Butterfly, exceeding four inches in 
expanse. The fore-wings are extremely falcate, but otherwise 
unusually regular in outline, not being concave or dentated ■ 
the anal angle of the hind-wings is almost rectangular. The 
wings are of a rich tawny above, with brown or black borders 
not sharply defined ; the under side is brown, with tawny 
mottlings and silvery spots, and the mid-rib of a leaf-pattern 
running beyond the middle of the hind-wings to the tip of the 
fore-wings ; outside it are sometimes side-ribs of the leaf. 

Siderotic^ Hiibner, has much resemblance to Zaretes, es- 
pecially in size, shape, and the more or less developed tail at 
the anal angle of the hind-wings. The species are about three 
inches, or rather less, in expanse. The fore-wings are but 
slightly pointed at the tip, and the hind-margin is rounded, 


and only concave, i" at all, at the hinder angle. They differ, 
however, very much horn Siderotic in colour, being black, some- 
times glossed with purple, with a great part of the fore-wings 
from the base filled up with brilliant scarlet, of the same shade as 
in Catagramma or Agrias, from which the shape of the wings and 
the different character of the under side will at once distinguish 
them. This scarlet patch may be confined to part of the basal 
region, or it may extend over a great part of the wing ; in the 
latter case, it is sometimes partly interrupted, and there is 
generally a red blotch on the costa of the hind-wings also. 
The females have the scarlet portion of the wings replaced with 
orange-tawny. The under side is dark brown, varied with 
reddish, but without sharply-defined markings. 

After Siderotic, we may consider Agrias, Doubleday and 
Hewitson, to which belong the most gorgeously coloured of 
the Nymphalince. of the New World. They much resemble 
gigantic Butterflies of the genera Catagramma or Callit/iea, 
but are much more robust, and expand three or four inches ; 
and they generally inhabit localities where these much smaller 
Butterflies are also found. The fore-wings are broad, hardly 
concave, and the hind-wings rounded, and but slightly den- 
ticulated, and scarcely, if at all, angulated in the middle, or 
produced at the anal angle. On the hind-wings of the male 
there is always a conspicuous tuft of yellow hair near the 
inner margin. 

Some of the species are black, often suffused with rich 
purple, and the greater part of the fore-wings, except at the 
tip, is of a brilliant scarlet. The under side of the hind- 
wings is generally more or less yellow, variously marked with 
undulating black lines, and often with black spots towards the 
base on a bluish ground ; but in all the species of the genus 
there is a sub-marginal row of moderate-sized round black 
spots, sometimes connected, and generally with large white or 

AGRIAS. 191 

bluish-white pupils. Other species are of a rich purple above, 
either with a nearly marginal pale green band, or with an 
orange space instead of a green one at the base of the fore- 
wings. In these the under side of the hind-wings is green, 
with black spots and lines towards the base (except when the 
basal half of the wings is red or yellow). One of the hand- 
somest species is the newly-discovered A. narcissus, Stau- 
dinger, from Cayenne, which is marked very like a Batesia, 
being of a rich purplish-blue, with a broad oblique scarlet band 
on the fore- wings. 

These magnificent Butterflies are most abundant on the 
western side of North America, towards the head-waters of the 
Amazons. They are insects of powerful flight, usually settling 
on trees. Bates has given a graphic account of the habits of 
his A. sardanapaius, a brilliant blue Butterfly, with the fore- 
wings scarlet for two-thirds of the length from the base. <; I 
met with it," he says, "at different points of the Upper 
Amazons ; always in sunny openings in the primeval forests, 
in hot gloomy weather between the dry and the wet season. 
Its evolutions on the wing are similar to those of the Prepofuc, 
and it is utterly impossible to capture it, except when settled. 
The first examples I saw were attracted by a sweet sap exud- 
ing from the trunk of a felled tree, where a large number of 
Cetoniade Coleoptera were daily congregated. A dense crowd of 
other handsome Butterflies were assembled on the same tree — 
Preponcz, Paphi<z [Anace], Siderones, Gyncza'ce, Ectimce, and 
others ; but the frequent shifting of the eager creatures had 
rendered the gorgeous Agn'ades unusually wary, so that I was 
unable to capture them. When found alone, settled on ordure 
on the pathway, they were less difficult to secure ; but it was 
only on three or four occasions, during as many years, that I 
was so lucky as to find the species in such situations." 

These Butterflies are always highly prized by collectors both 


for their beauty and their rarity, the latter being due to the 
difficulty of obtaining them, even in the distant countries where 
they are found. 

Among the largest and most conspicuous of the Tropical 
American Butterflies are those belonging to the genus Prepona, 
Boisduval. They are very robust insects, measuring four 
inches across the wings, which are broad and dentated, with 
the tip of the fore-wings much produced, but not falcate, the 
hind-margin being oblique and then nearly straight below; 
near the inner-margin of the hind-wings of the males stands 
a yellow tuft of stiff hair, as in Agrias. The wings are black, 
and are generally crossed by a broad blue or greenish-blue 
band, often interrupted below the costa of the fore-wings. In 
some species the whole of the wings is suffused with rich 
purple ; in others the blue band is confined to the hind-wings, 
and is reduced to a blue blotch. The most beautiful species is 
P. pneneste, Hewitson, from New Granada, which might easily 
be mistaken for an Agrias, but for the much broader fore-wings 
with the hind-margin concave. It is black, suffused with rich 
purple, and with a sub-marginal row of scarlet spots. From the 
base of the fore-wings runs a scarlet band, narrowly continued 
along the costa for three-fourths of its length, but, beyond the 
cell, continued in a broad curve to the band of spots at a point 
opposite the middle of the hind-margin. On the under side 
the Prcponcs are varied with different shades of brown and 
grey ; sometimes there is a transverse black or white line, and 
very frequently a number of short irregular zig-zag lines 
towards the base. On the hind-wings beneath there is either 
a sub-marginal row of small eyes between the nervures, or two 
larger eyes, one towards the tip, and the other towards the 
anal angle ; the latter is sometimes visible above. The 
larva and pupa resemble those of Apatura ; and notwith- 
standing the strong and rapid flight of the Butterflies, they are 


not difficult to capture, as they have the habit of settling on 
projecting branches of trees, and are not easily alarmed. 

Polygrapha, Schatz, is a new genus which has been formed 
for a handsome Butterfly from Ecuador, described by Salvin 
and Godman as Paphia cyanea. It measures nearly three 
inches across the wings, which are much like those of a 
Charaxes in shape. The fore-wings are pointed, with the 
hind-margin oblique, but very slightly concave, and the 
hind-wings with the hind-margin gradually curved, obtuse 
at the anal angle, and with a moderately long slender pointed 
tail below the middle of the hind-margin. The wings are of 
a rich purple, with black borders, and are crossed by a paler 
blue band running from the inner-margin of the hind-wings 
to the middle of the fore-wings, and there are two detached 
blue spots on the fore-wings opposite the outer half of the costa. 
The under side is brown or grey, irrorated with black, and 
with the hind-margin of the hind-wings yellowish-green, on 
which stands a row of small black spots surmounted with 


Egg — Globular, translucent, hard, not so high as wide, 
smooth, or obscurely faceted. 

Larva. — Smooth or hairy, with a forked tail, and generally 
with a bifid head. 

Pupa. —Stout, oval, with a bifid head. 

Imago — Of large or very large size ; palpi slender, and wings 
broad, generally rounded and entire, or scalloped ; fore-wings 
sometimes long ; hind-wings sometimes produced into a lobe, 
but never tailed; almost always with large ocellated spots beneath. 
Prevailing colours blue above, varying from almost white to 
the most brillant sky-blue ; or marked with white, brown, and 

194 Lloyd's natural history. 

tawny. Cells of the fore-wings closed, and those of the hind- 
wings open. 

Range. — The typical genus, Morpho, is entirely confined to 
Tropical America, but there are about a dozen other genera of 
the Sub-family inhabiting various parts of the Indo-Malayan 
and Austro-Malayan Regions ; but no species is yet known 
from Africa, Madagascar, or Australia; though it is very 
probable that one or more species of the curious genus 
Tenaris, Hiibner, which is well represented in New Guinea, may 
also inhabit Northern Australia. These are white Butterflies, 
more or less varied with pale brown, measuring about three or 
four inches across the wings, and with two very large black blue- 
pupilled eyes in brown and yellow rings on at least the under 
side of each hind-wing. 

Habits. — The long-winged species of Morpho have a very 
lofty sailing flight, which renders their capture a matter of 
great difficulty in a forest country. Those with shorter and 
broader wings have a lower flight through the forest glades, 
and settle occasionally on leaves or ripe fruit. In the moun- 
tains of New Granada and Ecuador, they are captured with 
long nets among the precipices, and collectors are sometimes 
let down by ropes to the ledges which they frequent. Ama- 
thusia phidippus (Linn.), a large brown East Indian species, 
with the hind- wings much produced, is said to appear about 

Morpho, Fabricius in Illiger, Mag. Insekt., vi., p. 280 (1S07); 
Latr., Enc. Meth., ix., pp. n, 435 (1S19-23); Westw., Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid., p. 337 (1851); Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., 
p. 1S2 (1889). 

Type, Morpho achilles (Cramer). 
The genus Morpho, as already stated, though the type of 


/. Morpho adonis 
2. Calzgo ilioneus 

MORPHO. 195 

the family, is the only one found in Tropical America ; but 
it varies so much in the shape of the wings and in other 
characters that it might easily be divided into several genera, 
if it were worth while to do so. The antennae are long, slender, 
and gradually clubbed, the wings ample, sometimes long, and 
sometimes broad, and there is a conspicuous spur at the base of 
the median nervure of the fore-wings. There are also two sub- 
costal nervules branching before the end of the cell. In the 
Old World genera there is no median spur, and only one sub- 
costal branch before the end of the cell 

We have figured two species of this genus, representing two 
different groups. 


( Plate XX VIII. , Fig. 1 . ) 

Papilio adonis, Cramer, Pap. Exot, i., pi. 61, figs. A. B. 


Morpho adonis, Godart., Encycl. Meth., ix., p. 439, no. 3 (1823) ; 

Distant, Trans. Ent. Soc Lond., 18S1, p. 397, pi. 20. 
rapilo marcus, Schall., Naturiorscher, xxi., p. 174, no. 4, pi. 

4, figs. 1, 2 (17S5). 
This species inhabits Surinam and British Guiana, and 
measures from three and a half to five inches across the wings, 
which, in the male, are of a rich sky-blue above, and of a 
pearly-grey beneath, varied with light brown, with two or three 
rather small eye-spots. The female is brown, with a broad white 
band. It is a rare insect in collections, though a very similar 
species, M. cega, Hiibner, which inhabits Brazil, is common. 

{Plate XXIX.) 
rtpilio achilles, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 463, no. 32 
(1758); id. Mus. Ludov. Ulr., p. 211 (1764); Clerck. 
Icones, pi. 24, fig. 2 (1764). 

19C Lloyd's natural history. 

This species, the type of the genus, represents the shorter- 
winged species of the genus Morpho. It is black, with abroad 
blue band across the middle of both wings, and has two rows 
of white spots, converging hindwards, beyond the band of the 
fore wings, beneath, the wings are ornamented with eye-spots, 
which in the variety figured are produced towards the hind- 
margin. The hind-wings are also more or less ornamented 
with white and greenish markings. M. achilles is a common 
Brazilian species ; and there are many others belonging to the 
same group, but differing in the amount of blue on the wings. 
Some of these species are wholly blue, except on the borders 
of the wings 

In the broad-winged species of Morpho the females often 
much resemble the males ; but in those with longer and more 
pointed wings, they are often very dissimilar, as we have 
noticed under M. adonis. 

One of the largest Butterflies of South America is M. hecuba 
(Linn.), from Surinam ; it is brown and tawny in colour, and 
measures seven or eight inches across the wings. The brightest 
and richest blue of all is found in the males of Morpho 
7-hctenor (Cramer), from Brazil, and M. cypris, Westwood, from 
New Granada ; the latter has a broad white band across the 
blue. M. rhetenor is common on the Amazons, where the 
Butterflies may be seen flapping their wings in the sun half a 
mile away ; but their flight is so lofty that Bates was only able 
to obtain two specimens in eleven years. 

Another very beautiful species is M. sulkowskyi, Kollar ; it 
is one of the smaller ones, only measuring about three or 
four inches across the wings, and is of a light iridescent blue, 
changing into delicate pinks and yellows according to the 
position in which it is seen. These iridescent colours, so 
remarkable in some Butterflies, are due to the refraction of 
light from the edges of the scales. 


Another beautiful group is represented by M. lacrtes 
(I)rury) and its allies. These are of a very delicate pale blue 
or green, sometimes almost white, and have a continuous row 
of small eyes on the under side of the hind-wings. 

Some of the species of Morpho have two dissimilar forms of 
female; thus Morpho cypris, referred to above, has a blue 
female like the male, but with a broader white band, and also 
a brown and tawny female, quite unlike its partner. 


The largest species belong to the genus Stichophtliabna, Fel- 
der, and measure four or five inches across the wings, which 
are very broad, with the hind-margins rounded and dentated ; 
they have a row of moderate-sized ocelli, bordered within by a 
pale band, on the under side of the wings. One of them, .9. 
hozvqua (Westwood), a Chinese species, is yellowish-tawny 
above, with a double row of black sagittate sub-marginal black 
spots; and S. camadeva (Westwood), which is common in the 
Himalayas, has bluish-white fore-wings, with marginal black 
markings, nearly as in 6". hozvqua ; the base is rusty-red, and 
that of the hind-wings more broadly so, shading outside into 
blackish, crossed by two sub-marginal rows of nearly connected 
triangular and lunular bluish-white spots. 

In Thaumantias, Hiibner, the fore-wings are more pointed 
above, and the hind-margin is nearly straight ; they are brown, 
generally either more or less blue at the base, or with a broad 
blue or yellowish-white band on the fore-wings, and sometimes 
with a large mass of orange on the lower part of the hind-wings 
towards the anal angle, and the tip of the hind-wings more 
narrowly bordered with orange. 

Among the smaller species of Morphines are those belonging 
to the genus Chrome, Westwood, some of which do not much 
exceed two inches in expanse. They are usually of a tawny 

198 Lloyd's natural history. 

colour above, with short broad fore-wings and rounded hind- 
wings ; the under surface is generally more or less ocellated, 
sometimes with a large eye at the tip of the fore-wings, and 
two on the hind-wings, and sometimes with merely a row of 
pale dots across the wings. 

In Amathusia, Fabr., and Zeuxidia, Hiibner (large brown 
Butterflies, measuring about four inches across the wings, and 
sometimes ornamented with large bands or masses of blue on 
the wings of the males, and with orange-tawny or white mark- 
ings on the females), the hind-wings are more or less produced 
at the anal angle. 

The species of Discophora, Boisd., are brown Butterflies, 
sometimes with a purplish lustre, measuring about three inches 
across the wings, with white, bluish-white, or tawny transverse 
bands and rows of spots ; the under side is mottled with brown 
and dull yellow. In the males the hind-wings are rounded, and in 
the female they are angulated in the middle of the hind-margin. 

The genus Enispe, Westwood, somewhat resembles Cir- 
rhochroa in its markings, but the species are much larger and 
more robust, with longer hind-wings produced at the anal angle. 
They are of a rich fulvous, with brown zig-zag lines and spots. 
The innermost line is straighter than the others, and is visible 
on both surfaces of the wings, and beyond it ; on the under sur- 
face, which is yellowish, some traces of small ocellated spots 
are perceptible. 

Of the genera of Eastern Morphince which we have noticed, 
Thaumantias and Enispe are not found in the islands, but 
Tenaris is a purely insular genus ; otherwise the genera are 
about equally well represented on the Asiatic continent and in 
the islands. In some genera the males have conspicuous tufts 
of hair on the upper surface of the hind-wings, most frequently 
at the base ; but in Zeuxidia there are also two large tufts in 
the cell, and sometimes another towards the inner-margin, while 


Morpho achtlles 


I 99 

in the male of Discophora there is a large oval patch of raised 
black scales just below the middle of the upper side of the 


Egg. — Not yet described. 

Larva. — With horns on the head, and with pairs of erect 
spines on the back of some of the segments, generally with a 
bifid tail, feeding on monocotyledonous plants, and sometimes 
forming a case for themselves. 

Pupa. — Very thick, but not spiny. 

Imago. — Of large size, often stout ; palpi rather long, hairy, 
not widened ; wings b: oad, slightly scalloped, very rarely tailed ; 
fore-wings rarely long ; cells closed ; hind-wings with a pre- 
discoidal cell. Colours brown, tawny, orange, dull blue or 
purplish, rarely bright blue. 

Range. — Exclusively confined to Tropical America. Only a 
few genera have been described. 

Habits. — Twilight-flyers. This is an unusual habit in Butter- 
flies, though there are several species of Nymphalituz, Morp/u'/uv, 
Satyrince, and Lycccnida, which have been recorded as flying 
at dusk or at night, either habitually or occasionally. 

Characteristics. — The typical genus, Brassolis, Fabricius, con- 
tains species varying from three to five inches across the wings. 
They are brown, with orange-tawny bands on the fore-wings, 
and sometimes with borders of the same colour on the hind- 
wings. The species of Opsiphancs, Westwood, much resemble 
those of this genus, but are larger insects, with broader and 
shorter fore-wings. 

One of the handsomest species of the family is Dynastor 
napoleon, Doubl. and Hew. It measures five or six inches 


across the wings ; the fore-wings are arched, and not longer 
than the hind-wings, which are very broad. In colour 
it is dark brown, with a connected row of pale sulphur-yellow 
spots on the fore-wings, and a very broad orange border to the 
hind-wings. It is found at Rio Janeiro, but is not a very 
common insect. 

The largest species of the Sub-family belong to the 

Caligo, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 51 (1S16); Westw., Gen. 
Diurn. Lep., p. 340 (1S51); Schatz, Exot. Schmett, ii., 
p. 193(1889). 

Type, C. eurylochus (Cramer). 

The species of Caligo are large broad-winged insects resem- 
bling Morpho, but they may be at once distinguished, not only 
from Morpho, but from all other Butterflies, by the huge black 
eye, with a bluish or whitish crescent in the middle, and a broad 
yellow outer ring, which is placed on the under surface of each 
hind-wing, a little below the middle. The wings are generally 
dull blue or buff, with broad black borders, and one or two 
have orange mai kings towards the tip of the fore-wings, or on 
the hind-margin of the hind-wings. 


Papilio eurylochus, Cramer, Pap. Exot., i., pi. 33 A., 34 A. 

Moipho eurylochus, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 448, no. 24 


A large South American Butterfly, measuring six or seven 

inches across the wings ; the fore-wings are brown, with a pale 

sub-marginal stripe, and some round black spots, bordered 

within with while, both above and below, towards the tips ; the 


base of all the wings is blue, and the outer part of the hind- 
wings is blue-black. On the under side of the hind-wings is a 
very large black eye, containing a white crescent, and sur- 
rounded by broad rings of tawny and brown. A little above 
this is a small kidney-shaped yellowish spot, surrounded with 
brown, and on the middle of the costa is a similar but larger 
one. The surface of the wings beneath is grey, mottled with 

As a representative of this genus we have figured the follow- 
ing species : — 

{Plate XX 'VIII. , Fig. 2.) 

Papilio ilioneus, Cram., Pap. Exot., i., pi. 52 A. (1777). 
Morpho ilioneus, Godart, Pap. Exot., ix., p. 448, no. 25 (1823). 

This species is very similar to C. eurylochus, but has two pale 
sub-marginal lines on the fore-wings instead of one. The figure 
will give a fair idea of the general appearance of the upper sur- 
face of the most typical species of the genus. It has been 
drawn of half the natural size. The species is common in 
South America. 

The species of Eryphanis, Boisduval, resemble Caligo, but 
are smaller, with shorter and more pointed and angular wings, 
and especially with smaller eye-spots on the under surface. 


Egg. — About as high as wide, rather small, hard, translucent, 
smooth, faceted, sub-radiate, or (rarely) ridged. 

Larva. — Generally green, with two small horns on the head, 
and a forked tail ; smooth, or slightly hairy ; thickest in the 
middle, and tapering at each end. It feeds on grasses. 

Pupa. — Short, cylindrical, not angulated. 

S 2 


Imago- — Of small or moderate size, the palpi generally com- 
pressed, and fringed with long hair-like scales ; wings generally 
broad and rounded ; wing-cells closed. Principal nervures of 
the wings often thickened or inflated at the base, the wings 
almost always ornamented with ocellated spots beneath, and 
sometimes abeve. 

Eang-e. — Cosmopolitan ; though certain genera are confined to 
restricted areas. As a rule, the Satyrina of tropical climates, 
though more numerous, by no means surpass those of tem- 
perate climates in beauty and variety, or even in size. 

Habits. — These Butterflies have generally a rather weak flight, 
and frequent meadows, heaths, and mountains. Other species 
are found in woods, and some of the tropical species, such as 
Melanitis leda (Linn.), are crepuscular, if not nocturnal, in their 
habits. Some species frequently settle on rocks and tree- 
trunks, which they themselves often resemble in colour. 

Characteristics. — The Satyrhice are rather dull-coloured insects, 
brown, white, and tawny, or rufous being the prevailing hues. 
One or two South American genera (ffefara and its allies) have 
transparent wings, but the majority are opaque. Some species 
belonging to this, and allied genera, are ornamented with 
patches of bright scarlet or rich purple, and one or two species 
of the genera Euptychia, Ptychandra, &c, are of a bright blue 
colour. Many of the black and dark brown forms, including 
some European, but not British, species, exhibit a purplish or 
greenish lustre over the dark ground-colour of the wings. A 
few genera are tailed, but tailed or dentated wings are both 
rather unusual in this Sub-family. 

The Satyrincc are well represented in Europe, and many of 
our commonest and best known Butterflies belong to this Sub- 
family. In the United States they are much less numerous in 
genera and species. 

1.2. Er&bxxxs kgeas. 3.4-. Er^ebvcu eetJuops 


Schatz and Rober divide the Satyrince into six principal 
groups, as follows : — * 

A. Lower disco-cellular nervule of the hind-wings rising at or 
near to the origin of the second median nervule, never from 
the curve of the third. 

i. Hetcera group. — Base of the sub-costal nervure of the 
hind-wings free. Sub-median nervure forked at the base. 

Genera: cithjerias, het^era, pierella, antirrh/ea 

ii. Lethe group. — Sub-costal nervure of the hind-wings 
united with the costal nervure at the base, as in all the suc- 
ceeding groups. Lower disco-cellular nervule as long or longer 
than the middle one, and forming an acute angle with the 
median nervure. Costal nervure of the fore-wings well de- 
veloped, often thickened, but rarely inflated. 

Genera: menkris, lethe, neope, neorina, pararge, 
ptychandra (aberrant), &c. 

iii. Mycalesis group. — Lower disco-cellular nervule generally 
placed between the first and second median nervules at an 
acute or obtuse angle. Costal nervure of the fore-wings always, 
and the median and sub-median nervures generally, inflated 
at the base ; but when the two last-named nervures are not 
inflated, there is always a tuft of hair on the sub-median 
nervure in the male. 

Genera: mycalesis and bicyclus. 

B. Lower disco-cellular nervule of the fore-wings running to 
the curve of the third median nervule. 

* I have slightly condensed the data, but the names of the most repre- 
sentative genera in each group are given. 


iv. Melanitis group. — None of the nervures inflated at the 
base ; claws bifid. Lower disco-cellular nervule as long, or 
longer, than the middle one, and connected with the median 
nervule at a right angle. 

Genera: melanitis, gnophodes, tisiphone, and cverois 

v. Saiyrus group. — Costal nervure generally, and the median 
and sub-median nervures less frequently inflated at the base, 
but sometimes only thickened. Claws simple. Lower disco- 
cellular nervule of the hind-wings longer, or at least as long as 
the middle one, and connected with the median nervule at an 
acute angle. 

(This group may be divided by superficial characters into 
four sections, represented by Euptychia, Ypthima, Ei-ebia, and 
Satyrus [ = Hipparchicfy. 

vi. Pronophila group. — Costal nervure always inflated ; 
median nervure generally thickened, but not inflated. Middle 
disco-cellular nervule of the hind-wings always longer than the 
lower one, waved or angulated, with or without a spur in the 
discoidal cell. Lower disco-cellular nervule small, straight or 
curved outwards, and united to the median nervure at a right 
or at an obtuse angle. 

Genera: calisto, elina, lymanopoda, oxeoschistus, 
pronophila, lasiophila, d^edalma, corades. 

It will be most convenient to follow this arrangement, in the 
main, mentioning the British species and the most important 
foreign genera, besides those figured under each group. The 
Elymniince, which Schatz and Rober regard as aberrant 
Satyri?ia; i will be treated as a distinct Sub-family. 


I. Hetvera Group. 
These are broad-winged Butterflies, peculiar to Tropical 
America, and measuring from two to three inches across the 
wings. The genera CWnvrias, Hiibner, and Hetcera, Fabricius, 
include the only transparent-winged species among the Saty- 
rince; the hind-wings are usually marked with one or two ocelli, 
and bordered, either with a festooned brown band, or with rose- 
colour or purple. The other genera, Pierella and Antirrlnea, 
Hiibner, are opaque, and sometimes sub-caudate ; in Antirrhcza 
there are usually rather large sub-marginal spots or eyes. As 
an example of this group we have figured a species of the 

Hcetera, sect. 2, Picrella, Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 


Pierella, Butler, Ent. M. Mag., iv., p. 195 (1S6S); Schatz and 
Rober, Exot. Schmett, ii., p. 198 (1889). 

The type is Pap ilia nereis, Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., hi., pi. 35, 
fig- 2 > 3 O782). It is a thinly-scaled brown Butterfly, two and 
a half inches in expanse, with the outer half of the hind-wings 
tawny, marked with two eyes, and bordered within with a 
white band, much expanded in the middle ; on the fore-wings 
is a much narrower oblique band. It is common in South 

Pierella is the most extensive genus of the exclusively 
Tropical-American group to which the transparent-winged 
genera, Cithccrias and Hetcera belong. 

The species of Pierella measure from two to three inches 
across the wings, which are broad and rounded, opaque, 
though sometimes rather thinly scaled, and the hind-wings 
are nearly as broad as long, more or less quadrate, usually 
with a slight projection on the hind-margin opposite to the 
anal angle. The wings are brown, sometimes with a slight 

*o6 Lloyd's natural history. 

t>ronzy iridescence, which is frequently noticeable in dark- 
coloured Satyritice, and are often banded with white, and varied 
on the hind-wings, at least, with large patches of white, red, 
blue, or tawny. 

{Plate XXXV., Fig. i.) 
Hcctcra ceryce, Hewitson, Bolivian Butterflies, p. 10, no. 20 

Upper side.— Female. — Fore-wings semi-transparent, rufous- 
brown, crossed by three indistinct short brown bands (two in 
the cell), and by a longer dark brown band below the middle ; 
three minute sub-apical white spots. Hind-wings rufous, 
crossed beyond the middle by a band of brown ; the outer 
margin broadly brown, traversed by five white spots, bordered 
with black. 

Under side. — Pale rufous-brown, undulated with dark brown. 
Both wings crossed by three linear common bands of brown. 
Fore-wings with a minute black spot near the base, and 
three minute sub-apical white spots as above. Hind-wings with 
five sub-apical white spots. Exp., 3-^ inches. 

The above is adapted from the original description of Hewit- 
son, who considered the species to be probably only a variety 
of P. hyceta (Hew.). 

The last-named Butterfly, with which this species is com- 
pared, is found in Eastern Peru, and is smaller, with only the 
first of a row of round black spots which crosses the hind- 
wings usually within the rufous part, centred with white. P. 
ceryce is a native of Bolivia, and is here figured for the first 

II. Lethe Group. 

This group, as employed by Schatz and Rober, includes a 
considerable number of genera, mostly East Indian, though one 
or two have South African representatives, and two genera are 


Palocarctic and European. The East Indian species nearly 
always have the hind-wings angulated, with a more or less dis- 
tinct tail at the outer angle. One genus, Ptychandra, Felder, 
found in the Philippines, is of a rich blue on the upper side 
of the male, and another genus, Ccelites, Westwood, from the 
Indo-Malayan Region, has the inner-margin of the hind-wings 
bordered with blue. The rest are mostly brown, with white 
or tawny markings ; among them is one of the largest of the 
Satyrince, viz., Neorina loivii (Doubl. and Hew.), from Borneo 
and Sumatra. This insect measures nearly four inches across 
the wings, which are dark brown, the fore-wings produced, and 
the hind-wings with a short thick tail, and a large cream- 
coloured blotch at the apex of the hind-wings, extending to the 
adjacent portion of the fore-wings. 

Our British species of Pararge, though small, and hardly 
typical of the bulk of the genera placed in this section, must 
here serve to illustrate it. 


Pararge, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 59 (1816); Schatz 
and Rober, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 202 (1S89). 

Lasiommata, Westwood, Brit. Butt., p. 65 (1840); id. Gen. 
Diurn. Lepid., p. 385 (1S51). 

Type, P. egeria (L.). 

Eyes hairy, the antennas gradually formed ; palpi with the 
terminal joint short. Wings with the costal nervure much 
thickened at the base, the median nervure slightly so, and the 
hind-margins distinctly denticulated. Colour brown, mostly 
with tawny or yellowish-white markings ; an eye-spot present 
near the tip of the fore-wings, and a row of sub-apical eyes on 
the hind-wings. 

This genus is confined to the Palaearctic Region, and we 
have only one species in Britain. 

2o8 Lloyd's natural history. 


{Plate XXXI., Fig. 3.) 

a. Northern Form. (P. egerides.) 

Papilio czgeria (nee L.), Esper, Schmett., i., p. 105, pi. 7, fig. 1 

Hipparchia cegeria (nee L.), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, 

i.,p. 54 (1827). 
Pararge cegeria, v. egerides, Staud., Cat. Lepid. Eur., p. 30, no. 

372a (1S71). 
Satyrus cegeria, var. egerides, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, 

p. 39, pi. 12, fig. 10 (1S78). 
Pararge egeria, var. egerides, Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 

294, pi. 73, fig. 3 (1884). 
Lasiommata cegeria, Buckler, Larvse of Brit. Butterflies and 

Moths, i., pp. 27, 163, pi. 4. fig. 1 (18S6). 
Pararge a-geria, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 227, pi. 31 


p. Mediterranean Form. (P. egeria.) 

Papilio cegeria, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii.), i. (2), p. 473. no. S3 

Papilio meone, Cramer, Bap. Exot., iv., pi. 314, figs. E. F. 


Satyrus a-geria, Kirby, /. s. c, p. 39 (1S7S). 

Pararge egeria, Lang, /. s. c, p. 293, pi. 73, fig. 2 (1884). 

This is a very common Butterfly in many parts of Britain, 
frequenting woods, lanes, and hedgerows, from spring to 
autumn. It expands an inch and three quarters or two inches 
across the wings, which are brown. The fore-wings have a 
black eye, with a white pupil near the tip, and their outer half 
is spotted with pale yellow. The hind-wings are marked with 
three sub-marginal eyes in pale yellow rings, and there are 

'urti C AAA1 

1 2. Melanargia galxxthe-a . 

3. Pararge egerides. 
4.5.EpinepIule iithomis,male &fhtiale. 


three additional pale spots arranged in a triangle near the tip. 
On the under side the fore-wings are marked nearly as above, 
but the spots are larger. The hind-wings are varied with grey 
and purplish, or reddish, and are marked with a rather indis- 
tinct row of small reddish-brown eyes, with white pupils. The 
fringes are pale yellow, interrupted on the nervures. 

The larva is green, pubescent, with yellow or whitish lines 
on the sides. It feeds on various grasses, especially Triticum 
repens, and there is a succession of broods throughout the 

This Butterfly is generally called P. egeria (Linn.) in works 
on British entomology, but this name properly belongs to 
the South European form, in which the pale yellow or whitish 
markings of the northern insect are replaced by rich tawny 
or fulvous. Lang states that, in some places, P. egerides occurs 
as the spring, and P. egeria as the summer, brood. 

Satynis, Latr., Consid. Gen., p. 355 (1810); id. Encycl. Me'th., 

ix., pp. 11, 4S0 (1819-23). 
Dim, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 60 (18 16). 
Amecera, Butler, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (3), xix., p. 162 
Eyes hairy ; antenna; with a distinct pyriform club ; palpi 
with the terminal joint longer than in Pararge ; wings with 
the costal nervure much thickened, the median nervure slightly 
so ; hind-margin slightly denticulated. Colour brown ; fore- 
wings more or less filled up with tawny, and having an eye 
with one or two white pupils at the tip ; hind-wings with two 
or three sub-apical eyes above, and a regular series below. 

This is another Palaearctic genus ; and species, much re- 
sembling the European Wall Browns, S. megcera and S. 
* Pararge, pt. Schatz and Rober, antea, p. 203. 


mcera, are met with as far as the Himalayas. With the ex- 
ception of .S. megera, the species generally frequent rocky 

As S. megcera is called " Le satyre" by the old French 
writers, and was also called Satyrus by Linnaeus in some of his 
earlier works, there can be no question that it should be 
regarded as the type of the genus Satyrus ; though this generic 
name was originally used to include the whole Sub-family by 
Latreille and others. 


(Pla/e XXXII., Figs. 4, 5.) 

Papilio megcera, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii.), i., pt. 2, p. ryi, no. 

142 (1767); Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 96, pi. 6, fig. 3 

(i777); '•> Pt- 2, p. 100, pi. 68, fig. 4 (17S1). 
Hipparchia megcera, Stephens, 111., Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 55 

Satyrus u/egcra, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 39, pi. 

13, figs. 2, a-c (1S78). 
Pararge megaira, Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 293, pi. 72, 

fig. 5 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 234, pi. 32 

Lasiommata megcera, Buckler, Larva? of British Butterflies and 
Moths, p. 165, pi. 4, fig. 2 (1SS6). 

Next to the Meadow Brown, this is probably the commonest 
species of the Sub-family. It frequents lanes, hedgerows, open 
places in woods, roads, &c, throughout the summer, and some- 
times settles on walls, whence its name. It measures about an 
inch and a half across the wings. The fore-wings are fulvous, 
bordered and more or less interlined with brown, and in the 
male there is a broad oblique brown bar towards the inner- 
margin ; at the tip is a black eye, with one white pupil. The 
hind-wings are brown, with two sub-marginal fulvous streaks, 


t 2. Hipparchixv sonde, male & female 

' } n „ underside. 

4-5. Satyrus maacercb. 


of which the outer one is the broadest, and contains three 
black eyes with white pupils, besides a rudimentary one to- 
wards the anal angle. On the under side the apical eye of the 
fore-wings is surrounded by a whitish yellow ring, and the hind- 


The Wall Brown [Satyrus megcera). Upper side of Female. 

wings are brownish-grey, with six small black eyes with white 
pupils, each enclosed by one brown and one yellowish ring. 
The eye nearest the anal angle is two-pupilled. Our plate 
represents the male. The female is figured in the cuts. 

The larva is pubescent, light green, with pale dorsal and 
lateral lines ; it feeds on grass. 

Under side of Female. 

The commonest of the Continental species allied to S. 
megcera is S. maera, but this is a larger and darker insect, 
with a fulvous blotch on the fore-wings, on which the eye, which 

2 T 2 Lloyd's natural history. 

has generally two white pupils, is placed. On the hind-wings 
there are generally two eyes on the upper side instead of three. 
Allied species are met with throughout Northern and Central 
Asia, and southwards as far as the Himalayas. 

III. Mycalesis Group. 

In this group, Schatz and Rober include Mycalesis, Hiibner, 
Bicyclns, Kirby, and Ragadia, Westwcod. Bicydus is West 
African, and includes a few species, resembling large species of 
Mycalesis, with short, broad, much rounded wings. Ragadia is 
an East Indian genus, containing species under two inches in 
expanse, which are brown, striped with grey, or with darker 
brown, and with large sub-marginal eyes beneath, with silvery 


Mycalesis, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 54 (1816); West- 
wood, Gen. Diura. Lepid., p. 392 (1851); Schatz, Exot. 
Schmett, ii., p. 203 (1889). 

The genus Mycalesis is confined to the tropics of the Old 
World, and is very numerous in species. It includes brown 
Butterflies, averaging about two inches across the wings ; and 
many of the species are more or less tawny or white, especially 
at the base, but sometimes towards the margins ; or the whole 
of the wings may be white or tawny, except the borders. They 
may easily be known from any other Butterflies by almost in- 
variably possessing a large black eye in a white or yellow ring, 
and with a single white pupil, towards the hinder angle of the 
fore-wings, and usually two or three smaller ones towards the 
anal angle of the hind-wings. The nervures of the fore-wings 
are thickened at the base; and there is generally a sub-marginal 
row of eyes on all the wings beneath. The males are generally 
provided with glandular pouches, covered with tufts of hair, 


on one or both pairs of wings. They have recently been 
divided into many genera, which, however, are not yet univers- 
ally recognised by entomologists, and it is therefore unnecessary 
to notice them further in a work of this description. 


{Plate XXXV., Fig. 5.) 

Mycaksis simonsti, Butler, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xix., 
p. 458(1877). 

Wings above sandy-yellow, with a straight, transverse, pale- 
bordered light brown post-median line across both wings ; 
costal and apical areas of fore-wings reddish-brown, particularly 
in the female, the base and outer border more or less tinted 
with the same colour ; the margins and a sub-marginal line 
darker brown ; two white-pupilled black ocelli, one small 
towards the apex, the other large between the first and second 
median branches ; hind-wings with six more or less strongly 
indicated discal black dots ; outer margin reddish-brown. Fe- 
male with a slender sub-marginal reddish-brown line. Under 
surface pale rusty-reddish, mottled with ferruginous; the basal 
area bounded externally by a pale-bordered post-median ferru- 
ginous line, deeper in colour than the basal area ; a marginal 
line, and indications of a sub-marginal line, ferruginous ; 
fore-wings with the ocelli less distinct than above, with an 
additional smaller indistinct ocellus above and below the 
sub-apical one; hind-wings with an irregular ferruginous line 
crossing the cell ; discal dots more distinct than above, more 
or less pupillated with white. {Butler.) 

Expanse of wings, 1 inch, 10 to 11 lines. 

Allied to M. eliasis, Hewitson. 

The types of this species are in the British Museum, and 
were collected by Mr. F A. A Simons at Lake Nyasa. 


IV. Melanitis Group. 
A group of small extent, consisting of a few East Indian, 
African, and American species, measuring three inches and 
upwards across the wings, which are brown, usually more or 
less marked with fulvous on the fore-wings at least, and with 
the hind-margin of the hind-wings nearly rectangular, with 
a strong projection at the outer angle. Melanitis leda (Linn.), 
and the numerous closely-allied Indian and African forms, 
usually have two more or less developed ocellated spots near 
the tip of the fore-wings. Schatz and Rober consider the 
Tropical American genera of this group somewhat aberrant. 
The type of one of these, Tisiphone hercyna, Htibner, is a black 
Butterfly, with large white spots on the apical region of the 
fore-wings, and with the hind-wings but little angulated. 
Another remarkable genus we have figured, viz., 


Cccrois, Htibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 56 (1816); Schatz 

and Rober, Exot. Schmett, ii., p. 206 (1SS9). 
Cterous, Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 366 (185 1). 


(Plate XXXVI.) 

Papi/io chorines,, Syst. ILnL, p. 484, no. 182 (1775); 

Donov., Nat. Rep., iii., pi. 104 (1825). 
Papilio ancsilaus, Sulz., Gesch. Ins., pi. 14, fig. 4 (1776); 

Cramer, Pap. Exot., iv., pi. 294, A.-D. (17S0); Stoll. 

Suppl. Cramer, pi. vi., figs 1, ia ( 1 7S7, transf.). 
Satyrus chorincens, Godart, Enc. Meth., ix., p. 480, no. io 

Ccerois chorinczus, Staud., Exot. Schmett., i., p. 221, pi. 77 


Carols is a small South American genus, and is recognisable 


at once by its peculiar shape, which is well shown in our 
figure of a Surinam specimen of C. chorinceus. We have also 
figured the earlier stages. The Butterfly measures from three 
to four inches across the wings ; the fore-wings are black, and 
so much produced at the tip so as to be almost hooked ; the 
borders are yellow, and there is a broad yellow band running 
obliquely from beyond the middle of the costa to the lower 
part of the hind-margin, and towards the tip is a white spot ; 
the base is brown. The hind-wings are brown, bordered with 
yellow ; they are sub-quadrate, and have a short broad tail 
projecting outwards from the lower angle of the hind-margin. 
The male is further remarkable for the extreme atrophy of the 
front legs, which are reduced to a mere knob, and for two con- 
spicuous tufts of hair on the under surface of the fore-wings, 
on the inner-margin, and at the hinder angle. 

The larva feeds on sugar-cane, and the perfect insect emerges 
from the chrysalis in about eleven days. 

V. Hipparchia Group. 
(Satyr us group of Schatz and Rober.) 
This extensive group includes all the remaining Satyrince, 
except those belonging to the Pronophila group, which is ex- 
clusively Tropical American, and chiefly inhabits the Andes. 

The Hipparchia group includes, inter alia, all the European 
genera, except Pararge and Satyrus. Schatz and Rober divide 
the genera into four sections, as follows : — 

1. Euptychia sec' ion. — Most of the sub-marginal eyes de- 
veloped. Several longitudinal lines on all the wings. Costal 
and median nervures of the fore-wings inflated at the base. 
(N.B. — Oresrinoma is aberrant.) 

2. Ypthima section. — Generally with one or two ocellated 
spots at the apex of the fore-wings, which are frequently united 
into one large eye with two pupils. Lines on the upper side 


216 Lloyd's natural history 

wanting. Costal nervure always, and median and sub-median 
nervures generally, inflated. 

3. Erebia section. — Always two ocellated spots towards the 
tip of the fore-wings ; others frequently developed, but some- 
times obsolete, the front ones often confluent. Costal nervure 
inflated or thickened, but never the median and sub-median 

4. Hipparchia section. — Generally only one eye towards the 
apex of the fore-wings, but often a second, between the two 
lower median nervules. Costal nervure inflated, and oc- 
casionally the median and sub-median nervures also. 

I. Euptychia Section. 

With the exception of Palceonymfiha, Butler, which is 
Chinese, the few genera of this section are all American. 
The principal genus after Euptychia is Taygctis, Hubner, 
which much resembles it, but includes larger species, measur- 
ing from two to four inches across the wings. Oressinoma 
typhla (Doubl. and Hew.), mentioned as an aberrant genus 
of this section, hardly resembles a Satyrid. It expands rather 
more than an inch and a half, and is white, with brown bor- 
ders, and short but very broad wings, on the under side is a 
stone-coloured sub-marginal line, bordered on the outside by 
an orange one, which is deeply zig-zag on the upper part of 
the hind-wings. 


Euptychia, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 53 (1S16); West- 
woodmen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 372 (1S51); Butler, P. Z. S., 
1866, p. 458; 1867, p. 104; Schatz and Rober, Exot. 
Schmett, ii., p. 208 (1889). 
This is one of the largest genera of the Sub-family. It 

probably numbers about 200 species at present, and is ex- 



clusively American. The species are of rather small size, with 
hairy eyes, and rounded and slightly dentated wings, and 
are brown in colour (rarely blue or white), with longitudinal 
dusky lines, and a sub-marginal row of eyes, these markings 
being much less conspicuous on the upper surface. The 
nervures of the fore-wings are much thickened at the base; 
and the cells of the wings are rather long and broad. Taygetis, 
Hiibner, is an allied Tropical American genus, containing 
much larger species, in which the wing cells are shorter and 

Although Euptychia is most numerous in the Tropics, yet 
several species inhabit the United States, and their meta- 
morphoses have been described by American authors. 

(Plate XXXV., Fig. 4.) 

Satyrus brixius, Godart, Enc. Me'th., ix., p. 490, no. 42 


As this species is but little known, and our figure is not 
taken from the type specimen, I think it best to insert Godart's 
diagnosis, and a condensed translation of his original descrip- 

"Sat. alis integris, teneris, ccerulescentibus, strigis utrinque 
sex fuscis, posticarum quarta subtus ocellis quinque bipu- 

This Butterfly measures about an inch and a half across the 
wings. The upper side is of a bluish-ashy, with six transverse 
rays, and a double marginal line, of a brownish-black. 

On the under side the pattern of the upper surface is repro- 
duced, but the ground-colour is lighter, and the fourth ray of 
the hind-wings is marked with five eyes, of which the first, the 
second, and the last are surrounded with a whitish iris ; the 

t 2 


two others have no iris. All the eyes are black, with a double 
silvery pupil. 

Described by Godart from a single specimen sent from 
Brazil by the Chevalier de Langsdorff. 

II. Ypthima Section. 
This section includes brown, tawny, or whitish species of 
small size, which are very numerous in the Palaearctic Region, 
though they are also represented in India, Australia, Africa, 
and Western North America, &c. They have usually a sub- 
apical eye on the fore-wings, often double, and a more or less 
well-developed row of sub-marginal eyes on at least the under 
surface of the hind-wings also. The two most representative 
genera are Ypthima and Ccenonoympha, of Hiibner. The sexes 
do not usually differ much, though in the East European 
^enus Ttiphysa the male is brown and the female white. 

Ypthima, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 63 (1S16) ; West- 
wood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 394 (1851) j Schatz and 
Rober, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 210 (1SS9). 
Yphthima, Hcwitson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3), ii., p. 283 
The type is Y. pliilomela (Linn.), a small brown Butterfly 
from the Indian Region. 

The species of Ypthima are small brown Butterflies (some- 
limes varied with white), generally measuring from one to two 
inches across the wings, and easily distinguishable from other 
Butterflies which most resemble them, by the presence of a 
very large black eye in a yellow ring, marked with two white 
pupils. This is placed near the tip of the fore-wings. On 
the hind-wings there are usually two or three sub-marginal eyes, 
similar, but smaller, and with only one pupil each. On the under 
side of the hind-wings the series of eyes is generally broken, 

/. 2. Epuiephile jamrcu. 

3. ErebicL cassiope. 
4.5. BipparchicL hyperanthus. 


and arranged in pairs, and the surface of the wings is covered 
with shoit brown and grey dashes. In Y. ceylonica, Hewitson, 
the hind-wings are white. The species are rather numerous 
in Asia and Africa, but do not quite reach Europe, though 
one of them, Y. asterope (Klug), is found in Syria. They are 
insects of very feeble flight, frequenting grassy places. 


{Rate XXXV., Fig.$) 

Yphthima bera, Hewitson, Ent. M. Mag., xiv., p. 107 (1877). 

Upper side. — Rufous-brown. Fore-wings with one ocellus 
near the apex, with rufous border, and marked by two minute 
white spots, and enclosed in a large border of pale brown, 
triangular at its lower extremity, and zig-zag on its inner side. 
A sub-marginal line of brown. Hind-wings with two ocelli 
between the median nervules, a rufous border and white pupil ; 
two sub-marginal bands of brown. 

Under side. — Fore-wings as above, except that there is an 
indistinct band of brown crossing the cell. Hind-wings with 
a band of brown before the middle, a sub-marginal series 
of five black ocelli, with a rufous border and pupil of white, 
the whole enclosed by a common linear brown band, the 
ocellus second from the costal margin smaller than the others. 

Expands i T 6 ^ inches. (Heicitson.) 

From Lake Nyasa. There are four specimens in the Hewit- 
son collection in the British Museum. Mr. Trimen describes 
another South African species of YptJiima as having a weak 
flight, and frequently settling on the ground. 

Ccenonympha, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett, p. 65 (1816); 
Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 396 (1851) ; Schatz and 
Rober, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 212 (1889). 
Type, C. tiphcn, Rott. 

2 2o Lloyd's natural history. 

Eyes naked ; antennae short, slender, ringed with white, 
with a rather large club ; all the principal nervures of the fore- 
wings considerably dilated. 

These are Butterflies of rather small size, with rounded 
tawny or brown wings, rarely marked with eyes above, except 
the indication of one at the tip of the fore-wings, but generally 
with a conspicuous row of eyes on the hind-wings beneath. 
They are confined to the temperate regions of the Northern 
Hemisphere, and are mostly heath-frequenting or woodland 
insects ; a few species, however, are found on damp moors. 
Four species are here included in the British list, one of which 
however, is not fairly established as really British ; and several 
others have been reputed British, though probably in error, 
One of these, C. hero (Linn.), is a brown species, with nume- 
rous and conspicuous black eyes with blue pupils in orange 
rings, bounded outside on the under side of the hind-wings by 
a bluish and inside by a white line. It is said to have been 
taken many years ago in Ashdown Forest, where C. davus 
(C. typhon) and C. arcania and other rare Butterflies are like- 
wise said to have been found. But there has been no recent 
confirmation of these captures. One species, C. californica^ 
West wood, is so pale as to be almost whitish. 

The Australian genus, Hypacysta, Westwood, resembles Cceno- 
nymp/ni, but the hind-wings are more produced at the anal 

{Plate XXXIV., Fi^s. 3, 4.*) 

Papilio tiplion, Rott., Naturforscher, vi., p. 15 (1775). 
Papilio davus, Fabr., Gen. Ins., p. 259 (1777). 

* Wrongly named C. folydama in the plate. I followed the nomencla- 
ture of the old Naturalist's Library, and did not discover the mistake 
until the plate had been printed off. — W. F. K. 


Papilio typhon, Haworth, Lepid. Brit., p. 16, no. 18 (1803). 
Hipparchia iphis, Steph. (nee Den. and Schiff.), 111. Brit. Ent. 

Haust., i., p. 64, pi. 7, figs. 1, 2 (182S). 
Hipparchia darns, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 67 

Coznonympha typhon, Kirby, Man. Eur. Butt. p. 70 (1862); 

id. Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 42 (1879). 
Cccnonympha tiphon, Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 311, pi. 

87, figs. 2, 4 (18S4). 
Coznonympha davits, Barrett, Lep. of Brit. Is!., i., p. 255, pi. 36, 

figs. 1, 1, a-g (1893); Buckler, Laivre of Brit. Butterflies 

and Moths, i., p. 35, pi. vi., fig. 3 (1SS6). 

Very like C.pamphilus (infra, p. 225), but larger; sometimes 
nearly twice as large. Wings nearly uniform in colour above 
and below. Fore-wings almost always shoeing one or two 
indistinct eyes ; hind-wings with at most one or two indis- 
tinct eyes near the anal angle. Eyes distinct beneath ; fore- 
wings with one eye at the tip, and rarely one or two smaller 
ones. Hind-wings grey, with a white transverse band, which 
is much interrupted, and sometimes reduced to two white 
spots. Hind-wings with five or six eyes parallel to the hind- 
margin, the uppermost largest ; that nearest the anal angle often 
double, or represented by two very small eyes close together. 
The insect varies greatly in the size and number of the eyes. 

It appears in June in low-lying meadows, never in gardens, 
woods, or corn-fields, and is constantly on the wing, very rarely 
settling. Its flight, however, is slow, and it is easy to capture 
on the wing. It is fairly common, but not very abundant. 

This is Von Rottenburg's account of the occurrence of the 
Butterfly near Halle in 1776. This insect appears to be 
identical with C. davus, of which Fabricius gives the following 
account : — 

" A Butterfly of moderate size. Fore-wings above rounded, 


fulvous [tawny], with two black blind eyes, and a third very 
small one, which is rather indistinct ; beneath with a white 
stripe, and with two eyes pupilled with white. Hind-wings 
above darker, with five or six blind eyes ; beneath grey, with 
an interrupted white stripe, and six black eyes with white 
pupils, the last double. Taken at Hamburg." 

We have thought it best to give a full abstract both of Von 

Marsh Ringlet {Ccchonympha tiphon). 

Rottenburg's and of Fabricius' descriptions, because the works 
in which they were published are not very accessible, and 
there has been some difference of opinion as to whether we 
have more than one allied species in Britain, or not. These 
Butterflies are very variable, and the pale form, the true C. 
tiphon, which is more of a mountain insect with us than C. 
polydama, is more frequently met with in Scotland and Ireland 
than in England. It appears in July. In the extreme north 
of Europe we meet with the variety C. isis (Thunb.), which is 
still paler, with the eyes almost wholly wanting. Several varie- 
ties are represented in our woodcuts. 


2 23 

The following Butterfly is sometimes called C. davus in 
England, as distinguished from C. typhon ; but whether it is 
distinct or not, it is more correct to retain the name under 
which it was originally described by Haworth. 

{Plate XXXIV., Figs. 1,2.) 
Papilio polydama, Haworth, Lepid. Brit, p. 16, no. 17 (1803). 


Scarce Marsh Ringlet [Comonympka polydamd). 

Hipparchia polydama, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 66, 

P l. 7, fig. 3(18:7). 


Ccejionympha tiphon, var. rothliebi, Staud., Cat. Lepid. Eur., p. 
14 (1861). 

This species or variety is darker than C. typhon, and is 
marked with much larger and more distinct eye-spots, above 
and below. It is found in July in low swampy places, in the 
North of England and Wales, and is said to have been met 
with here and there along the East coast, in Lincolnshire, 
Norfolk, &c, but has probably long been exterminated in the 
South by drainage and cultivation ; it may possibly linger in 
out-of-the-way places like Ashdown Forest, in Sussex, the most 
southerly locality in England where it has been stated to occur. 

The larva is green, with white lines, and feeds on cotton- 
grass near the roots in May ; the pupa is green, with dusky 
stripes on the wing-cases. Several varieties of the Butterfly 
are represented in the woodcuts. 


Papilio arcania, Linn. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 273, no. 1045 (1761). 

Papilio arcanius, Linn., Syst. Nat. (xii.), i., pt. 2, p. 791, 

no. 242 (1767) ; Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 285, pi. 21, 

fig. 4 (i777)' 
Hipparchia arcanius, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 69 

(1S2S) ; Curtis, Brit. Ent, v., pi. 205 (182S). 
Canonympha arcania, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 41, 

pi. 13, figs. 7, a-c (1879) ; Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 

306, pi. 75, figs. 4, 5 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., 

p. 262 (1S93). 

This is a Butterfly which cannot easily be mistaken by any- 
one fortunate enough to meet with it. It measures about an 
inch and a quarter in expanse. The fore-wings are of a reddish- 
tawny colour, with a broad brown border, and an apical eye 
beneath ; the hind-wings are brown above and paler beneath, 


with a white central band, within which is an eye-spot on the 
costa ; the hind-margin is reddish, with a blue marginal line, 
and three very small eyes. It is found in bushy places and 
open woods, and is very common in many parts of the Conti- 
nent in June and July. In England it is said to have been 
taken in Ashdown Forest, along with C. Aero, and although 
this record is more than doubtful, the Butterfly has been 
reported to have been met with of late years in various 
localities in the South of England, and some of the records 
appear to be trustworthy. There is no reason why it should 
not be really a British insect, and we have therefore called 
special attention to it in the present work. 

The larva is green, with dark green lines on the back, and 
yellow stripes on the sides. It feeds on grass in May. 

[Plate XXXIV., Figs. 5, 6.) 

Papilio pampliilus, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 472, no. S6 
(175S); id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 273, no. 1044 (1761); 
Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 282, pi. 21, fig. 3 (1777); 
i., pt. 2, p. 133, pi. 78, fig. 4 (17S2). 

Hipparchia pamphilus, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 69 

Coenonympha pampliilus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 
42, pi. 13, fig. S (1879); Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 
310, pi. 77, fig. 5 (1S84) ; Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., p. 263, 
pi. 36, figs. 2, 2, a-f (1893) ; Buckler, Larva; of Brit. Butter- 
flies and Moths, i., p. 172, pi. 6, fig. 4 (iS85). 

This Butterfly, as its English name denotes, is the smallest of 
its genus, seldom expanding much more than an inch across the 
wings. It is tawny, with narrow brown hind-margins, and a 
brown dot at the tip of the fore-wings, which corresponds to a 

226 Lloyd's natural history. 

well-marked eye with a white pupil and yellow ring on the under 
surface. The hind-wings beneath are greenish-grey, darkest 
at the base, with an irregular and interrupted whitish band, 
and with a few white dots nearer the margins, which, in the 
South European variety, C. lyllus (Esper), a larger form than 
ours, have a tendency to form eye-spots. 

The Small Heath is common throughout the greater part 
of the Palaearctic Region, on heaths and in meadows, and is 
the only species of the genus which can be called common in 

The larva is green, with darker dorsal and lateral stripes 
bordered with white. It feeds on various grasses, and as there 
is a succession of broods, it may be met with at almost any 
time between April and September. The pupa is likewise 

III. Erebia Section. 
This section includes the mountain Butterflies of the North- 
ern Hemisphere {Erebia, Dalm.), the Himalayas (Cai/erebia, 
Moore), South Africa {Leptoneura, Wallengren), and New Zea- 
land {Argyrophenga, Doubl., &c). The two last genera have 
longer wings than the others, and the last is ornamented with 
silvery spots beneath. The only genus which needs further 
notice here is the following : — 

Erebia, Dalm., K. Vet. Akad. Handl., Stockholm, 1816, p. 5S; 

Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 376 (1851). 

Maniola, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii., pt. 1, p. 152 (1S01); 

Meig., Eur. Schmett, i., p. 194 (1829); Kirby, Cat. Diurn. 

Lepid., p. 57 (1S71); Schatz and Rober, Exot. Schmett., 

ii., p. 213 (1SS9). 

As Erebia is the name in general use for these Butterflies, 

and E. ligea (Linn.) is undoubtedly the type, we have pre- 


/. 2. Cscmorynnphcv potydcuna 
3. 4-. „ iiphoTv. 

.5 S. ,. pamphilus 

EREDIA. 227 

fared to use this name provisionally in the present work, as 
the type of Maniola (Schrank), is somewhat doubtful ; and the 
latter name may ultimately have to be used for some other 

Eyes naked; antennae slender, with a rather long club. Fore- 
wings with only the sub-costal nervure much dilated at the base 
Wings rounded or oval, sometimes slightly dentated, generally, with a fulvous (and sometimes macular) sub-margina, 
band containing black or ocellated spots. 

These Butterflies are known as " Mountain Browns," and 
are very numerous in the mountains of Europe and Asia. 
As Britain, however, is situated in the north-west of Europe, 
where Butterflies are less numerous than in any other part, 
and as our mountain systems are isolated, both from the Alps 
and the Scandinavian mountains, our highland fauna is very 

The only truly mountain Butte: fly in Britain is Erebiacassiofe 

{Plate XXX., Figs. 1, 2.) 

Papilio ligea, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 473, no. 97 (175 s ); 

id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 473, no. 1050 (1764); Hubner, 

Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 225-227 (1797 ?). 
Papilio alexis, Espcr, Schmett., i. pt. 1, p. 369, pi. 44, figs. 1, 2 

(i779) 3 i-> P*- 2 , P- 2 4, pl- 5 2 , fi g- 1 ( T 7 So )- 
Hipparchia ligea, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 61, pl. 6 

Erebia ligea, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 36, pl. 12, 
fig. 8 (1878) ; Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 261, pl. 61, 
fig. 6; larva, pl. 76, fig. 3 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. of Brit. 
IsL, i., p. 220 (1893). 
This is a species frequenting wooded hill-sides rather than 

2 - s Lloyd's natural history. 

mountains. Il - "( n found in company with E. 

the Continent, but there is no evidence that it is truly British. 
e are two specimens in the British Museum which belonged 
to the collection of the late James Francis Stephens, and are 
They are said to have been taken in the 
Isle of Arran by Sir Patrick Walker : but one of the specimens 
is not E. ligea at all, but belongs to an allied mountain species, 
E - •' *per) 3 and this throws additional doubt on the 

authentic:': ; specimens. If the I were really 

a native of the Isle of Arran, it could not have been over- 
looked by the many collectors who have %isited the island of 
late y 

The Butterfly is of a rich brown colour, with red marginal 
bands, marked with four bla te pjpils on the 

fore-wings, and three on the hind-wings. The two eyes nearest 
the tip of the fore-wings are more or less confluent. The 
of the hind-wings is marked with an irregular 
and interru] t = d white band, at once distinguishing it from nearly 
all the other known species of the genus. It measures from an 
inch and a half to an inch and three-quarters across the wings. 
It flies in July and Am list 

The larva is green 5 h on the back, and with white 

idinal stripes on the sides. It feeds on grass in sprint 

and autumn. ° 


to XXX., Figs. 3, 4.) 

i er, Schmett, i., pt. 1, p. 312, pi. 25, fig. 3 
- 2 >P- 73, PL 63, fig. 1 (1 7 7 8? 
7, Fabr., Mant. Ins., ::'.. p. 41, no. 412 (17S7). 
- - Schmett., i., figs. 220-222 



Hipparchia blandina, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. llaust., i., p. 62 

Erebia athiops, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 35, pi. 12, 

fig. 7 (1878); Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 260, pi. 63, 

fig. 5 (1884). 
Erebia blandina, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 216, pi. 29, 

figs. 2, 2, a-c (1893) \ Buckler, Larvae Brit. Butterflies and 

Moths, i.. p. 30, pi. 6, fig. 1 (1S86). 
Wings dark brown above, with sub-marginal red bands, 
marked with from three to five eye-spots on the fore-wings, 
and three (rarely two) on the hind-wings. On the under 
surface the hind-wings have rather more than the basal half 
deep fuscous, obsoletely terminating in a sinuated line, and 
followed by a bluish-ashy fascia, posteriorly tinted with red, 
in which are one or more very small eye-spots. It measures 
an inch and a half, or an inch and three-quarters, across the 

This Butterfly, though somewhat local, is common in many 
places in Scotland and the North of England in July and 
August, extending as far south as Lancashire. On the Con- 
tinent it is frequently found among wooded hills in company 
with E. ligea. 

The larva, which feeds on grass in May, is light green, with 
brown and white longitudinal stripes; the head is reddish. 
The egg is ribbed, and is of a whitish colour, speckled with 


[Piatt XXX III., Fig. 3.*) 

Papilio epiphron, Knoch, Beitr. Ins., in'., p. 131, pi. 6 fio- 1 

Erebia epiphron, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 1^, pi. 12. 
fig. 6 (1S7S); Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 241 (1SS4) 
* The race, E. cassio/e, is here figured. 

23° Lloyd's natural history. 

Var. Erelria cassiope. 

Papilio cassiope, Fabr., Mant. Ins., ii., p. 42, no. 417 

(1787); Hubner, Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 626-629 (1823 ?). 
Hipparchia cassiope, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 63, pi. 

8 (1828). 
Erebia cassiope, Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Eepid., i., pp. t,^, 171, 

pi. 6, fig. 2 (1SS6). 
Erebia epiphron, var. cassiope, Ling, loc. cit., pp. 241, 242, pi. 

58, fig. 2; larva, pi. 58, fig. 1 (1884K 
Erebia epiphron, Barrett, Lepid. Brit. IsL, p. 210, pi. 29, figs. 

1, ia, b (1893). 

This is the smallest British species of the genus, generally 
measuring about an inch and a quarter across the wings. It 
is brown, with red sub-marginal bands, more or less divided 
into spots by the veins, and marked with four, or fewer, blind 
eyes on each wing. In the allied form, E. epiphrou (Knoch), 
which many writers consider to be the same species, but 
which is very doubtfully British, the eyes are ocellated. On the 
under side of the hind-wings, the red round the eyes, which 
is often reduced to rings on the upper surface, is wanting. 

The Butterfly is found at a considerable elevation on some of 
the mountains of the Lake District, and those of Scotland and 
Ireland, in June, but is very local, and not usually very 
abundant. The larva, which feeds on s;rass, is pale green, 
with darker longitudinal lines, and a white line on the sides. 

IV. Hipparchia Section. 

The species of this section are very numerous throughout 
the Palrearctic Region, and one or two groups of Hipparchia are 
well represented in the Nearctic Region. Schatz and Rober also 
refer the Australian genera Hetero?iympha, Wallengren, and 
Xenica, Westwood, to this section, but these are somewhat aber- 


rant, being large tawny Butterflies, more resembling true 
Satyrus. In South America the section is very poorly repre- 
sented, Argyrophorus argenteus (Blanchard), from Chili, being 
the only remarkable species belonging to it. 


Hipparchia, Fabr. in Illiger, Mag. Insekt, vi., p. 281 (1807); 
Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 53 (1827). 

Satyrus, pt. Latr., Enc. Meth., ix., pp. n, 460 (1819--1823); 
Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 388 (1851); Schatz 
and Rober, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 215 (1893). 

The name HipparcJua was used by the older English 
authors for the whole of the Satyr/nce, as was Satyrus by the 

Dr. Scudder argues that H. hyperanthus (Linn.) should be re- 
garded as the type of this genus, to which there seems to be 
no valid objection. 

Eyes naked ; antennce gradually thickened, or with a more 
or less distinct club at the extremity. Wings with the sub- 
costal and median nervures thickened at the base ; hind-wings 
more or less dentated. 

This genus includes species of moderate size, from an inch 
and a half to three inches in expanse. The wings are brown 
or black, generally with a white or tawny sub-marginal band, 
extendingover more or less of the disc; the fore-wings are almost 
always marked with a dark eye at the tip, with a white pupil, 
and another towards the hinder angle, while there is a third 
smaller eye near the anal angle of the hind-wings. In the 
males the second eye on the fore-wings is often obsolete on 
the upper surface, and the pale markings are less extended 
than in the females, the latter being often considerably larger 
than their partners. 

In another section of the genus the wings are dark brown 


232 Lloyd's natural history. 

or black, with a varying number of sub-marginal eyes, some- 
times of considerable size, and marked with blue or white 
pupils. We have but two species in England, H. semele and 
H. hyperatithus, representing the two sections of the genus 
respectively; but the genus is well represented in Europe and 
Asia by much larger and handsomer species than ours. One 
of the finest of the foreign species is H. parisatis (Kollar), 
which is common in Western Asia, as far as the frontiers of 
India. It is a large brown Butterfly, with a pale blue marginal 
band on all the wings. 


{Plate XXXII., Figs. 1, 2, 3.) 

Papilio semele, Linn.. Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 474, no. 101 (1758); 

id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 276, no. 1051 (1761) j Esper, 

Schmett., i., p. 114, pi- 8, fig- 1 (i777>- 
Hipparchia semele, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 56 

(1827); Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 29 (1S7S); 

Buckler, Larva? of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, p. 28, pi. 4, 

fig. 3(1886). 
Satyrus semc 7 e, Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 277, pi. 67, fig. 4 

(1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl , i., p. 222, pi. 30(1893). 
The Grayling measures from an inch and three quarters to 
two inches and three quarters across the wings, which are 
brown, with tawny bands on the wings, darkest on the outer 
side. The eyes of the fore-wings are well marked on both 
sides, and that of the hind-wings is likewise distinct above. 
The tawny markings of the fore-wings are more or less divided 
into spots, and, in the male, are confined to the immediate 
neighbourhood of the eyes. On the under surface, the tawny 
colouring of the fore-wings extends to the base, being only 
slightly interrupted by blackish markings ; the hind-wings are 
brown beneath, with an irregular white transverse hand. 


The Butterfly is found on heaths, especially in rocky and 
stony places, chiefly on the chalk and limestone. It is very 
common in many parts of the British Islands, though some- 
what local, and is met with in July and August. On the Con- 
tinent it is widely distributed. It frequently settles on rocks 
and on the trunks of trees. A very dark local form is found 
in Madeira. 

The larva is light green, with darker longitudinal lines, and 
brownish legs. It feeds on grass in April and May. The 
pupa is likewise green. 

{Plate XXXIII., Fi S s. 4, 5.) 

Papilio hyperanthus, Linn. Syst. Nat., x., p. 471, no. 85 

(1758); id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 273, no. 1043 (1761); 

Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 78, pi. 5, fig. 1 (i777)i ' l -> P l - 

2, p. 38, pl- 57, %s. 2-4(1780). 
Hipparchia hyperanthus, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 60, 

(1828) ; Buckler, Larva; of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, i., 

p. 170, pl. 5, fig. 3( l886 )- 
Epinephele hyperanthus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 

39, pl. 13, fig. 3 (1878) ; Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 

302, pl. 74, fig. 4 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., 

p. 231, pl. 35 ( l8 93)- 

Var. Hipparchia arete. 
Var. Papilio arete, Mull., Faun. Fridr., p. 36, no. 330 


Papilio polymeda, Hiibner, Eur. Schmett., i., fig. 172* (1794?)- 
Epinephele hyperanthus, var. arete, Lang, loc. cit., p. 302, pl. 
74, fig. 5 (1S84). 
This is a smaller Butterfly than the Grayling, measuring about 

u 2 



an inch and a half, or an inch and three quarters across the 
wings. It is of a smoky brown above, with more or less dis- 
tinct traces of sub-marginal spots in yellow rings. The female 
is lighter, and with more distinct eyes. The under side is paler, 

Hipparchia hyperanthus. Three Varieties of the under side. 

with a larger number of spots, which are pupiUed with white, 
and are most numerous on the hind-wings. The number and 
distinctness of the spots vary very much in different specimens, 
and in the variety H. arete (Miiller), the spots are entirely 



obsolete, nothing being left of them but the pupils, which 
form a row of white dots on the under surface of the wings. 

The Ringlet is a very common Butterfly in woods, fre- 
quenting glades, rides, and the outskirts rather than the thick 
shade ; it appears in June, July, and August. 

Hipparchia hyperanthus. Three Varieties of the under side. 

The larva is reddish-grey, with a brown line on the back, 
and a yellowish one on the sides ; it feeds on grass in May 
and June. 

A long series of varieties of the under surface are represented 
in the accompanying woodcuts of the Ringlet. 

236 Lloyd's natural history. 


Epinephele, Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 59 (1S16); Herr.- 
Schaff., Schmett., Eur., i., p. 81 (1S44); Schatz and 
Rober, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 216 (1S89). 
Type, E. janira (Linn.). 

Eyes naked ; antennae slender, slightly clubbed ; wings 
brown or tawny ; fore-wings with two nervures thickened at the 
base; hind-wings more or less dentated ; middle tibiae a little 
shorter than the tarsi. 

The Butterflies of this genus much resemble Ilipparchia in 
structure, but are smaller, weaker, and somewhat differently 
coloured. They may be divided into two groups, of which our 
British species, E. janira and E. tithonus, are typical. They 
are not very numerous in species, and are most abundant in 
the Mediterranean Region, and in Western Asia ; the group 
of E. tithonus is specially characteristic of South-Western 

{Plate XXXIII., Figs. 1. 2.) 
a. Female. 
Papilio jurtina, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), p. 475, no. 104 (175S); 
id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 276, no. 1052 (1761); Hiibner, 
Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 161, 162 (1794). 
p. Male, 
rap ilia janira, Linn., Syst. Nat, (\\), p. 475, no. to6 (175S); 
id. Faun. Suec. (ii.), p. 276, no. 1053 (1761); Esper, 
Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 128, pi. 10, figs. 1, 2 (1777); i., pt. 
2, p. 150, pi. 82, fig. 5 (1783). 
Ilipparchia janira, Steph., 111. Brit.Ent. Ilaust., i., p. 59 (1S2S); 
Buckler, Larvae of Brit. Butterflies and Muths, p. 166, pi. 
v., fig. 1 (18S6). 



Epinepheh j'am'ra, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 40, pi. 
13, figs. 4a, b (1878); Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 
298, pi. 73, fig. 3 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 
2 4o, pi. 33 (1893). 

The Meadow Brown is probably the very commonest of all 
our Butterflies, and may be seen in abundance in summer in 
every field, and along every hedgerow. It measures from an 

Meadow Brown (Epinephele janira). Under side of Female. 

inch and a half to two inches across the wings, which are 
brown above, with a well-marked black eye with a white pupil 
at the tip of the fore-wings, within which is a conspicuous ful- 


Variety of Male. 

vous blotch or band in the female. The fore-wings are fulvous 
beneath, crossed within the eye by a darker line, continued on 
the hind-wings which are brown or yellowish-brown, with a 


more or less distinct paler band, and two or more brown or 
yellowish sub-marginal dots. 

The South European form, E. hispulla (Hiibner), is larger 
and more brightly coloured, the female especially having a sub- 
marginal fulvous band or patch on the hind-wings above, while 
the markings below are more pronounced. The more brightly- 
coloured British specimens often exhibit a slight tendency to 
variation in this direction. 

The larva is light green, with a darker line on the back, and 
a whitish line on the sides. It feeds on several common 
grasses, particularly the smooth-stalked meadow-grass (Fca 

Variety of Female. 

pratensis). The pjpa is also light green, streaked with brown. 
The larva, like that of most of the summer Satyrince, may 
be looked for in March and April, while the Butterfly begins 
to appear in the course of June. 

Not only is this Butterfly unusually abundant, but its ap- 
pearance seems to be but little affected by the vicissitudes of 
the seasons. 

The woodcuts represent the under surface of the Butterfly, 
and instance as well a curious whitish discoloration to which 
this and many other Satyrina are occasionally subject, and 
which is rarely symmetrical on both sides of the wings. 

/ PiereUn ceryce 2.J\rg\Tnph oru^s argrnieihs 

J. Yp-Qruna^ beret 4 Eupiychut brLocats 

,1 Myc<xle$i$ <sotrivTu>U/. 



{Plate XXXI., Figs. 4, 5.) 
Papilio tithonus, Linn., Mant. Plant, p. 537 (m 1 )- 
Papilio phcedm, Esper, Schmett., i., pt. 1, p. 120, pi. 9, fig. 1, 

p. 323, pi. 28, fig. 3 (i777). 
Hipparchia tithonus, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, i., p. 58 

(1828) ; Buckler, Larva? of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, 

p. 167, pi. 5, fig. 2 (1SS6). 
Epinephek tithonus, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 40, 

pi. 13, fig. 5 (1878); Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 310, 

pi. 74, fig. 2 (1884); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 245, 

pi. 34 (1893). 

A smaller insect than the Meadow Brown Butterfly, mea- 
suring only an inch and a quarter or an inch and a half across 

The Large Heath {Epinephele tithonus). Under side of Male. 

the wings, the female being usually much larger than the male. 
The fore-wings are fulvous, except the borders, and are marked 
with a conspicuous black eye with two white pupils ; the hind- 
wings are brown, with a large sub-marginal fulvous band or 
blotch. In the male the fulvous portion of the wings is darker 
than in the female, and the lower part is marked by a large 
brown blotch running up into it. On the under side the fore- 
wings are coloured nearly as above; the hind-wings are greyish- 
brown, with an irregular greyish band beyond the middle, 
marked with three or four white dots in reddish-brown rings. 


The Butterfly appears in summer, a little later than E.janira, 
and is not uncommon in bushy places. The larva feeds on 
the annual meadow-grass (Poa annua), and other grasses in 
May and June. It is of a greenish or grey colour, with a dark 
dorsal line and two pale lateral lines ; the head is reddish. 

The woodcut represents the under surface of the male. 


Melanargia, Meigen, Eur. Schmett, i., p. 97 (1S29); Kirby, 
Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 36 (1878); Schatz and 
Ruber, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 216 (1889). 

Arge, Hiibner (nee Schrank), Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 60 

Type, M. galatea, Linn. 

Antennas long; club slender and gradually formed ; hind- 
wings dentated. Front legs in both sexes almost microscopic, 
hidden among the hairs of the pectus. Wings varied with 
creamy-white and black, which often obscures the sub-marginal 
eyes on the upper surface. 

There are several species of this genus in Southern Europe, 
and Northern and Western Asia, but only one (the type) is met 
with north of the Alps. 

{Plate XX XL, Figs. I, 2.) 

Papilio galaihea, Linn., Syst. Nat. (x.), i., p. 474, no. 99 

(1758); Hiibn., Eur. Schmett., i., figs. 183-185 (1794?). 
Hipparchia galathea, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., i., p. 57 

Met 'anargia galathea, Kirby, Eur. Butterflies and Moths, p. 37, 

pi. 12, fig. 9 (1878); Barrett, Lepid. Brit. Isl., i., p. 204, 

pi. 28 (1S93Y 


Melanargia galatea, Lang, Butterflies of Europe, p. 230, pi. 55, 

fig. 1 ; larva and pupa, pi. 76, fig. 1 (18S4). 
Arge galathea, Buckler, Larva of Brit. Butterflies and Moths, 
i., p. 160, pi. 3, fig- 4 (18S6). 
This is a very pretty Butterfly, which can hardly be con- 
founded with any other British species on account of the 
peculiar character of its markings. Like all the species of its 
genus, it is varied with creamy-white and black above ; on the 
under surface of the hind-wings it is white in the male and 
yellow in the female, with a marginal row of black spots, and 
a transverse grey band across the centre, never interrupted in 
the middle, as the corresponding band is in some continental 
species of the genus. It averages about two inches in expanse, 
the female, as usual, being a little larger than the male. It varies 
somewhat in the amount of black and white on the wings; and 
specimens have been met with which were wholly white. 

It frequents damp meadows, and glades in woods, in June, 
July, and August ; and it is perhaps owing to drainage that it 
has become a very local insect in England. In many places 
on the Continent it is one of the most abundant species of the 

The larva is yellowish-green, with dark lines on the back and 
sides. The head is reddish-brown, and there are two small 
spines of the same colour at the hinder extremity of the body. 
It feeds in April and May on Timothy-grass (Phheum pratense), 
and other grasses. 

The only other genera of this section which need be men- 
tioned here, are (Eneis, Hubner, = Chionobas, Boisd., and 
Argyrophorus, Blanch. The former contains a number of 
Butterflies resembling small Hipparchice, but with the costal 
nervure of the fore-wings thickened (not swollen), a very long 
narrow fore-wing cell, and very hairy legs and palpi. They 
vary from pale brown to ochreous or tawny, and are almost 

242 Lloyd's natural history. 

peculiar to the Polar and high Alpine regions of the Northern 
Hemisphere, though one or two are Steppe insects. 

Argyrophorus % Blanch, in Gay, Hist.Chilena, vii., p. 30 (1852). 


Argyrophorus argenieus, Blanch., op.cit., p. 30, pi. 2, figs. 9 11 

(Plate XXXV., Fig. 2.) 

It is hardly necessary to give any generic characters for this 
genus, the type of which is one of the most remarkable Butter- 
flies known, being entirely of a silvery lustre above, resembling 
silver-paper. Towards the tip of the fore-wings is a brownish 
spot, not ocellated. The under surface of the fore-wings is 
similar, but is marked with reddish-tawny towards the base ; 
the hind-wings are greyish-brown, with a row of imperfectly 
ocellated brown spots. It measures about two inches across 
the wings, and is found in the mountains of Chili. It is not a 
very common species in collections, owing to its habitat being 
little visited by entomologists. 

VI. Pronophila Group. 

These are large, or more rarely, moderate-sized Butterflies, 
almost entirely confined to the mountainous regions of Tropical 
America, where they take the place of our Erebice. They are 
generally of a black or brown colour, sometimes suffused with 
red, and often spotted or banded with white, pale yellow, and 
red. The fore-wings are broad, hardly longer than the hind- 
wings, with the hind-margin nearly straight, being only slightly 
curved, and rarely oblique. The hind-wings are generally 
dentated, sometimes very strongly, and the under surface is 
more often obscurely marbled than distinctly banded or 


Ccerots i-horuurws 


2 43 

spotted- there are generally traces of a sub-marginal row of eves 
but these are rarely large or distinct Tl,„ • , 5 ' 
T P nnothil a, wLvood, £££„, Zt^TZT 

white or blue. ' the Species bein S 

fjaww //^/^(Boisduvnl) is another species of this ™„„ 
which is very remarkable fnr it, ,, peues 01 tms g r ™p, 

aberrant aI tS resembL ™ce to .W*W, an 

aoerrant American genus of Pieri,?** t> , 

inches arrn« th, fienOa. It measures about two 

incnes across the wings, which are dark brown shnrt « ^ 
dentated, with an oblique row of yellow sp 2 o t f 
-ngs, and the centre of the hind-wings 111 Stp wit la 1 tt 
yellow patch divided into spots b y the nervures. 'it is L/L 


obsc"^ e r wide as hish ' g,obui ^ ^^ "•* 

Larva-Smooth, with spines on the head, and a forked tail 
Jupa-With the head and thorax flattened, and tubercu- 

ceteT^ZtT Sk V WingSrather br0ad > and " ot ^ng, 
ceils closed, base of costal nervure swollen; hind-wines with J 

pre-costal celh and the hind-margins dent ted o an u d 

sometimes sub-caudate. Male with pencils of hair on ZSS 

Range-Indian and Austro-Malayan Regions, as far as New 
Guinea. Two species are found in West Africa. 



Habits. — These insects affect forest country, frequenting 
damp, weedy places ; their flight is slow. 

Characteristics. — -The Elymniince almost all mimic insects of 
other groups — Danaina, Acrceince, or Pierince. They usually 
expand two or three inches across the wings, and may be 
distinguished at once from the species which they mimic, by 
their dentated wings. The prevailing colours are dark brown, 
white, tawny, yellowish, or greenish ; and the sexes are usually 
more or less unlike. The African species, Elymnias phegea 
(Fabricius) and E. bammakoo (Westwood), resemble brown 
and tawny, or brown and white species of Planema. One of 
the commonest of the East Indian species is E. tmdularis 
(Drury), in which the male is dark brown, with a curved row 
of large sub-marginal bluish spots on the fore-wings, and rusty- 
red borders to the hind-wings. The female is reddish-tawny, 
with broad brown borders marked with large white spots, 
and an oblique white band towards the tip of the fore-wings. 
It thus becomes one of the numerous mimics of Limnas 
chrysifpus, Linn. We have figured E cottonis (Hew.) from 
the Andaman Islands. 

The only other genus of this Sub-family is Dyctis, Boisd. 
D. agondas (Boisd.) has a dark brown male, and a white, 
dusky-bordered female. The hind-wings are marked beneath, 
towards the anal angle, with two or three large oval black 
spots, within which are blue markings. These are slightly 
visible on the upper surface also. 

Some authors regard the Elymniince as hardly sufficiently 
distinct from the Satyrincz to rank as a separate sub-family; 
but be this as it may, the Elymniince are almost entirely 
destitute of the ocellated markings which form so conspicuous 
a feature in nearly all the true Satyrincs, nor are the latter 
remarkable for mimicry. 



/. 2. ElymnirAjS ecttrnix. 
?> Acr^ea eenone. 
4. Aduxote so (talis. 




Melanitis, pt. Fabr., in Illiger's Mag. Inseckt., vi p. 2S2 (1807) ; 

Westw.. Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 403 ( l8 5i)- 
£/y»r*i«, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 3 7 (i8i6)j Wallace, 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, 1869, p. 3« (Monograph) 

Schatz, Exot. Schmett., ii., p. 225 (1889). 

{Plate XXX VII. , Figs. 1, 2.) 
Melanitis cottonis, Hewitson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. 
14, p. 35 s ( lS 74). 
Upper side.-Male.-Dark reddish-brown. Both wings with 
the outer margins rufous. Anterior wing with the costal 
margin lilac-blue. 

Under side.-As above, undulated with grey, the outer margins 
broadly undulated with grey and brown. Antenor wing with a 
large triangular grey spot, undulated with brown near the apex. 
Posterior wing with a white spot near the middle of the costal 

Femaie.-Like the male, except that it is much larger and 
paler, and that the anterior wing has on its upper side some 
grey spots on the costal margin. 

' Exp., <? 2*j ? 3 TV inches - 

The above is a copy of Hewitson's description He adds : 
-I prefer to consider this as a distinct species, rather than to 
place it as a variety of M. undularis. Both sexes are alike, 
are without spots, and have a broad rufous margin." 

The types of this species are in the Hewitson collection in 
the British Museum, and were received from the Andaman 


Abrota, 129, 149 
aceris, Neptis, 146 

Papilio, 146 
aceste, Callizona, 122, 123 
Acherontia atropos, lxx 
achilles, Morpho, 194, 195, 196 

Papilio, 195 
acontius, Catonephele, 114 
Acnea, lx, 5, 34 

andromache, 34, 37 

encedon, 35 

horta, 34 

oenone, 36 

pasiphae, 38 

thalia, 39 

violae, 40 
Acronycta tridens, lxxi 
Actinote, 33, 3S 

amida, 40 

caliianira, 40 

griseata, 40 

sodalis, 40 

thalia, 39 
adelma, Isodema, 129 
Adelpha, lxi, 46, 124, 137, 154, 155 
adippe, Argynnis, 5S, 59, 60, 62 

Papilio, 58, 60 
adonis, Morpho, 195, 196 

Papilio, 195 
segeria, Hipparchia, 208 

Lasiommata, 208 

Papilio, 208 

Pararge, 208 

Satyrus, 208 
^geriidce, liv 
segon, Polyommatus, Ixviii 
Knea, Papilio, 18 

peropa, Symphsedra, 158 

sethiops, Erebia, 228, 229 

Papilio, 22S 
afer, Papilio, 151 
agamemnon, Papilio, lxx 
Aganisthus, 46, 158, 175 

odius, 176 
agelia, Idea, 15 
Ageronia, xliv, lxi, 45, 130, 131, 


amphinome, 134 

arethusa,, 134 

chloe, 130 
aglaia, Argynnis, 52, 59, 60, 62 

Papilio, 57 
agondas, Dyctis, 244 
Agrias, lv, lxi, 122, 123, 190 

narcissus, 191 

sardanapalus, 191 
Agrotis spina, 20 
alcippoides, Limnas, 17 
alcippus, Danaus, 18 

Papilio, 17 
Aletis, 18 
alexis, Papilio, 227 
almana, Junonia, 101 
amalthea, Anartia, 109 

Papilio, 109 
amathea, Papilio, 109 

Vanessa, 109 
Amathusia, 198 

phidippus, lxix, 194 
Amauris, lx, 121, 126 


echeria, 22 

niavius, 21 
Amecera, 209 



amestris, Precis, 103 
ammonia, Apatura, 167 
amphinome, Ageronia, 134 

Papilio, 134 
Amphirene, 124 
anacardii, Salamis, 103 
Anacardium occidentalc, 140 
Ansa, lxi, 46, 173, 174, 175 

cyanea, 174 

electra, 174 

panariste, 174 
Anartia, 107 

amalthea, 109 
Anchura officinalis, 64 
andromache, Acrsea, 35, 37 
Anemeca ehrenbergii, 81 
annua, Poa, 238 
anomala, Epipyrops, xxvi 
Anosia chrysippus, 16 

menippe, 12, 19, 153 
antimachus, Drurya, ^^ 

Papilio, 182 
antiochus, Ileliconius, 41 
antiopa, Papilio, 90 

Vanessa, 90, 92, 96 
Antirrhcea, 203 

Apatura, xix, lvii, lxi, 5, 44, 46, 
159, 160, 168 

ammonia, 167 

bolina xix 

chevana, 16S 

clytie, 161 

ilia, 161, 168 

iole, 164, 166 

iris, xix, 161, 163, 164, 165 

namouna, 168 
Apaturina erminea, lxi, 170 
Apaturinoe, 43, 44, 158 
Araschnia, 82 

levana, 82, 83, 84 

porina, 84 

prorsa, 84 
arcania, Ccenonympha, 214, 224 

Ilipparchia, 224 

Papilio, 224 
arcanius, Ilipparchia, 224 

Papilio, 224 
archidona, Ccenophlebia, 1S9 
archippus, Danais, 12 

archippus, Limenitis, 153 

Papilio, 12 
Archonias, xlvii, lxi, 243 
arete, Ilipparchia, 233, 234 

Papilio, 233 
arethusa, Ageronia, 134 

Papilio, 134 
Arge, 240 

galatea, 241 
argenteus, Argyrophorus, 231, 242 
Argus, Scotch, 228 

Wood, 20S 
Argynnis, lviii, 5, 45, 52 

adippe, 58, 59, 60, 62 

aglaia, 52, 57, 60, 62 

charlotta, 58 

childreni, 53 

chlorodippe, 60, 61 

cleodoxa, 60, 61 

eris, 62 

idalia, 53 

inconstans, 18, 53 

lathonia, 60, 63 

maia, 53 

niobe, 61, 62 

niphe, iS, 53 

paphia, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56 

sagana, 53 

valesina, 55 
Argyrophenga, 226 
Argyrophorus, 241 

argenteus, 231, 242 
armandi, Davidina, xlviii 
Arran Brown, 227 
arsinoe, Cynthia, 50, 51 

Papilio, 50 
assimilis, Hestina, 126 
astarte, Catagramma, 117, 11S, 

Papilio, 117 
astraea, Ithomia, 32 
asterie, Junonia, 101 
asterope, Ypthima, 219 
atalanta, Papilio, 97 

Pyrameis, 85, 96, 97, 9S 

Vanessa, 97 
At erica, 150, 151 

cupavia, 151 

rabena, 150 



Athyma, Ix, 45, 53, 114, 129, 149, 

atropos, Acherontia, lxx 
australis, Prothoe, 188 

bammakoo, Elymnias, 244 

Banded Soldier-Butterfly, 117 

Barbicornis, 5 

Batesia, 1 35 

Beauty, Cambervrell, 90 

bera, Ypthima, 219 

beroe, Papilio, 164 

Biblis, 5,45 

biblis, Cethosia, 48 

Bicyclus, 203, 212 

blandina, Erebia, 229 

Hipparchia, 229 

Papilio, 228 
boisduvalli, Pseudacrcea, 38 
bolina, Apatura, xix 

Hypolimnas, 126 
Bombyx waringi, lxx, Ixxi 
brassicce, Pieris, xviii, 18 
Brassolis, 5, 199 
Brenthis, 64 

euphrosyne, 64 

hecate, 64 

selene, 64 

thore, 64 
brixius, Euptychia, 217 

Satyrus, 217 
Brown, Arran, 227 

Meadow, 236 

Wall, 216 
Butterfly, Comma, 87 

Map, 83 

Peacock, 95 

Silver, 242 

Speckled Wood, 208 

cadmus, Coea, 176 
otnobita, Catuna, 150 
Crerois, 204, 214 

chorinaeus, 214, 215 
c. -album, Grapta, £7 

Papilio, 87 

Polygonia, 87 

Vanessa, 87, 90 
caja, Hypercompa. xxt 

californica, Ccenonympha, 220 

Caligo, 200 

Caligo eurylochus, 200, 201 

ilioneus, 201 
Calinaga, 127 
Calisto, 204 
Callerebia, 226 
callianira, Actinote, 40 
Callicore, 45, 115, 116 
Callidryas scylla, lxiv 
Callithea, 45, 121, 122, 131, 137 

sapphira, 121 
Callizona, 45 

aceste, 122, 123 
calydonia, Prothoe, 1S8 
Camberwell Beauty, 90 
Camilla, Limenitis, 142, 143, 145, 

Papilio, 142, 146 
candelarius, Hotinus, xxvi 
Caprona, lx 
Carcharodus, xlii 
cardui, Cynthia, 98 

Papilio, 94, 97 

Pyrameis, 98, 99, IOO, 150 

Vanessa, 99 
cassiope, Erebia, 229, 230 

Hipparchia, 230 

Papilio, 236 
Castalia, 169 
CastniidK, xlvi, 30 
Casyapa thrax, Ixix, Ixxi 
Catagramma, lxi, 45, III, 115 

astarte, 117, 118, 119 

codomannus, 119 

cynosura, 119 

hydaspes, 117 

miles, 119 

pygas, 116, 117 

sinamara, 1 17, 1 18 

texa, 119 
Catonephele, lxi, 45, 113, 114, 137 

acontius, 114 

obrina, 114 
Catuna, 150 

csenobita, 150 
c.-aureum, Polygonia, 86 
cenea, Papilio, 17 
ceres, Lycorea, 173 

X 2 



ceryce, Haetera, 206 

Pierella, 206 
Cethosia, xix, lx, lxi, 5, 45, 4S 

biblis, 48 

cyane, 50 

cydippe, 48 

dido, 47 

leschenaulti, 48 

mahratta, 49 
ceylonica, Ypthima, 219 
Chalcosiidoe, 24 

Charaxes, xx, xliv, Iviii, lx, 5, 44, 
46, 130, 177 

castor, 1S2 

epijasius, 182 

etesipe, 186 

ethalion, 174 

etheocles, 185 

eupale, 178 

jasius, 177, 178, 179, 1S0, 1S2 

tiridates, 1S4 

xiphares, 182, 183 
charithonia, Heliconius, 41 

Argynnis, 58 
charlotta, Papilio, 57 
charonda, Euripus, 12S 
chevana, Apatura, 16S 
Chersonesia, 140, 141 
childreni, Argynnis, 53 
Chionobas, 241 
chloe, Ageronia, 130 
Chlorippe, 168 
chlorodippe, Argynnis, 60, 6 1 
Chlosyne, 82 
chorinxus, Crerois, 214 

Papilio, 214 

Satyrus, 214 
chrysippus, Anosia, 16 

Danais, 16 

Danaus, 16 

Limnas, 12, 16, iS, 20, 53, 125, 

Papilio, 16 

Salatura, 16 
Chrysirdia, lx 
circeis, Gnesia, 37 

Papilio, 37 
Cirrhocbroa, 198 
Cilhxerias, 203, 205 

cleodoxa, Argynnis, 60, 61 

Papilio, 62 
Clerome, 197 
Clothilda, lxi 
clytie, Apatura, 161 
Coatlantona, 45 
Ccea, 46, 176, 177 

cadmus, 176 
codomannus, Catagramma, 119 
Coelites, 207 
Coenonympha, 21S, 219 

arcania, 214 

californica, 220 

davus, 221 

hero, 220, 225 

isis, 222 

lyllus, 226 

pamphilus, 225 

polydama, 223 

rothliebi, 224 

tiphon, 220 

typhon, 221, 223, 224 
Coenophlebia archidona, 1S9 
Colcenis, 45, 46, 47, 48 

dido, 47 
Colias, lviii, 5 

edusa, lix 

electra, lix 

hyale, lix 
Comma Butterfly, 87 
Common Soldier-Butterfly, n5 
convolvuli, Sphinx, xxxvi 
Corades, lxi, 204 
Coryphreola, 107 

eurodoce, 107 
corus, Euplrea, 23 

Papilio, 23 
cottonis, Elymnias, 244, 245 

Melanitis, 245 
Crenis, lx, III, 112 
Ctenandra, 151 

opis, 151 
cupavia, Aterica, 151 
cyane, Cethosia, 50 

Papilio, 49 
cyanea, Ancea, 174 

Paphia, 193 
Cybdelis, lxi 
cydippe, Cethosia, 48 



Cyllo leda, lxxi 
Cymothoe, lx, 151 
Cyrestis, 45 

cynosura, Catagramma, 1 19 
Cynthia, xix, 45, 50 

arsinoe, 50, 51 

cardui, 98 

Juliana, 51 

levana, 83 
cypris, Morpho, 197 
Cyrestis, 46, 140 
Cystineura, 45, 136 

dorcas, 136 

Daedalma, 204 
dcedalus, Ilamanumida, 1 50 
Damora paulina, 53 
Danaidce, 18 
Danainoe, II 
Danais, 5, 18 
archippus, 12 
chrysippus, 16 
genutia, 19 
limniace, 20 
niavia, 21 
plexippus, 12 
Danaus, Iviii, 18 
alcippus, iS 
chrysippus, 1 5 
dorippus, iS 
plexippus, 16, 18, 19 
Danisepa rhadamanthus, 12S 
daos, Idea, 15 
Ideopsis, 15 
Daptoneura, lxi 
Davidina armandi, xlviii 
davus, Cceonympha, 221 

Hipparchia, 221 
Debis europa, lxix 
delius, Hypanartia, 85 
Dercas, lx 
Deudorix, lx 
Diadema,, xix, 123 
diaphana, Ithomia, 32 

Papilio, 31, 32 
Dicorrhagia, 46, 169 

nesimachus, 169 
diilo, Cethosia, 47 
Colxnis, 47 

dido, Metamorpha, 47, 124 

Fapilio, 47 
Didonis, 45, 135, 136 
Dilipa morgiana, 170 
Dione, lxi, 45, 47, 4S 
dione, Hypanartia, 85 
Dioptidae, 30 
Dira, 209 

dirce, Gynrecia, 122 
dirtea, Symphaedra, 158 
Discophora, 198, 199 
Dismorphia, lxi, 30 
Doleschallia, 108 
dominicanus, Amauris, 21 
dorcas, Cystineura, 136 
dorippus, Danaus, iS 

Euploea, 17 

Limnas, 17 
doris, Heliconius, 43 
Doritis, lvii, 5 
Dorylus klugii, lxxiv 
doto, Ithomia, 31 
Doxocopa, 168 
Drurya antimachus, lx, 33 
drusilla, Limenitis, 144, 146 

Papilio, 146 
drymo, Ithomia, 31 
Dyctis agondas, 244 
Dynamine, lxi, 45, 155 

erchia, 156 

leucothea, 155 
Dynastor napoleon, 199 

echeria, Amauris, 22 
Nebroda, 21, 22 
Ectima, 45, 135 
edusa, Colias, lix 

Papilio, 94 
egea, Polygonia, 86 
egeria, Pararga, 208 
egerides, Pararge, xviii, 20S 

Satyrus, 208 
egina, Gnesia, 38 
ehrenbergii, Anemxca, 81 
elea, Euphcedra, 18 
electra, Anaea, 174 

Colias, lix 

Sabalassa, 14 
eleucha, Marpesia, 137, 138 



eliasis, Mycalesis, 213 
Elina, 204 
elisa, Euplcea, 23 

Macroplaea, 23 
Elymnias, 24, 109 

bammakoo, 244 

cottonis, 244, 245 

phegea, 244 

thryallis, 27 

undularis, 244 
Elymniinae, 243 
Emperor of Morocco, 163 
Emperor, Purple, 163 
encedon, Acrsea, 35 
Enispe, 198 
epaphus, Victorina, 124 
epijasius^ Charaxes, 182 
Epicalia, 131, 137 
Epinephele, 236 

hispulia, §38 

janira, xviii, 236, 237, 240 

tithonus, xviii, 239 
Epiphile, 113 
epiphron, Erebia, 229, 230 

Papilio, 229 
Epipyrops, xxvi 
Epitola, lx 

erato, Heliconius, 41, 42 
erchia, Dynamine, 156 
Erebia, lix,204, 215, 226 

sethiops, 228, 229 

blandina, 229 

cassiope, 227, 230 

epiphron, 229, 230 

euryale, 228 

ligea, 229, 236, 237 
Eresia, 8 1 

Ergolis, 108, 109, no 
eris, Argynnis, 62 
erminea, Apaturina, 170 
Erycina, 5 
Eryphanis, 2QJ 
Eteona tisiphone, 243 
etesipe, Charaxes, 1S6 
ethalion, Charaxes, 174 
etheocles, Charaxes, 1S5 

Nymphalis, 185 

Tapilio, 185, 186 
eucrate, Heliconius, 41 

Eueides, 42 
Eulacura, 169 

osteria, 169 
Eunica, 45, n 1 
Eunica margarita, 112 
Euphadra, lx, 46, 152 

elea, 18 

harpalyce, 153 

perseis, 153 

xypete, 153 

zampa, 153 
eupale, Charaxes, 178 
euphrosyne, Brenthis, 64 
Euplcea, xlv, 5, 23 

corus, 23 

dorippus, 17 

elisa, 23 

midamus, lxxi 

papuana, 24 

semicirculus, 24 

usipetes, 24, 27 
Euptychia, 202, 204, 215, 216 

brixius, 217 
Euralia, 126 
Euripus, 45, 127 

charonda, 128 

halitherses, 127 
europa, Debis, lxix 
eurodoce, Coryphoeola, 107 
Euryades, lxi 
euryale, Erebia, 228 
Eurybia, 5 
eurylochus, Caligo, 200 

Morpho, 200 

Papilio, 200 
Euryphene, lx, 46, 152 
Eurytela, 45, 110 

castelnaui, no 

dryope, no 

fulgurata, 1 10 

hiarbas, no 
Euthalia, lx, 45, 150, 157, 15S, 

Euxanthe, lx, 45, 187 

fabius, Papilio, 171 
Protogonius, 171 
flavescens, Lycorea, 171 
flora, Ithomia, 31, 32 



flora, Papilio, 32 
franckii, Prothoe, 188 

galatea, Melanargia, 241 
galathea, Arge, 241 

Hipparchia, 240 

Melanargia, 240 

Papilio, 240 
genutia, Danais, 19 

Papilio, 19 

Salatura, 19 
Geometridre, xxix 
glomeratus, Microgaster, xxvii 
Gnesia, 35, 37, 126 

circeis, 37 

egina, 3S 

medea, 3S 

zetes, 37, 3S 
Gnophodes, 204 
Gordius, xxviii 
Grapta, lix, iS5 

c. -album, 87 
grayi, Sarobia, 27 
Grayling, 232 
griseata, Actinotc, 40 
Gryllotalpa, lxxii 
Gyncecia, 45, 123, 175 

dirce, 122 

Hrematera, 120 

pyramus, 120 

thisbe, 121 
halitherses, Euripus, 127, 12S 
Hamadryas, 28 
Hamanumida, 150 

doedalus, 150 
hamata, Tirumala, 20 
harpalyce, Euphsedra, 153 
Hawk-Moth, Spurge, xxxii 
Heath Butterfly, Small, 225 
Hecaerge, 4 
hecate, Brenthis, 64 
hecuba, Morpho, 196 
Hedysarum medicagims, 64 
Helcyra, 170 
helenus, Papilio, lxv 
Heliconia, 5, 41 

melpomene, 42 
Heliconius, 41, 81 

Ileliconius, antiochus, 41 

charithonia, 41 

doris, 43 

erato, 41, 42 

eucrate, 41 

melpomene, 42 

ricini, 41 

sylvanus, 43 

vesta, 42 
Hepialidce, xlvi, 129 
hero, Coenonympha, 220, 223 
Herona marathus, 129 
Hesperia, 5 
Hesperilla, lxi 
Hesperocharis, lxi 
Hestia, 13, 14 

idea, 15 

lyncea, 13, 14 

malabarica, 14 
Hestina, 45, 126 

assimilis, 126 

isa, 127 
Het:era, xlii, 202, 203 
Heterochroa, 154 
Heteronympha, 230 
Hipparchia, 5, 204, 215, 216, 231 

segeria, 208 

arcania, 224 

arcanius, 224 

arete, 233, 234 

blandina, 229 

cassiope, 230 

davus, 221 

galathea, 240 

hyperanthus, xviii, 231, 233, 234, 


iphis, 221 

janira, 236 

ligea, 227 

megcera, 210 

pamphilus, 225 

parisatis, 232 

polydama, 223 

semele, 232 

tithonus, 239 
hippona, Protogonius, 173 
Ilirdapa, 24 

rezia, 25 

usipetes, 27 

2 54 


hispulla, Epinephele, 238 
horta, Acrrea, 34 

Papilio, 34 
Hotinus candelarius, xxvi 
howqua, Stichophthalma, 197 
huntera, Pyrameis, 99 
huttoni, Kallima, 106 
hyale, Colias, lix 
Hyalites, 35 
hyceta, Pierella, 206 
hydaspes, Catagramma, 1 17 
Hypanartia, 45, 85 

delius, 85 

dione, 85 

lethe, 85 
Hypanis, no 
hyperanthus, Epinephele, 233 

Hippavchia, xviii, 231, 233, 234, 


Papdio, 233 
Hypercompa caja, xxv 
Hypermnestra, lvii 
IIypna,46, 175 
Ilypochrysops, lxi 
Hypocysta, 221 
Hypolimnas, xix, lx, 24, 45, 123 

bolina, 125 

misippus, 18, 125 

pandarus, 125 

salmacis, 126 
hyppocla, Symbrenthia, S5 

ichnusa, Vanessa, 90 

idalia, Argynnis, 53 

Idea, 4 

Ilestia, 15 

agelia, 15 

daos, 15 

lyncea, 13 

. Nectaria. 14 

Papilio, 15 
Ideopsis, lx, 15 

daos, 15 
Ilerda, lx 

ilia, Apatura, 161, 168 
ilioneus, Caligo, 201 

Morpho, 201 

Papilio, 201 
inconstans, Argynnis, iS, 53 

Indian Leaf-Butterfly, io5 
indica, Pyrameis, 97 

Papilio, 28, 95 
io, Vanessa, 94, 95, 101 
iole, Apatura, 164, i65 

Papilio, 164 
ionia, Thaleropis, 167 

Vanessa, 167 
iphis, Hipparchia, 221 
iphita, Precis, Ixv, lxvi 
iris, Apatura, xx, 161, 163, 164, 


Papilio, 163, 164 
isa, Ilestina, 127 
isis, Coenonympha, 222 
Isodemaadelma, 129 
Ithomia, xlii, 130 

astrea, 32 

dido, 31 

flora, 31, 32 
Ithomiince, 29, 31 
Ituna, 29 

j. -album, Vanessa, 90 
janira, Epinephele, xviii, 236, 237, 

Hipparchia, 236 

Papilio, 236 
jasius, Charaxes, 177, 179, 1S0, 

Papilio, 179 
jason, Papilio, 179 
jucunda, Napeocles, 104 
Juliana, Cynthia, 51 

Papilio, 51 
Junonia, 101 

almana, 101 

asterie, 101 

orthosia, 101 

orithya, lxv 

Kallima, xx, lx, 45, 105 

huttoni, 106 
kershawi, Pyrameis, 99 
klugii, Dorylus, lxxiv 

Limnas, 17 

Lachnoptera, lx 
Lxosopis, lvii 



Irertes, Morpho, 197 
lamis, Peria, 115 
laodamia, Papilio, 134 
Large Heath Butterfly, 239 
Large Tortoise-shell, 89 
Lasiocampa vishnou, lxxi 
Lasiommata, 207 

segeria, 208 

megrera, 210 
Lasiophila, 204 
lalhonia, Argynnis, 63 

Papilio, 63 
Leaf-Butterfly, Indian, 106 
Lebadea, 148 
leda, Cyllo, lxxi 

Melanitis, lxix, 202, 214 
Leptocircus, Ix 
Leptoneura, 226 
leschenaulti, Cethosia, 48 
Lethe, 203 

lethe, Hypanartia, 85 
Leucochitonea, lxi 
leucothea, Dynamine, 155 
levana, Araschnia, 82, S3, Sj. 

Cynthia, 83 

Papilio, 83 

Vanessa, 83 
Libythea, xxxvi, 5 
Libythina, xxxvi, 112 
ligea, Erebia, 227, 229 

Hipparchia, 227 

Papilio, 227 
Limenitis, lvii, Ix, 5, 46, 53, 126, 
141, 148, 149, 153, 154, 155 

archippus, 153 

Camilla, 142, 143, 145, 146 

drusilla, 144, 146 

sibylla, 143, 146 
Limnas, 16 

alcippoides, 17 

alcippus, 17 

chrysippus, 12, 16, iS, 20, 53, 
125, 244 

dorippus, 17 

klugii, 17 

petilia, 17, 18, 
limniace, Danais, 20 

Papilio, 20 

Tirumala, 29 

Liphyra, Ix 
Liptena, lx 

lisarda, Penthema, 129 
lobengula, Nebroda, 22 
lowii, Neorina, 207 
lucilla, Papilio, 146 
Lycaena, 5 
Lycorea, 29, 171 

ceres, 173 

flavescens, 171 
lyllus, Coenonympha, 226 
Lymanopoda, lxi, 204, 243 
lyncea, Hestia, 13 

Idea, 13 
lynceus, Papilio, 13 

Macroploea, 23 

elisa, 23 
magellanus, Ornithoptera, lx 
mahratta, Cethosia, 49 
maera, Satyrus, 210 
maia, Argynnis, 53 
malabarica, Hestia, 14 
Mandibulata, xxxiv 
Maniola, 226, 227 
Map Butterfly, 83 
marathus, Herona, 129 
Marbled White, 240 
marcus, Papilio, 195 
margarita, Eunica, 112 
marica, Papilio, 184 
Marpesia, 137, 140 

eleucha, 137, 138 

peleus, 138 
Marsh Ringlet, 220 

Scarce, 223 
Meadow Brown, 236 
Mechanitis, 43 
niedea, Gnesia, 38 

Papilio, 38, 228 
medicaginis, Hedysarum, 64 
medoa, Papilio, 38 
megcera, Hipparchia, 210 

Lasiommata, 250 

Papilio, 210 

Pararge, 210 

Satyrus, 210 
Megalura, lxi, 46, 85 
Megistanis, 46, 177 



Melanargia, 240 

galatea, 240, 241 
Melanitis, 30, 204 

leda, lxix, 202, 214 
Melincea, 30, 43, 171 
Melitrea, 5, 45, 81, 82 
melpomene, Ilelicor.ia, 42 

Heliconius, 41, 42 

Papilio, 42 
memnon, Papilio, lxxi 
Meneris, 203 

menippe, Anosia, 12, 19, 153 
meone, Papilio, 208 
Mesapia, lvii 
Metamorpha, 46, 49 

dido, 17, 47, 124 
Microgaster glomeratus, xxvii 
midamus, Euplcea, lxxi 
miles, Catagramma, 119 
Miresa nitens, lxxii 
misippus, Hypolimnas, 18, 126 
misoriensis, Hamadryas, 28 

Tellervo, 28 
Monura, 187 

zingha, 187 
morgiana, Dilipa, 170 
Morphince, 43, 193 
Morpho, lv, lxi, 5, 194 

achilles, 194, 195, 196 

adonis, 195, 196 

cypris, 197 

eurylochus, 200 

hecuba, 196 

ilioneus, 201 

laertes, 197 

rhetenor, 196 

sulkowskyi, 196 
Mountain Browns, 227 
Mountain Ringlet, 229 
Mourning Cloak, 9} 
Mycalesis, 203, 212 

eliasis, 213 

simonsii, 213 
Mymaridae, xix 
Myscelia, 45, 113 

orsis, 113 
Mynes, lxi, 130 
Myrina, 5 

nais, Symphaedra, 157, 158 
namouna, Apatura, 168 
napoleon, Dynastor, 199 
Napeoclesjucunda, 104 
narcissus, Agrias, 191 
Nebroda, 21 

echeria, 21, 22 

lobengula, 22 
Nectaria, 14 

idea, 15 
Neope, 203 
Neorina, 203 

lowii, 207 
Neotropidne, 30 

Neptis, lviii, lx, 28, 45, 85, 146, 
148, 149 

aceris, 146 

nicomedes, 147 

raddei, 147 
nereis, Papilio, 205 
nesimachus, Dichorragia, 169 
Neurosigma sita, 130 
niavia, Danais, 21 
niavius, Amauris, 21 

Papilio, 21 
nicomedes, Neptis, i<7 
niobe, Argynnis, 61, 62 

Papilio, 61 
niphe, Argynnis, iS. 53 
nitens, Miresa, lxxii 
Nymphalidce, 10 
Nymphalinrc, 43, 44. 
Nymphalis, 5, 177 

etheocles, 185 

pygas, 116 

tiridates, 184 

obrina, Catonephele, 114 
occidentale, Anacardium, 140 
ochraceus, Protogonius, 173 
odius, Aganisthus, 176 
CEneis, lvii, lviii, lix, 241 
uenone, Acraea, 36 
officinalis, Anchura, 6 4, 
Ogyris, lxi 
opis, Ctenandra, 151 
Opsiphanes, 199 
orithya, Junonia, lxv 
Ornithoptera, lv, lx 



Ornithoptera magellanus, lx 

remus, lxvi 
orsis, Myscelia, 113 
orthosia.Junonia, id 

Vanessa, 101 
osteria. Eulachura, 169 
ovages, Tellervo, 2S 
Oxeoschistus, 204 

Palla, Ixi, 1 86 

varanes, 187 
pamphilus, Ccenonympha, 225 

Hipparchia, 225 

Papilio, 225 
Panacea, 45, 134 

prola 135 
panariste, Anrea, 174 
pandarus, Ilypolimnas, 126 
Pandita, 148 
Paphia cyanea, 193 
paphia, Argynnis, 52, 53, 54. 55 

Papilio, 55. 56 
Papilio, lvii, lx, lxi, 5 

aceris, 146 

achilles, 195 

adippe, 58, 60 

adonis, 195 

segeria, 208 

aenea, 18 

sethiops, 228 

afer, 151 

agamemnon, lxx 

aglaia, 57 

alcippus, 17 

alexis, 227 

amalthea, 109 

antimacluis, 1S2 

antiopa, 90 

arcaniu, 224 

arcanius, 224 

arcesilaus, 214 

archippus, 12 

atalanta 97 

beroe, 164 

c. -album, 87 

Camilla, 142 I {.6 

cardui, 94, 98 

cassiope, 230 

cenea, 17 

Papilio, charlotta, 57 
chorinceus, 214 
chrysippus, 16 
cleodoxa, 62 
corus, 23 
cyane, 49 
dido, 47 
drusilla, 146 
edusa, 94 
epiphron, 229 
etheocles, 185, 186 
eurylochus, 230 
galathea, 240 
genutia, 19 
helenus, lxiv 
hyperanthus, 233 
idea, 15 
ilioneus, 201 
io, 2S, 95 
iole, 164 
janira, 236 
jason, 179 
laodamia, 134 
lathonia, 63 
levana, S3 
ligea, 227 
limniace, 20 
lucilla, 146 
lynceus, 13 
marcus, 195 
marica, 184 
medea, 223 
medoa, 38 
megsera, 210 
melpomene, 41 
memnon, lxxi 
meone, 208 
nereis, 205 
niavius, 21 
niobe, 61 
orithya, u 2 
pamphilus, 225 
pasiphae, 38 
penthesilea, 48 
petreus, 138 
phoedra, 239 
plexippus, 12 
polytes, lxxi 
polychlorus, 89 



Papilio polydama, 223 

porima, S3 

prorsa, 83, 143 

ridleyanus, 38 

semele, 232 

sibilla, 143 

sibylla, 146 

thalia, 39 

thetys, 138 

thurius, 182 

thyestes, 183 

tiridates, 1S4 

tithonus, 239 

typhon, 221 

urticce, 90 

valesina, 55 

vulcania, 97 

xiphares, 182 
papuana, Euplcea, 24 
Pararge, 203, 207 

regeria, 20S 

egeria, 208 

egerides, xviii, 208 

megsera, 211 
Pareba, 35 

vesta, 35 
Pareute, lxi 

parisatis, Hipparchia. 232 
Parnassius, xxxi, lvi, 5, 127 
Parthenos, 46, 149 
Pasha with Two Tails, 179 
pasiphae, Acraea, 38 

Papilio, 38 
paulina, Damora, 53 
Peacock Butterfly, 95 
Tedaliodes, 243 
peleus, Marpesia, 138 

Tapilio, 138 
Penthema lisarda, 129 
penthesilea, Papilio, 4S 
Pentila, lx 
Teria lamis, 115 
Perisama, 45, 116 
Perrhybris, lxi 
perseis, Euphcedra, 153 
petilia, Limnas, 17, 18 
petreus, Papilio, 138 
phaedra, Papilio, 239 
Phaegorista, 18 

phegea, Elymnias, 244 
phidippus, Amathusia, lxix, lxxi, 

Phlaeum pratense, 241 
Phyciodes, 45, 81 
Pierella, 203, 205 

ceryce, 206 
Pierella hyceta, 206 
Pieris, lvii, 5 
brassiere, 18 
zarinda, lxv 
Planema, 39, 126, 244 
plexippus, Danais, 12, 19 
Danaus, 16, iS, 19 
Papilio, 12, 19 
Poa annua, 240 
pratensis, 238 
polychlorus, Papilio, 89 

Vanessa, 87, 88, 89 
polydama, Coenonympha, 223 
Hipparchia, 223 
Papilio, 223 
Polygonia, 86 
c. -album, S7 
c.-aureum, 86 
egea, 86 
Polygraphia, 193 
polymeda, Papilio, 233 
Polyommatus, lviii, 5 

aegon, lxviii 
polytes, Papilio, lxxi 
Pontia, 5 
porima, Papilio, 83 

Vanessa, 83 
pratense, PhLeum, 241 
pratensis, Poa, 238 
Precis, 45, 101, 102, 103 104 
amestris, 103 
iphita, lxv, lxvi 
rhadama, 103 
Prepona, 46, lxi, 191, 192 

prreneste, 192 
prreneste, Prepona, 192 
Prioneris, xliv, lx 
Pronophila, lxi,, 204 
prola, Panacea, 135 
Pronophila, 215, 242, 243 
prorsa, Papilio, S3, 143 
Vanessa, S3 



Prothoe, lxi, 46, iSS 
australis, 188 

calydonia, 1S8 

franckii, 188 
Protogonius, 46, 170, 17 1 

fabius 171 

hippona, 173 
Protogonius, ochraceus, 171 
Pseudacraea, lx, 46, 126 

boisduvalii, 3S 

trimeni. 38 
Pseudergolis, 104 

veda, 104 
psi, Acronycta, lxxi 
Ptychandra,202 203,207 
Purple Emperor, 163 
Pycina, zomba, 170 
pygas, Catagramma, 116, 117 

Nymphalis, 116 
Pyrameis, 96 

atalanta, 85, 96, 97, 98 

cardui, 98, 99, 150 

huntera, 99 

indica, 97 

kershawi, 99 

virginiensis, 99, 100 

vulcania, 97 
pyramus, Hsematera, 120 

Papilio, 120 
Pyrrhogyra, 124, 136, 137, 155 

nererea, 237 

tiphus, 137 

rabena, Aterica, 150 
raddei. Neptis, 147 
Ragadia, 212 
remus, Ornithoptera. lxvi 
repens. Triticum, 209 
rezia, Ilirdapa. 25 
rhadama, Precis, 103 
rhadamanthus, Danisepa, 12S 
rhetenor, Morpho, 196 
Rhinopalpa, 104 
ricini, Heliconius, 41 
ridleyanus, Papilio, 3S 
Ringlet, 233 

Marsh, 220 

Mountain, 229 

Scarce Marsh, 223 

Romaleosoma, 46 
rothliebi, Ccenonympha, 224 

Sabalassa, 14 
electra, 14 
sagana, Argynnis, 53 
Salamis, lx, 45, 103 

anacardii, 103 
Salatura chrysippus, 16 

genutia, 19 
salmacis, Ilypolimnas, 126 
sapphira, Callithea, 121 
sardanapalus, Agrias, 191 
Sarobia grayi, 27 
Satyre, Le, 210 
Satyrus, 5, 204, 209, 231 
chorina:us, 214 
regeria, 20S 
egerides, 20S 
megeera, 209, 210 
msera, 210 
semele, 232 
Scarce Marsh Ringlet, 223 
Scirpophaga, lxix 
Scotch Argus, 228 
scylla, Callidryas, lxiv 
selene, Brenthis, 64 
semele, Hipparchia, 232 
Papilio, 232 
Satyrus, 232 
semicirculus, Euploea, 24 
Sericinus, Ivii 
sibilla, Papilio, 143 
sibylla, Limenitis, 143, 146 

Papilio, 146 
Siderone, 46, 1S9 
Silver Butterfly, 242 
simonsii, Mycalesis, 213 
sinamara, Catagramma, 1 17, IiS 
siva, Neurosigma, 130 
sodalis, Actinote, 40 
Soldier-Butterfly, Banded, 117 

Common, 116 
Small Heath, 225 
Small Tortoise-shell, 90 
Smerinthus, xxxvi 
Smyrna, 45, 123 
Speckled Wood Butterfly, 20S 
Sphinx convolvuli, xxxvi 



spina, Agrotis, 20 
Spurge Hawk Moth, xxxvi 
steneles, Victorina, 124 
Stibochiona, 130 
Stictophthalma, 197 

howqua, 197 
sulkowskyi, Morpho, 196 
sulpitia, Victorina, 124 
superba, Victorina, 124 
sylvanus, Ilclicdnius, 43 
Symbrenthia, 84 

hyppocla, 85 
Symphoedra, 45, 157, 158 

Eeropa, 158 

dirtea, 15S 

nais, 157, 158 

Tanaecia, 157, 158, 169 
Taygetis, 217 
Telchinia, 35 

violce, 55 
Tellervo, 28, 29 

misoriensis, 28 

ovages, 29 

zoilus, 28 
Temenis, 45 
Tenaris, lx, 194 
Tenthredinidse, xxi 
Teracolus, lx 
texa, Catagramma, 119 
Thais, Ivii, 5 
Thaleropis, 46, 166 

ionia, 167 
thalia, Acrava, 39 

Actinote, 39 

Papilio, 39 
Thautnantias, lx, 197 
Thestor, lvii 
tliclys, Papilio, 138 
there, Brenthis, C4 
thrax, Casyapa, Ixix 
thryallis, Elymnias, 27 
thysbe, Haematera, 121 
thurius. Papilio, 1S2 
thyestes, Papilio, 1S3 
Timetes, 137, 140 
tiphon, Papilio, 220 

Coenonympha, 221 
tiridates, Charaxes, 1S4 

tiridates, Nymphalis, 1S4 

Papilio, 184 
Tirumala, 20, 127 

hamata, 20 

limniacae, 20 

limniace, 20 
Tisiphone, 204, 214 

hercyna, 214 

Eteona, 243 
tithonus, Epinephele, xviii, 236, 

Ilipparchia, 239 

Papilio, 239 
Tortoise-shell, Large, 89 

Small, 90 
Trapezites, Ixi. 
Trauermantel, 94 
tricolor, Viola, 64 
tridens, Acronycta lxxi 
trimeni, Pseudacrsea, 38 
Triphysa, lvii, 21S 
Triticum repens, 209 
typhon, Coenonympha, 221, 222, 

Papilio, 222 

undularis, Elymnias, 224 

Melanitis, 245 
Urania, 5, 6 
urticre, Papilio, 90 

Vanessa, xviii, 90 
usipetes, Eup'oea, 24, 27 

Hirdapa, 27 

valesina, Argynnis, 55 

Papilio, 55 
Vanessa. 5, 45, SS 

amalthea, 109 

antiopa, 90, 92, 96 

c. -album, 87, 90 

cardui, 99 

iehnusa, 90 

jo, 94. 95. 101 

j. -album. 90 

levana, 83 

polychbrus, 87, 88, 89 

porima, 83 

prorsa, 83 

urtica\ xviii, 90 



Vanessa, xanthomelsena, 90 
varanes, Palla, 187 
vesta, Heliconius, 42 

Pareba, 35 
veda, Pseudergolis, 104 
Victorina, 45, 137 

epaphus, 124 

steneles, 124 

sulpitia, 124 

supcrba, 124 
Vila, 45, 136 
violas, Acroea, 40 

Telchinia, 35 
Viola tricolor, 64 
virginiensis, Pyrameis, 99, 100 
vishnou, Lasiocampa, lxxi 
vulcania, Pyrameis, 97 

Wall Brown, 210 
waringi, Bombyx, Ixx, lxxi 
White, Marbled, 240 
Wood Argus, 208 

xanthomebena, Vanessa, 90 

Xenica, Ix, 230 

xiphares, Charaxes, 1S2, iSj 

Nymphalis, 183 

Papilio, 182 
xypete, Euphcedra, 153 

Yphthima, 204, 215, 21S 
Ypthima, 218 

asterope, 219 

bera, 219 

ceylonica, 219 

zamba, Pycina, 176 
zampa, Euphcedra, 153 
Zaretes, 189 
zarinda, Pieris, lxv 
Zegris, lvii 
Zeonia, xlii 
Zerynthia, 5 
zetes, Gnesia, 37, 38 
Zeuxidia, 19S 
Zeuzeridae, xlvi, liv, 129 
zingha, Monura, 1S7 
zoilus, Hamadryas, 23 

Papilio, 28 

Tellervo, 2S